Cagayan de Oro


Cagayan de Oro
City of Cagayan de Oro
Dakbayan sa Cagayán de Oro
Lungsod ng Cagayán de Oro
—  City  —
Images, from top, left to right: Skyline of Cagayan de Oro, St. Augustine Cathedral, Divisoria Night Market, Monumento de La Progresso de Misamis, Ysalina Bridge at night.

Flag

Seal
Nickname(s): City of Golden Friendship
Map of Misamis Oriental showing the location of Cagayan de Oro.
City of Cagayan de Oro is located in Philippines
City of Cagayan de Oro
Map of the Philippines showing the location of Cagayan de Oro.
Coordinates: 8°29′N 124°39′E / 8.483°N 124.65°E / 8.483; 124.65Coordinates: 8°29′N 124°39′E / 8.483°N 124.65°E / 8.483; 124.65
Country Philippines Philippines
Region Northern Mindanao (Region X)
Class 1st Class City; Highly-urbanized
Province Misamis Oriental flag.jpg Misamis Oriental (Capital)
Districts 1st (West) to 2nd (East) Districts of Cagayan de Oro
Barangays 80
Incorporated (Town) 1871
Incorporated (City) June 15, 1950
Government
 - Type Mayor-council
 - Mayor Vicente Y. Emano
 - Vice Mayor Ceasar Ian E. Acenas
 - Headquarters Executive Building (Old City Hall)
 - Representatives
 - City Council
Area
 - Total 488.86 km2 (188.7 sq mi)
Elevation 10.0 m (33 ft)
Population (2007)
 - Total 553,966
 - Density 945/km2 (2,447.5/sq mi)
 - Demonym Cagayanons, Kagay-anons
 - Languages Cebuano, Filipino (Tagalog), English
Time zone PST (UTC+8)
ZIP Code 9000
Area code(s) 88, 8822
GDP[1] 2010(Under Northern Mindanao Financing)
 - Total PHP11.2 billion
(US$271.8 million)
 - Per capita PH₱12,892
(US$304.77)
 - Growth increase 15.31%
 - City's cost(2011) PH₱6.8 billion
HDI (2011)[2] 0.751 – Medium increase
Gini(2010) 40 medium
Website cagayandeoro.gov.ph

Cagayan de Oro; /kəˈɡaɪan dɛ ɵro/ (Cebuano: Dakbayan sa Cagayan de Oro; Filipino: Lungsod ng Cagayan de Oro), officially the City of Cagayan de Oro, is the provincial capital city of the province of Misamis Oriental in the Philippines. It lies along the northern coastline of the island of Mindanao in the country's southern portion.

Dubbed locally as the "City of Golden Friendship" (Dakbayan sa Bulawanong Panaghigala-ay in Cebuano, as the phrase appears on the city's seal) for the camaraderie and hospitality that are inherent and traditional traits of its people.

Cagayan de Oro is considered as a melting pot in Mindanao. A growing metropolis to be classified as a first-class city. Cagayan de Oro serves as the regional center being the most populous highly-urbanized city in Northern Mindanao (Region X) noted for its accessibility, business growth and tourism attractions. According to the 2007 Census, the city has an estimated population of 553,996 inhabitants.

There are also other places in the Philippines with a Cagayán name. One must distinguish Cagayan de Oro from Cagayan province in Northern Luzon and the Cagayan Islands in the Sulu Sea.

The name Cagayan de Oro may appear abbreviated as CDO, CDOC, CdeO or Cag. de Oro.

Contents

Etymology

The name Cagayán de Oro can be traced back during the arrival of the Spanish Augustinian Recollect friars in 1622, the area around Himologan (now Huluga), was already known as "Cagayan".

In fact, early Spanish documents in the 16th century already referred to the place as "Cagayán". The area of Northern Mindanao, which included Cagayán de Oro, was granted as Encomienda to a certain Juan Griego on January 25, 1571.

It was Emmanuel Peláez who appended de Oro to Cagayán in recognition of the gold mining activities in the area, harking back to the Spanish colonization. Thus, the city's full name is a combination of the ancient Austronesian and Spanish languages that translates to "City of the River of Gold".

History

The American forces attacking Makahambus, circa 1900s.

The area was first inhabited around 377 C.E. (the late Neolithic period), island natives lived in a settlement then known as Himologan[3] (now known as Huluga), eight kilometers from present day Cagayán de Oro. The natives were polytheistic animists and paid tributes to Sultan Muhammad Dipatuan Kudarat, the Sultan of Maguindanao.

