Mirpur, Azad Kashmir


Mirpur, Azad Kashmir
Mirpur
میر پور
Mirpur is located in Pakistan
Mirpur
Coordinates: 33°48′N 73°27′E / 33.8°N 73.45°E / 33.8; 73.45Coordinates: 33°48′N 73°27′E / 33.8°N 73.45°E / 33.8; 73.45
Country  Pakistan
Territory  Azad Kashmir
District Mirpur District
Government
 – Nazim Alhaj Abdul Qayyum Qamar
Area
 – Total 1,010 km2 (390 sq mi)
Elevation 459 m (1,506 ft)
Population (1998)
 – Total 96,000
 – Density 375/km2 (971.2/sq mi)
Time zone PST (UTC+5)
Calling code 05827
Number of towns 3
Number of Union councils 21
Mirpur District Website

Mirpur (میر پور) is one of the seventh districts of Pakistani administered Kashmir (Azad Kashmir). It locates itself at the southern end of the Princely state of Jammu & Kashmir. The climate is quite hot during the summer times. Though a long stretch of farming land remains covered with the [Mangla Dam] water, on the whole the area is agricultural. The main crop cultivated during spring is millet. However, there are places where other crops such as wheat, maize and vegetables are also grown. The production of electricity, out of the Dam water, makes this district somewhat unique in the entire region. But that isn’t to say the unfair energy supply as well as unannounced-hours-long blackout is not a concern for the local population.

The main language of the area is Pahari/pothwari. However, the Gojri dialect is also spoken by the Gujars emigrated from the neighboring Rajouri district of the Indian administered Kashmir. Please note that Mirpur borders Rajouri to the east and Kotli to the north. It also meets Jhelum and Dina – the northern-eastern Punjab area of Pakistan - on its south/ south western borders. In fact Mirpur, with its grand buildings and large bungalow-houses, is quite a built-up area. This is because a significant portion of the population is settled in England (UK) – mostly populated in the Midland and north England. This is why Mirpur is known as ‘Little England’ and hence enjoys the status of a twin city with Bradford.

Contents

History

Bawli, Old Mirpur

The area that is now Mirpur has always been a crossroad for major invasions of the subcontinent and has formed part of various empires over time including Achaemenid empire of Persia, an outlying region of the conquests of Alexander the Great, the Kingdom of Gandhara, the Mauryan empire, the Kushan empire, the Sultanate of Ghazni, the Delhi Sultanate and the Mughal empire .

The city of Mirpur itself was founded in around 1642 AD or 1052 AH by a Gakhar chief Miran Shah Ghazi. The Imperial Gazetteer of India Provincial Series Kashmir and Jammu (1909) provides this information about Mirpur history as "it is said to have been founded by Gakhars Miran Khan and Sultan Fateh Khan".

The area now comprising Mirpur has been historically associated with Pothohar. Though modern demarcation of Potohar devised by British excludes Mirpur by using Jhelum river as the eastern boundary. By the end of 18th century, Gakhar power in Pothohar had declined. Mirpur had become part of Chibb ruled state of Khari Khariyali with capital at Mangla Fort. With the rise of Sikh power in Punjab, Maharaja Ranjit Singh established his supremacy and set his eyes on the Chibh states of Bhimber and Khari Khariyali. In 1810, a force was sent against Raja Sultan Khan of Bhimber and was met with fierce resistance. However, in 1812 another Sikh army under prince Kharak Singh defeated Sultan Khan and the Bhimber state was annexed as Jagir of Kharak Singh. Around the same time, Ranjit Singh acquired Gujrat and invaded Khari Khariyali ruled by Raja Umar Khan. Raja Umar Khan made peace with Ranjit Singh. But before a settlement could be made, he died and the state and Mirpur became part of Ranjit Singh's territories.

