Graphical reenactment, potentially Burebista's capital
Alternative names Argedauon, Sargedava, Sargedauon, Zargedava, Zargedauon Known also as Dacian fortress of Popești Location Coordinates Coordinates: Town Popeşti County Giurgiu Country Romania Site notes
Argedava (Argedauon, Sargedava, Sargedauon, Zargedava, Zargedauon, Ancient Greek: Αργεδαυον, Σαργεδαυον) was an important Dacian town mentioned in the Decree of Dionysopolis (48 BC), and potentially located at Popeşti, a district in the town of Mihăileşti, Giurgiu County, Romania.
Decree of Dionysopolis
The inscription also refers to the Dacian king Burebista, and one interpretation is that Akornion was his chief adviser (Ancient Greek: πρῶτοσφίλος, literally "first friend") in Dionysopolis.. Other sources indicate that Akornion was sent as an ambassador of Burebista to Pompey, to discuss an alliance against Julius Caesar.
This leads to the assumption that the mentioned Argedava was Burebista's capital of the Dacian kingdom. This source unfortunately doesn't mention the location of Argedava and historians opinions are split in two groups.
One school of taught, led by historians Constantin Daicoviciu and Hadrian Daicoviciu, assume the inscription talks about Argidava and place the potential capital of Burebista at Vărădia, Caraş-Severin County, Romania. The forms Argidava and Arcidava found in other ancient sources like Ptolemy's Geographia (c. 150 AD) and Tabula Peutingeriana (2nd century AD), clearly place a Dacian town with those names at this geographical location. The site is also close to Sarmizegetusa, a later Dacian capital.
Others, led by historian Vasile Pârvan and professor Radu Vulpe place Argedava at Popeşti, Giurgiu County, Romania. Arguments include the name connection with the Argeş River, geographical position on a potential road to Dionysopolis which Akornion followed, and most importantly the size of the archaeological discovery at Popeşti that hints to a royal palace. However no other sources seem to name the dava discovered at Popeşti, so no exact assumptions can be made about its Dacian name.
It is also quite possible for the two different davae to be just homonyms.
Unfortunately, the marble inscription is damaged in many areas, including right before the word Argedauon, and it is possible the original word could have been Sargedauon (Ancient Greek: Σαργεδαυον ) or Zargedauon. This form could potentially be link to Zargidaua mentioned by Ptolemy at a different geographical location. Or again, these two could be simple homonyms.
The decree, a fragmentary marble inscription, is presently located in the National Museum in Sofia.
Trivia and references
- Mihai Eminescu made a reference to Sarmiszegetuza in the "Third Letter Poem" to the hills of Argedava when he described the Battle at the Rovine from May 17, 1395.
- Crișan, Ion Horațiu (1978). Burebista and His Time. Volume 20 of Bibliotheca historica Romaniae: Monographies. Bucharest: Editura Academiei Republicii Socialiste România. http://books.google.com/books?id=jrFBAAAAYAAJ.
- Daicoviciu, Hadrian (1972). "Dacii". Bucharest: Editura Enciclopedica Româna.
- Mihailov, Georgi (1970). "Inscriptiones graecae in Bulgaria repertae" (in Latin and Ancient Greek). Sofia: In aedibus typographicis Academiae Litterarum Bulgaricae.
- Oltean, Ioana Adina (2007). Dacia: landscape, colonisation and romanisation. Routledge. ISBN 0415412528. http://books.google.com/books?id=wgvH2j7dWuEC.
- Olteanu, Sorin. "Linguae Thraco-Daco-Moesorum - Toponyms Section" (in Romanian, partially in English). Linguae Thraco-Daco-Moesorum. http://soltdm.com/geo/arts/categs/categs.htm. Retrieved 08 December 2010.
- A fost Argedava (Popesti) resedinta statului geto-dac condus de Burebista? - Article in Informatia de Giurgiu (Romanian)
- Searchable Greek Inscriptions at The Packard Humanities Institute (PHI) - Argedava segment from Decree of Dionysopolis reviewed in Inscriptiones graecae in Bulgaria repertae by Georgi Mihailov
- Argedava in Enciclopedia Dacica (Romanian)
- Ptolemy's Geography at LacusCurtius - Book III, Chapter 8 Location of Dacia (from the Ninth Map of Europe) (English translation, incomplete)
- Sorin Olteanu's Project: Linguae Thraco-Daco-Moesorum - Toponyms Section
Ancient Dacian cities and/or fortresses
Acidava • Acmonia • Aedava • Aiadava • Aizis • Amutria • Apulon • Arcina • Arcobadara • Argedava • Argidava (Arcidava) • Arutela • Berzobis • Bregedava • Brucla • Buricodava • Buridava • Buteridava • Capidava • Carsidava • Clepidava • Cumidava • Danedevae • Dausdava • Desudaba • Diacum • Dierna • Dinogetia • Docidava • Drobeta • Egeta • Gatae • Genucla • Germisara • Gildava • Giridava • Itadava • Keiladeva • Klepidaua • Kuimedaba • Malva (Romula) • Marcodava • Murideva • Napoca • Nentidava • Oescus • Patridava • Patruissa • Pelendava • Perburidava • Petrodava • Pinon • Piroboridava • Polondava • Potaissa • Pulpudeva • Quemedava • Ramidava • Ratiaria • Recidava • Romboses • Rusidava • Sacidava • Sagadava • Sandava • Sangidaua • Sarmizegetusa Regia • Scaidava • Setidava • Singidava • Sucidava • Sucidava, Moesia • Susudava • Sykidaba • Tamasidava • Tapae • Thermidava • Tibiscum • Tirista • Tsierna • Tyrida • Ulpia Traiana Sarmizegetusa • Utidava • Zaldapa • Zargidava • Zeugma • Zicideva • Zimnicea • Ziridava • Zisnudeva • Zucidaua • Zurobara • ZusidavaCities/fortresses with unknown names: Ardan • Ardeu • Arpașu de Sus • Breaza • Bretea Mureșană • Băile Tușnad • Bănița • Bâzdâna • Cernat • Cetățeni • Cotnari • Covasna • Crăsanii de Jos • Crizbav • Cuciulata • Cugir • Cârlomănești • Căpâlna • Drajna de Sus • Jigodin • Mala Kopania • Marca • Merești • Moșna • Odorheiu Secuiesc • Olteni • Orăștie Mountains • Polovragi • Porumbenii Mari • Praid • Racu • Satu Mare (Harghita) • Sprâncenata • Stâncești • Sânzieni • Șeica Mică • Tășad • Teliu • Tilișca • Timișu de Jos • Turia • Valea Seacă • Zemplín
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