In 1622, two Spanish Augustinian Recollect missionaries came in contact with the natives of Himologan and in 1626, Fray Agustín de San Pedro persuaded the chief of Himologan, Datu Salangsang, to transfer his settlement down river, to the present-day Gaston Park. De San Pedro later fortified the new settlement against Sultan Kudarat's raiders

In 1738, Spanish dominance was felt in Cagayán de Oro. When Misamis gained status of province in 1818, one of its four districts was the Partidos de Cagayan. In 1871, the "Partidos" became a town and was made a permanent capital of Misamis.

On February 27, 1872, Governor-General Carlos María de La Torre issued a decree declaring Cagayan the permanent capital of Segundo Distrito de Misamis. During this era, the name of the town was known as Cagayán de Misamis.

In 1883, the town became a seat of the Spanish government in Mindanao for the Provinces of Misamis Oriental, Misamis Occidental, Bukidnon and Lanao del Norte.

On January 10, 1899, Cagayán de Misamis joined the government of Emilio Aguinaldo and celebrated its independence from Spain. It was the second time the Aguinaldo government was declared and the new Philippine flag raised on the Mindanao island.

By virtue of the 1898 Treaty of Paris, Spain ceded the Philippines to the United States; this caused friction and resulted in the Philippine–American War. On March 31, 1900, Americans occupied Cagayán de Misamis and on April 7, 1900, battle erupted in the town center led by General Nicolas Capistrano[4] and Filipino resistance fighters. This would later be known as the Battle of Cagayan de Misamis. The Americans won the war, and about forty years later, gave the Philippines its Independence July 4, 1946.[5]

The war years in Cagayan de Oro were prompted by the presence of the Americans in 1898. The Americans were initially and successfully repulsed by the Kagay-anons forces led by Mayor Don Apolinar Vélez at the historic Battle of Makahambus on June 4, 1900.

After the troubled years, peace finally brought back the economic activities to normalcy under the guidance of the United States. Consequently, from a purely farming-fishing area, Cagayan de Oro emerged into a booming commerce and trade center.

In 1948 the barrios of El Salvador and Molugan with their sitios known as Sala, Sambulawan, Sinaloc, Lagtang, Talaba, Kalabaylabay and Hinigdaan were separated from Cagayan de Oro to form the town of El Salvador.[6]

In 1950 the barrios of Opol, Igpit, and Lower Iponan were separated from Cagayan de Oro to form the town of Opol.[7]

On June 15, 1950, President Elpidio Quirino signed Republic Act No. 521, which granted the status of a chartered city to the Municipality of Cagayan de Misamis.[8] This was made possible through the efforts of then Cagayan de Oro Congressman Emmanuel Pelaez.

Cagayan de Oro was then declared a highly-urbanized city by the Ministry of Local Government on November 22, 1983.

Geography

Satellite image showing the core of the Cagayan de Oro metropolitan area.

Its total land area is 488.86 km² representing 13.9% of the entire Misamis Oriental Province. It includes 25 kilometers of coastline and a fine deep-water harbor, Macajalar Bay. 44.7% of the surface of Cagayan de Oro is classified as agricultural land and 38.4% is classified as open spaces.[9]

Location

Cagayan de Oro is located along the central coast of Northern Mindanao. It is situated in Mindanao, the second giant of the archipelago of all the landmass of the Philippines.

The southern portion of the city is bordered by the Provinces of Bukidnon and Lanao del Norte. The Municipality of Opol borders the city on the west and Tagoloan, Misamis Oriental to the east. To the north lies Macajalar Bay facing Bohol Sea.

Climate

Under the Köppen climate classification system, Cagayan de Oro has a tropical climate together with the rest of the Philippines. The average temperature whole year round is 28 °C (82 °F). The highest recorded temperature in the city was 39 °C (102 °F) on June 1998.

Cagayan de Oro receives an even amount of rain throughout the year. The driest month is April, while July is the wettest. Wet season in the city starts in June and ends in November. Drier season starts in December and ends in May. The city is outside the typhoon belt, but it is affected by the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone.