In 1816, Ranjit Singh annexed Jammu state and in 1820 awarded Jammu to his commander Gulab Singh who hailed from Jammu and was under the service of Ranjit Singh for the past eight years. Between 1831-39 Ranjit Singh bestowed on Gulab Singh the royalty of the salt mines in northern Punjab, and the northern Punjab towns including Bhera, Jhelum, Rohtas, Mirpur and Gujrat. Gulab Singh kept on expanding his kingdom and in 1840 Baltistan was made subject to Jammu and Gilgit fell to a Sikh force from Kashmir in 1842. The state of Kashmir was annexed by Ranjit Singh in 1819. However the rebellion in Hazara in the beginning of 1846, compelled the country to be transferred to Raja Gulab Singh of Jammu as well.

Shrine of Meeran Shah

As an aftermath of the First Anglo-Sikh War and the Treaty of Lahore, The Treaty of Amritsar was signed between the British Government and Raja Gulab Singh of Jammu on March 16, 1846. This treaty transferred him all the hill states between Ravi and Indus. The transfer included Kashmir, Hazara and the southern hill states (including former Khari Khariyali). Thus sealing the fate of Mirpur with the new state of Jammu and Kashmir.[1]

Early Mirpur

Since Mirpur lies at the point where the Jhelum River breaks out of the heavily forested foothills of the Pir Panjal mountains into the plains of the largely treeless Punjab. It was an ideal spot for the construction of the boats used to carry goods down the five rivers of the Punjab to the Indus River and onto the seaports in the Indus delta. Traders have been operating from there across the Indian Ocean for over three thousand years. Most of the crew on the boats trading up and down the Punjab and Indus River system were drawn from Mirpur, as training as a boat-builder was a necessary prerequisite for becoming a boatman.

British rule

With the arrival of British rule however, the thriving river trade was decimated due to the construction of railway lines from Bombay and Karachi into the interior of the Punjab. Moving goods by rail was both cheaper and quicker, and hundreds of Mirpuri boatmen found themselves out of a job.

At the same time long-distance ocean trade was shifting from sail to steam. There was a huge demand for men who were prepared to work in the hot, dirty and dangerous stokeholds of the new coal-fired steamers. European seamen avoided such jobs whenever they possibly could. They preferred to work on deck. But in the 1870s Mirpuri ex-river boatmen were desperately searching for a new source of income. Although unfamiliar with stoking coal-fired boilers, they were prepared to learn and quickly gained a virtual monopoly of jobs as engine-room stokers on new steamships sailing out of Karachi and Bombay, a position they retained until coal-fired ships were finally phased out of service at the end of the Second World War.

Events during partition in 1947

Like any location near to what became the border between the newly formed nations of Pakistan and India, Mirpur was not spared the atrocities that became part of Partition and the evils inflicted on both sides of the border.

Raiders from NW Frontier on 25 November 1947 attacked Mirpur with backing of Pakistan Armed Forces, when they broke open the back gate of the walled town by heavy gunfire. The Jammu and Kashmir state troops and local officers then lost heart and retreated even before the town could be evacuated by the civilians. The people, therefore, began to run in terror. The fight soon became a rout and the rout a massacre. Hardly two thousand people out of about 25 thousand living at that time in the ill-fated town managed to reach Jhangar in safety. The rest were ruthlessly killed.[2] The number of Hindu and Sikh women abducted from there ran into thousands. The hapless women were kept for sometime in Alibeg camp before being paraded and sold in the bazaars of Jehlum, Rawalpindi and Peshawar. The barbarities put to shame the worst orgies of rape and violence. According to British viceroy who assisted maintaining partition records, out of 18000 Hindus and Sikhs, 2000 managed to escape by foot. They reached Jhelum where Indian forces had arrived by then from Delhi.

The loot obtained by the raiders and pakistani forces and civilains from these towns, especially from Mirpur, went into crores. The floor of every house in Mirpur was dug by raiders in search of hoarded treasures.

