List of people pardoned by a United States president

The following list of people pardoned by a United States president documents the most prominent cases of each presidency. The power of pardon in the U.S. presidency includes the ability to grant a full pardon, commutation of a sentence and/or the granting of clemency for any federal offenses.

Approximately 20,000 pardons and clemencies were issued by U.S. presidents in the 20th century alone. This list includes pardons and commutations. [ [ Presidential Pardons ] ]


A "pardon" means an executive order vacating a conviction.

A "commutation" means a mitigation of the sentence of someone currently serving a sentence for a crime pursuant to a conviction, without vacating the conviction itself.

George Washington

*Leadership of the Whiskey Rebellion - the first pardons granted by a President

Andrew Jackson

*George Wilson - convicted of robbing the United States mails - Only Presidential pardon rejected.

James K. Polk

*John C. Frémont - convicted by court martial of mutiny

James Buchanan

*Brigham Young - pardoned for role in the Utah War

Andrew Johnson

*Confederate soldiers - unconditional amnesty to all Confederates on Christmas Day 1868; earlier amnesties requiring signed oaths and excluding certain classes of people were issued both by Lincoln and by Johnson.
* Dr. Samuel Mudd - charged with conspiring to murder Lincoln
*Edmund Spangler - charged with conspiring to murder Lincoln
*Samuel Arnold - charged with conspiring to murder Lincoln

Grover Cleveland

*David King Udall - convicted on perjury charges; spent 3 months in a Federal Prison; received a full and unconditional pardon

Warren Harding

*Eugene V. Debs - sentence commuted

Calvin Coolidge

*Marcus Garvey - sentence commuted and deported

Harry Truman

*Oscar Collazo - Collazo attempted his assassination. Commuted death sentence to life sentence.

Richard Nixon

*Jimmy Hoffa - sentence commuted on condition
*Angelo DeCarlo - convicted of extortion; served 1 1/2 years; pardoned due to poor health

Gerald Ford

*Richard Nixon - full and unconditional pardon for any crimes he may have committed against the United States while President
*Robert E. Lee - full rights of citizenship were posthumously restored
*Iva Toguri D'Aquino - "Tokyo Rose" - only U.S. citizen convicted of treason to be pardoned

Jimmy Carter

*Oscar Collazo - Attempted assassination on President Harry S. Truman
*G. Gordon Liddy - sentence commuted
*Peter Yarrow - Singer-songwriter
*Vietnam draft dodgers - amnesty issued in the form of a pardon
*Jefferson Davis - President of the Confederate States of America.
*Patty Hearst - Convicted of Bank Robbery sentence commuted

Ronald Reagan

*George Steinbrenner - Nixon campaign contribution

George H.W. Bush

*Elliott Abrams - Iran-Contra affair
*Armand Hammer - CEO of the Occidental Petroleum Company, Nixon campaign contribution
*Robert C. McFarlane - National Security Adviser to President Ronald Reagan over Iran-Contra Affair
*Caspar Weinberger - Secretary of Defense under President Ronald Reagan, pardoned before trial over Iran-Contra Affair

Bill Clinton

*Roger Clinton, Jr. - brother of Bill Clinton. After serving a year in federal prison for cocaine possession.
*Patricia Campbell Hearst - sentence commuted on condition by Jimmy Carter, pardoned by Clinton.
*Marc Rich, Pincus Green - business partners; had fled the U.S. after being indicted by U.S. Attorney on charges of tax evasion and illegal trading with Iran during the Iran hostage crisis.
*Dan Rostenkowski - United States Representative Democratic Party.
*Susan McDougal - partners with Bill Clinton and Hillary Rodham Clinton in the failed Whitewater deal.
*Henry Cisneros - Clinton's Secretary of Housing and Urban Development. Pleaded guilty to a misdemeanor count for lying to the FBI, and was fined $10,000.
*Mel Reynolds - Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives.
*Henry O. Flipper - guilty of "conduct unbecoming an officer" (1882)
*John Deutch - Director of Central Intelligence, former Provost and University Professor, MIT

George W. Bush

*I. Lewis "Scooter" Libby - Libby was not pardoned, but his prison sentence was commuted while leaving the other terms (including more than $250,000 in fines) unchanged.

ee also

*Pardons and clemency in the United States


General references:
* [ Presidential Clemency Actions By Administration: 1945 To 2001]
* [ Presidential pardons page at University of Pittsburgh School of Law] Specific references:

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