Climate data for Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 99
(37)
101
(38)
102
(39)
102
(39)
102
(39)
103
(39)
100
(38)
100
(38)
97
(36)
99
(37)
102
(39)
99
(37)
103
(39)
Average high °F (°C) 86
(30)
87
(31)
88
(31)
90
(32)
91
(33)
90
(32)
89
(32)
90
(32)
89
(32)
89
(32)
88
(31)
87
(31)
89
Average low °F (°C) 74
(23)
74
(23)
75
(24)
77
(25)
78
(26)
77
(25)
76
(24)
76
(24)
76
(24)
76
(24)
76
(24)
75
(24)
76
Record low °F (°C) 64
(18)
64
(18)
66
(19)
68
(20)
72
(22)
66
(19)
64
(18)
71
(22)
72
(22)
66
(19)
68
(20)
66
(19)
64
(18)
Precipitation inches (mm) 4.57
(116)
2.72
(69)
2.05
(52)
1.61
(41)
3.82
(97)
8.19
(208)
8.15
(207)
8.19
(208)
8.9
(226)
6.93
(176)
5.43
(138)
3.54
(90)
64.09
(1,628)
Rainfall inches (mm) 0.51
(13)
0.28
(7)
0.51
(13)
0.94
(24)
5.08
(129)
11.3
(287)
13.94
(354)
18.66
(474)
15.79
(401)
7.17
(182)
4.49
(114)
2.48
(63)
81.14
(2,061)
Avg. rainy days 10 7 6 6 8 13 14 14 15 15 11 11 130
Sunshine hours 239.6 261.1 332.8 340.4 348.6 122.5 298.3 215 201.1 265.7 160 110.5 2,895.6
Source: Weatherbase[10]


Environment

Average mass transit use in Cagayan de Oro City is the highest in Northern Mindanao. Consumption to crude is medium rated but it will be rises in the year 2018, the average will abound. Though, through private sects that impart smoke emissions and anti-smoke campaign, the city mass transits used saved gasoline up to 3.2% of pollution throughout Mindanao.

In recent years, the city has focused on smoke emissions, for any improvements in mass transit, and other pollution reducing measures. Tricycle, jeepney and taxis are under agencies and department buildings a cleaner air. The city government is required to purchase only the most energy-efficient equipment for use in city offices and public housing. Nevertheless, the city government has not yet hybrid vehicles and electric. Smog alerts are few over decade.

Demographics

Population census
Census Pop. Rate
1903 21,779
1918 28,062 1.7%
1939 48,084 2.6%
1948 46,266 -0.4%
1970 128,319
1975 165,220 5.2%
1980 227,312 6.6%
1990 339,598 4.1%
2000 461,871
2007 553,966 2.54%

Population density

The residents of Cagayan de Oro are a mixture of Spanish-American, Maranao, Bukidnon-Higaonon and Chinese bloods. There are about 44% of the household population in Cagayan de Oro classified themselves as Visayan (Binisaya or bisaya), 22.15% as Cebuano, 4.38% as Boholano, while 28.07% as other ethnic groups (2000 Census).[11]

Language

Cebuano is the city's lingua franca, thanks to the influx of Cebuano speakers from the Visayas. English is mainly used for business and in the academe.

Most of the local populations are also fluent in Filipino (Tagalog) the country's national language. There are also a number of older residents who can still speak basic Spanish. Hokkien Chinese is spoken by the Chinese-Filipino community in the city.

However there are a number of other languages (mostly Visayan) spoken in the city. These include Waray-Waray, Hiligaynon, Maranao, Higaonon, among others.

The Chavacano creole, is also spoken by immigrants from Zamboanga Peninsula and Cotabato.

Economy

Panoramic view of Cagayan de Oro to the western side.

Cagayan de Oro is the "Melting Pot of Mindanao" because of its accessibility, business growth, attractions and most of its entire warm and hospitable people. It is also a business hub of Northern Mindanao region, considered as one of the most progressive and competitive cities in the country.

It was recorded to have reached the annual income of 1.345 billion pesos as of the fiscal year 2006. The city's economy is largely based on industry, commerce, trade, services and tourism. These are the major financial sources of the city and it has been sufficient for the city's economic growth development.

Concentrix and Arriba Telecontact are among the few call centers that have recently opened their doors to the city. With the ongoing construction of the Laguindingan International Airport located in the Municipality of Laguindingan with international standard, business analysts predict the entry of more foreign and local investments and an increase in tourism activity in the region will make Cagayan de Oro as one of the chief cities in the southern part of the Philippines.[9]

Cagayan de Oro is also a favorite destination among businessmen because of its stable peace and order, urban amenities, active private business sector, good banking system and credit facilities, strategic location of the city via international to domestic markets, center for transportation, malls and telecommunications.