Post war

After World War II a new set of opportunities opened up. Britain's economy was just setting off on what proved to be a long post-war boom, and there was an acute short of labour in the foundries of the Midlands, and the textile mills of Yorkshire and Lancashire. Now it was the turn of ex-seamen to become industrial workers in Britain. So when the Mangla lake was filled up in 1966, depriving large numbers of Mirpuri farmers of their land, an alternative was readily available: to move overseas to join those of their kinsfolk who had established themselves in Britain.

As a result, Mirpur is one of the principal sources of migration from Pakistan to Europe, and especially to Britain, so much so that close to half a million migrants from this area now live in the United Kingdom. Although it is widely believed that the principal reason for this outflow was the construction of the Mangla Dam, this is only partially true. Whilst the construction of the dam undoubtedly reinforced the scale of the outflow, since the waters of the lake swamped most of the best land in the District, emigration from this region began long beforehand.

Mirpur City

Regency Hotel, Bank Square

Mirpur city is situated at 459 meters above sea-level and is linked with the main Peshawar-Lahore Grand Trunk road at Dina Tehsil. It is the headquarters of Mirpur District, which comprises three sub-divisions, Mirpur, Chaksawari and Dadyal.[3] The building of the new city in late Sixties paved the way for New Mirpur situated on the banks of Mangla lake. In fact the remains of the old city (old Mirpur) are underneath the waters of the Mangla Lake, during colder months the water level decreases such that you can see the tops of minarets from the first mosques, and also the remnants of a Sikh gurdwara as well as a Hindu mandir possibly dedicated to the "mangla mata" (mangla mother goddess). This is a glimpse of pre-independence times when there were many faiths co-existing in Kashmir as a whole, but however after partition the Hindus, Buddhists and Sikhs fled to India. Mirpur was well planned and the buildings are mostly of modern design, in addition there is significant inward investment from expatriates now living in the United Kingdom, Europe, North America and the Middle East. The city has a number of hotels, restaurants, shopping malls and other urban facilities.

Industry

As Mirpur adjoins the industrial cities of Pakistan, the Government of Azad Jammu & Kashmir has successfully endeavoured to develop it as an industrial place and promote private investment for establishing, foam, polypropylene, synthetic yarn, motorbikes, textile, vegetable ghee, logging and sawmills, soap, cosmetics, marble, ready-made garments, matches, rosin, turpentine and scooter industrial units in the area. However, much of the infrastructure still needs further development in order to compete on a national level.

As part of the relief/compensation package in the wake of Mangla Dam Raising Project, a New City is being developed along the southeastern outskirts of Mirpur. Civil works at huge scale are going on around the whole district, by the Pakistani & Chinese contractors for raising the dam. Four towns in the district have been planned besides the new city, to resettle the population affected by the project.

Education

The literacy rate in Mirpur is quite high. It is affected by the emigrating tendency in the youngsters to UK. English language is common in educational institutes. Previously the University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir was the only institution for higher studies but in the last decade there are significant changes in the educational infrastructure. The formation of Mirpur University of Science and Technology (MUST) and recently Mohi ud Din Islamic Medical College are extraordinary achievements. Mirpur Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education is responsible for the studies at lower levels. In addition to the state-run schools and colleges, Mirpur has a well-developed private sector providing the education to all sects of the society. Some of these include:

  • Mirpur University of Science and Technology (MUST)
  • Mohi ud Din Islamic Medical College, Mirpur.
  • Kashmir Model College Mirpur (KMC)
  • Crescent Model College Mirpur (CMC)
  • Kashmir Institute for Advanced Studies (KIAS)
  • Pak Kashmir Institute of Computer Sciences (PKICS)
  • Mirpur Public School
  • Abdul Razzaq Insitute (ARI)
  • Kashmir Language Institute (KLI)
  • Akson College of Health Sciences (ACHS)
  • Sanwala Institute of Computer Sciences (SICS)

Transport

Buses

Mirpur,through its bus services,not only links itself to a number of other destinations in Azad Kashmir ([[Bhimber,Dadyal,Kotli and Khoi Ratta)but to some of the major cities in Pakistan as well.Limited services run to Gujrat, Jhelum, Kharian, Gujranwala,, Lahore and Rawalpindi.

