Millo

Stepped stone structure/millo.

The Millo was a structure in Jerusalem mentioned by the Books of Kings, and corresponding passages in the Books of Chronicles. The texts simply describe the Millo as having been built by Solomon[1] and repaired by Hezekiah,[2], without giving an explanation of what exactly the Millo was. However it is mentioned as being part of the city of David[3] and seems to have been a rampart built by the Jebusites prior to Jerusalem's being conquered by the Israelites.[4] There is some debate among scholars as to the Millo's specific nature. The most common assumption among archaeologists and historians of ancient Israel is that the Millo is the Stepped Stone Structure uncovered by Kathleen Kenyon and demonstrated by Eilat Mazar to be connected to the recently uncovered Large Stone Structure.

A recent excavation by Eilat Mazar directly above the Stepped Stone Structure shows that the structure connects with and supports the Large Stone Structure.[5] Mazar presents evidence that the Large Stone Structure was an Israelite royal palace in continuous use from the tenth century until 586 BCE. Her conclusion that the stepped stone structure and the large stone structure are parts of a single, massive royal palace makes sense of the biblical reference to the millo as the House of Millo in II Kings 12:21 and II Chronicles 24:25 as the place where King Joash was assassinated in 799 BCE while he slept in his bed. Millo is derived from "fill," (Hebrew milui). The stepped stone support structure is built of fills.[6]

In the Book of Samuel, Millo is mentioned as boundary of King David's construction while building up the City of David after the capture of Jerusalem from the Jebusites.[7] The King James Version (translation into English) footnotes Millo as literally, "The Landfill,"[8] while the New International Version translates it to "supporting terraces."[9]

Hezekiah's repair of the Millo is mentioned within a list of repairs to military fortifications, and several scholars generally believe that it was something connected to military activity, such as a tower, citadel, or simply a significant part of a wall.[10] However, taking into account that the potentially cognate term mulu, from Assyrian, refers to earthworks,[11] it is considered more likely that it was an embankment which flattened the slope between Ophel and the Temple Mount.[12]

Citations and notes

  1. ^ 1 Kings 9:24
  2. ^ 2 Chronicles 32:4-5
  3. ^ 2 Samuel 5:9
  4. ^ http://www.keyway.ca/htm2003/20030728.htm
  5. ^ Mazar, Eilat, Excavations at the Summit of the City of David, Preliminary Report of Seasons 2005-2007, Shoham, Jerusalem and New York, 2009.
  6. ^ Mazar, Eilat, Excavations at the Summit of the City of David, Preliminary Report of Seasons 2005-2007, Shoham, Jerusalem and New York, 2009, p. 67.
  7. ^ 2 Samuel 5:9
  8. ^ 2 Samuel 5:9 (NKJV)
  9. ^ 2 Samuel 5:9 (NIV)
  10. ^ Peake's commentary on the Bible; Jewish Encyclopedia
  11. ^ Jewish Encyclopedia
  12. ^ Peake's commentary on the Bible

See also


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  • Millo — ist der Familienname folgender Personen: Achille Millo (* 1925), italienischer Schauspieler Antonio Millo (16. Jahrhundert), griechisch italienischer Kartograf Aprile Millo (* 1958), US amerikanische Opernsängerin (Sopran) Enrico Millo… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • millo — (Del dialect. millo, y este del lat. milĭum, mijo). 1. m. mijo (ǁ planta gramínea). 2. mijo (ǁ semilla). 3. Can. y Sal. maíz …   Diccionario de la lengua española

  • Millo — Millo, das Thal zwischen Akra u. Morija in Jerusalem …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Millo — Dans le Sud Ouest, le nom peut désigner celui qui est originaire de Millau (12). Dans le Sud Est, c est un nom italien, porté dans le Piémont et surtout présent à Trieste (Frioul). Sens obscur (éventuellement à rapprocher de miglio = le mil) …   Noms de famille

  • millo — ► sustantivo masculino 1 BOTÁNICA Mijo, planta gramínea. 2 BOTÁNICA Semilla de esta planta. * * * millo (del dial. «millo», del lat. «milĭum», mijo) 1 m. Mijo. 2 (Can., Sal.) *Maíz. * * * millo. (Del dialect. millo, y este del lat. milĭum, mijo) …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Millo —    (Heb. always with the article, the Millo).    1) Probably the Canaanite name of some fortification, consisting of walls filled in with earth and stones, which protected Jerusalem on the north as its outermost defence. It is always rendered… …   Easton's Bible Dictionary

  • millo — A fortress: the name derives from the Hebrew ‘to fill’. It consisted of an earthen construction held together by walls and on which a building might be erected, such as the house at Shechem (Judg. 9:6) and at Jerusalem (2 Sam. 5:9), which was… …   Dictionary of the Bible

  • Millo — Lasiacis (P) …   EthnoBotanical Dictionary

  • millo — Sinónimos: ■ mijo, maíz …   Diccionario de sinónimos y antónimos

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