Auto rickshaw

Auto Rickshaws are very popular mode of transport for short routes within the city. Many of the new rickshaws in the city use Compressed natural gas (CNG) instead of the petrol engines as CNG is environmentally clean and cheaper compared petrol.


Air

Unfortunately there is no airport in Mirpur yet.Hence travellers have no other choice but to make a long journey to Islam Abad(not to mention the hassle of un-necessary toll checkpoints ), which is about 100 miles off from the Mirpur city itself.

Shopping

Known as the shopping capital of Azad Kashmir and Mini England as well as the Oxford/Regent street of Pakistan and AJK, Mirpur has a large and diverse shopping area, centred around Chowk Shaheeda and Mian Mohammed Road. There are many stores, plazas, shopping malls & markets in these thoroughfares, selling everything from hand made pottery to international brands. The under construction Nosha Shopping Centre will be one of the largest shopping centres of the city when completed. Azad Mega Mart is the well known shopping plaza of the city.

Food

Mirpur is well known for its food centres and restaurants. Malik Amin Tikka Shop(known as Mina Tikka shop) is very famous in the city and the surrounding areas for Tikka and Sikh Kabab. Known for quality and unique taste of their food, the restaurant is visited by hundreds of people each day.

Nafees Bakery is popular location for ex-pats visiting the region and is regarded as high end dining.

Samosa is also a speciality of Mirpur. Although there are many Samosa shops in Mirpur the Shah Samosa Shop located in main Nangi bazar is famed for its taste. There are several hawker stalls selling sweetmeats and sweet chai.

Demographics

According to the 1998 census Mirpur had a population of approximately over 1 Lakh. This does not inlude those who emigrated to the middle east, western Europe and North America.Otherwise it might double or treble - making Mirpur one of the most populous district in Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Mirpur's original population is mostly ethnic Potoharis. However since 1947, Kashmiri emigrated from the neighbouring Rajouri/Poonch district of the Indian administered Jammu and Kashmir and Pathans as well as Afghan refugees also have become a part of the local population. A majority of Mirpuris living abroad resides in England,the UK.[4] As Kashmiris, unlike other South Asians immigrants,haven't been given a distinct ethnic status yet,they are normally treated as British-Pakistanis in the UK in particular.

Culture

Mirpur (to the west and south) borders the Potohar plateau of Pakistan and the ethnicity, language and culture of both Potohar & the Mirpur district are virtually the same. Pothohari also referred to as Mirpuri is the main language spoken in Mirpur, whereas Punjabi is spoken especially by people belonging to areas bordering & including Bhimber and Gujrat districts. Settlers from other areas within the state Jammu & Kashmir including northern Kotli and Poonch speak Potwari/Pahari and Gogri dialect.

Cultural events

Saif Ul Malook Festival

The Saif Ul Malook Festival takes place annually in April, usually in the city centre. It is an important event celebrating the anniversary of Baba Pir-e-Shah Ghazi Qalandar (Damrian Wali Sarkar) who was the spiritual guide/teacher of Mian Muhammad Bakhsh, the Legendary Sufi saint & Potwari/Hindko poet famous for his poetic master piece Saif ul Malook.

Retowa Mehla

The Retowa Mehla takes place annually in Summer, in the Retowa District near the Dam front. It is an important event celebrating culture value peace and tollerance. other notable events that take place in Retowa vary from year to year and are mostly Religious events.

Pahari Mushahira

Pahari Mushahira is a literary event in which poets from all over Azad Kashmir present their poems to general audience. Pahari Mushahira are celebrated regularly in Mirpur city as part of the campaign of Alami Pahari Adabi Sangat for the preservation and rehabilitation of the Pahari language and the Culture of Jammu and Kashmir.

Ethnic groups in Mirpur

The people of Mirpur are of three main ethnic groups.

  • Arain - A minority group, mostly engaged in commercial businesses. Migrated to Mirpur from Punjab.
  • Awan - Especially in Sungot, Khari sharif, Andrah & Islamgarh.
  • Gakhar. They are a Persian tribe which reside mainly in Mirpur city, Dadyal and adjacent areas in size able numbers.
  • Gujjar - One of the three major ethnic groups in Mirpur. Most reside in Mirpur, Islam Gar, Dadyal and New Mirpur.
  • Jarral - Jarrals are found in size able numbers in New Mirpur.
  • Jatt - Represent biggest of the three majority ethnic groups of Mirpur. Most reside in the Jatt heartlands of Chaksawri, Dadyal, New city of Mirpur and the countryside surrounding Mirpur.
  • Kakazai - A well educated ethnic group mostly settled in Mirpur city, linked to business.
  • Kashmiri - Minority clans in Mirpur are Butt, Lone, Dar and Khawaja. They are the descendants of Kashmiri pundits,who belonged to the priestly caste of Brahmins and migrated from Kashmir Valley.
  • Mughals - Mughals are scattered all over the Mirpur District. Although they are not involved in active political activities, however, they are highly active in the education sector.
  • Rajputs - Third of the three major ethnic groups in number, they play an active role in politics and bureaucracy. Rajputs are scattered all over the Mirpur District and comprise of many clans.
  • Sheikh - Most people who classify themselves as Sheikhs in Mirpur are descendants of Brahmin, Khatri or Rajput Hindus who converted to Islam. Most reside in Mirpur city.
  • Sayyids - Though a minority group they are a very active people and occupy important positions in all sectors. Sadat's migrated to Mirpur from neighbouring Punjab.

Development

In recent times Mirpur city has seen many new developments. Some of the schemes approved and under construction include:

  • New Mirpur City
  • Retowa Main road and Bridge
  • Abbas Towre Appartments
  • Export Promotion Zone
  • Jinnah Model Town
  • Mangla Dam upraising
  • Mirpur Dry Port
  • Mirpur Grand Rest House
  • Moori Industrial Zone
  • New Industrial Area
  • Quid-e-Azam Stadium
  • Sultan Town
  • Valley Homes Mirpur

Tourism

Mangla Dam

The government of Azad Kashmir is paying special attention to tourism in AJK and Mirpur, building new theme parks, rest houses, hotels and renovating old forts to attract tourists to the region. Places of interest in Mirpur are:

Geography and climate

Mirpur is bounded on the north and east by Kotli District, on the west by Pothohar and on the south by Bhimber.

Mirpur is the breadbasket of Azad Jammu and Kashmir and has a climate similar to that of the neighbouring Potohar region. The Town and district is primarily agriculturally based and is presently a tourist hotspot and a home from home for many emigrants, which can be seen by the vast amounts of villas and mansions built in the region.

Since it is located at the extreme south of the state Jammu & Kashmir, the climate is extremely hot and dry during summer – making it very similar to the Pakistani areas of Jehlum and Gujar Khan. Most of its bushy landscapes, stretching from Bhimber to Dadyal, are barren – leaving only a small stretch of fertile land but highly productive land in the surrounding of Mangla water. The only crop cultivated during the spring/summer season is millet. However, there are a few farms that grow vegetables and wheat, especially when the dam water subsides during the winter season. The hydroelectric power from the dam makes this district somewhat unique among others. However, the annoyance caused by unannounced hours-long daily blackout makes many Kashmiris resentful over unfair energy supply.

Surroundings

  • Dadyal is 65 km from Mirpur at north, the 2nd largest city after Mirpur in AJK.
  • Bhimber is 50 km from Mirpur, the area is very rich in archaeological remains.
  • Kotli is 101 km. from Mirpur, the area is hilly and beautiful views of valleys.
  • Chakswari is a Tehsil of the Mirpur District. Approximately 40 km from Mirpur city, it is fast becoming a commercial area of the district.
  • Kakra Town: Kakra Town is 12-15 KM from Mirpur, the area is beautiful and creates nice views to mangladam.
  • Islamgarh Islamgarh is situated in North East of Mirpur city. Travel distance is 30 km.
  • Jandi Chontra a popular scenic spot 67 km from Mirpur in Bhimber District, the Shrine of the Sufi Saint Hazrat Sheikh Baba Shadi Shaheed is also located here.
  • Sahalia 70 km from Mirpur city.
  • Khari Sharif located 8 km from Mirpur, it is famous for its Sufi shrines.
  • Mangla town is located 16 km from Mirpur, it is situated at the mouth of the Mangla Dam for which it is famous.
  • Khaliqabad is 6 km from mirpur its an intersection for the main road leaving mirpur city, this area is home to large Bainse and Jat population
  • Football Chowk, in sector D4, is situated on the outskirts of Mirpur city. This area is home to a large number of wealthy expatriates, local business men, government and ISI officials.
  • Bhalot, is amongst Mirpur's one of most populous villages.
  • Mehmunpur Rajgan, Situated 15 km from Mirpur city near Pul Manda.
  • Jangian Kotla is located near river Jehlum and situated approximately 20 km south of Mirpur.

Notable people of Old Mirpur

  • Baba Aaqal Khan (Notable landlord of Retowa (Mohammad Ali and Mehru) Spiritual Guide and Leader of Retowa Maytana, Ancestoral forefather of over 600 families today
  • Syed Baqir Ali Shah (Notable landlord of old Mirpur)
  • Sheikh Fazal Alam, Superintendent of Police, (1908–1971)
  • Abdul Khaliq Ansari - Kashmiri nationalist leader [5]
  • Sheikh Younas Azam - Kashmiri journalist (deceased)
  • Mian Muhammad Bakhsh - Sufi saint
  • HL Bhagotra - retired judge[6]
  • Dr Sansar Chandra - litterateur[7]
  • Raja Allah Dad Khan - Jagirdar
  • Sushma Chaudhary - IAS officer [6]
  • Miran Shah Ghazi - founder of Mirpur City[8]
  • Ram Lal Gupta - first accountant General of J&K State [9]
  • Raja Sajjawal Khan - Zaildar and Assessor of Khari Sharif in pre-partition era
  • Lieutenant General Raja Akbar Khan - former DG ISI - GOC 12 Division and former Ambassador to the United Kingdom and Mexico (deceased)
  • Raja Sarwar Khan - Deputy Commissioner of Udhampur (1957)[10]
  • Master Roshan Lal - prominent leader of Jammu [9]
  • Judge Harbans Lal - leader of the Mirpuri community in Jammu [9]
  • Arun Prakash - former Chief Admiral of India Navy [9]
  • Pir-e-Shah Ghazi Qalandar - Sufi saint[11]
  • Krishan Dev Sethi - General secretary of Democratic Conference Jammu and Kashmir[10]
  • Ram Prakash Sethi - former chief justice, Karnataka High Court [6]
  • Mahatma Budh Singh - co-founder of Jammu & Kashmir National Conference [6]
  • Raja Jaswant Singh - former Supreme Court Judge [6]
  • Sheikh Fazal Latif, DSP. Led group of four people who Liberated the Mosque in Kotli in 1946. Participated in capture of Mirpur.
  • Sheikh Osama Shaheen, World Record Holder
  • Mohammond Yousaf Kalyal - M.L.A (1944–1947)

Notable people of New Mirpur

  • Prof Dr Mohammad Sharif Chattar - educationist, botanist, author, poet
  • Barrister Sultan Mahmood - former Prime Minister of AJK
  • Choudry Abdul Rashid pothi former Prime Ministers advisor
  • Dr Mohammed Iqbal, Former Director Health of AJK
  • Lord Nazir Ahmed - Member of House of Lords
  • Prof. Choudhry Muhammad Yousaf, ex-Secretory of Education AJ&K, writer, founder principal of Kashmir Model College Mirpur AJ&K.
  • Sheikh Fazal Jamil, religious preacher, spiritual healer, Tableghi Jamaat, Mirpur
  • Lieutenant General Sheikh Umer Farooq, Pakistan Army. President National Defence University, Islamabad
  • Mohammed Ajeeb CBE - former Lord Mayor of Bradford, UK (1985–1986)[12]
  • Khalid Mahmood - Member of Parliament for Birmingham, UK
  • Karam Hussain - Mayor of Kirklees, West Yorkshire (2008–2009)[13]
  • Tabarak Dar - Captain of Hong Kong cricket team
  • Chaudhry Saeed-Former chairman Pakistan Chamber of Commerce
  • Mohammad Ayub SP, Jangian Kotla (1952–2011)
  • Dr Shabir Choudhry, Political analyst, thinker and author of more than 40 books and booklets on Kashmir. He currently lives in London.

Friendship cities

Gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ History of Panjab Hill States, Hutchison, Vogel 1933
  2. ^ http://cup.columbia.edu/book/978-0-231-13846-8/the-long-partition-and-the-making-of-modern-south-asia
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ Moss, Paul (30 November 2006). "The limits to integration". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/south_asia/6178092.stm. Retrieved 1 May 2010. 
  5. ^ Daily Excelsior Mailbag - Bharat Bhushan Gupta (Former Director of Agriculture)[dead link]
  6. ^ a b c d e Puri, Ellora (24 June 2007). "Community Identity and its Paradoxes--Mirpuris in Jammu city". The Human Rights Journal of Jammu Kashmir. http://www.humanrightsjournal.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=150&Itemid=48. Retrieved 1 May 2010. 
  7. ^ Nayar, Aruti (4 February 2007). "A way of life, with words". The Sunday Tribune (Chandigarh, India). http://www.tribuneindia.com/2007/20070204/spectrum/book7.htm. Retrieved 1 May 2010. 
  8. ^ "Mirpur City and surrounding areas". Kashmir Heritage. http://www.kashmirheritage.net/showgallrey.asp?id=1. Retrieved 1 May 2010. "The name Mirpur is thought to have originated from Miran Shah Ghazi, of the Gakhar tribe who settled in this area in 1051 and ruled the area" 
  9. ^ a b c d Daily Excelsior Mailbag - Bharat Bhushan Gupta (Former Director of Agriculture)[dead link]
  10. ^ a b Sikand, Yoginder. "Interview: Krishan Dev Sethi". Kashmir Affairs. http://www.kashmiraffairs.org/interview_krishan%20dev%20sethi.html. Retrieved 1 May 2010. 
  11. ^ Naqshbandi, Asif (27 June 2003). "The Rumi of Kashmir: Mian Muhammad Bakhsh Qadiri (may his secret be sanctified!)". Chowk. http://www.chowk.com/articles/6208. Retrieved 1 May 2010. 
  12. ^ "Mayors of Bradford: A list of the men and women elected to the office of Mayor and Lord Mayor in Bradford". City of Bradford Metropolitan District Council. p. 3. http://www.bradford.gov.uk/NR/rdonlyres/EA18EEBA-584C-4E2D-9B09-8557D6BB6506/0/LMlist2.pdf. Retrieved 1 May 2010. 
  13. ^ "New Mayor of Kirklees and new mayor's charity". Kirklees Council. 21 May 2008. http://www2.kirklees.gov.uk/news/onlinenews/newsdesk/fullstory.aspx?id=212. Retrieved 1 May 2010. "Dewsbury West Cllr Karam Hussain has been elected as Mayor of Kirklees for the next year at the council’s annual meeting and Mayor-making ceremony." 
  14. ^ http://www.birmingham.gov.uk/cs/Satellite/twins?packedargs=website%3D4&rendermode=live
  15. ^ http://www.bradford.gov.uk/bmdc/life_in_the_community/twin_towns_and_villages/
  16. ^ http://www.walthamforest.gov.uk/index/community/twinning.htm

External links


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