Culture

Media

The major daily newspaper in the area is the Mindanao Gold Star Daily which is published by Ernesto Chu, a businessman while the Sun.Star Cagayan de Oro and Super Balita are published by the Sun.Star Publications of Cebu City. Mindanao Gold Star Daily is distributed in Cagayan de Oro City and other urban centers in Mindanao like Butuan City, Davao City, General Santos City, Zamboanga City, Dipolog City and Iligan City.Otherwise, SunStar Cagayan de Oro City and Super Balita are distributed mainly in Cagayan de Oro City, Misamis Oriental, Bukidnon and Camiguin;Ang Katarungan is the city's major English-Cebuano Languages paper publish in 1926.It is also the city's news weekly.

The other community newspapers in the city are Golden Chronicle published by Gladis Q. Munez, Mindanao Sunday Journal published by Bernardita Basay, Oro Gazette published by Oro Gazette Publishing, Golden Banner Atty. Gil Banaag, Sports Balita, Oro News Star Lulu Lapada and News Express published by Noli Olarte, Jr.

The Cagayan de Oro city has its oldest existing radio broadcast station in Mindanao.Established in 1952, the DXCC of the Radio Mindanao Network. which this station is said to be the 2nd broadcast facility established in Mindanao.

The city's main local broadcast facilities include radio and television stations affiliated with the major broadcast network in the country—DXIF (Bombo Radyo Philippines), DXIM (Radio Ng Bayan), DXCO (Radio Pilipino Corp.) all at 10 KW, and DXKO (RPN), DXCL (NBC) at 5 KW. The 10 FM Stations include DXKB “Killer Bee”, DXBL ”Mellow Touch”, DXKS ”Love Radio”, DXWS ”Wild FM”, DXQR “Home Radio”, DXEQ ”Star FM”, DXVM ”Smile Radio”, DXRL(NBC), DXLX ”Campus Radio and DXNU (PBC). All of them broadcast with a power of 10KW.

Four of the five television stations are operated by broadcast networks — RPN TV 5 with 2.5 KW power, ABS-CBN TV 2 at 10 KW, GMA TV, RMNTV 8 and ABC TV 21. The fifth television station—DXDD with a power of 10 KW is operated by the Cagayan de Oro College Broadcast Network. DXIF (Bombo Radio), DXIM (Radio Ng Bayan), DXCO (Radio Pilipino Corp.) all at 10 KW, and DXKO (RPN), DXCL (NBC) at 5 KW. The Parasat Cable TV Incorporated managed by Engr. Elpidio Paras, president and owner of the firm and Jade Cable TV managed by Engr. James Jardonio and owned by Engr. Eric Canoy and Engr. Charlie Canoy are the two Cable Systems in the city.

Cuisine

Cagayan de Oro’s food culture includes a variety of world cuisines influenced by the city's immigrant history.

Western and Austronesian immigrants have made the city famous for Pastel bread, Chicharrón, Ham, and de Oro crunchy Pizza while Chinese and Korean restaurants are ubiquitous. Some of mobile food vendors licensed by the city with its common street foods like kwek-kwek, fish balls, tempura, grilled meats and other that is cheaper stalls. Also some immigrant-owned restaurants have made variety countries from Asia. The city is also home to many of the finest and most diverse haute cuisine restaurants in the Philippines.

Sports

The City of Cagayan de Oro is the home of Cagayan de Oro Stars and Cagayan de Oro Rapids basketball teams. This major teams of the city is member community of Mindanao Visayas Basketball Association , a amateur commercial basketball league in Southern Philippines sanctioned by the country's National Sports Association for basketball, the Samahang Basketbol ng Pilipinas (SBP). Also it is the home of Holcim MoneyGram-Misamis Oriental and Holcim Pryce Pharma which commencing the Misamis Oriental. Aside from the basketball, Cagayan de Oro also to be known for its oldest lawn tennis clubs like the Golden Friendship Tennis Club. In addition, the city is ornamented with amateur volleyball teams as Xavier University Volleyball Team, DLSU Lady Archers Volleyball Team, and UP alumni association.


The metro cagayan was its pride of professionalism in chess, one of the most common recreations in the metro by continuing championships in Mindanao since 1990’s. Nevertheless, the Kagay-anons also boast with its tourist highlights recreation a white water rafting and Kayaking through the Cagayan River. Also the suburban recreation in cagayan de oro of its Cave adventure or called Cueba de Oro and canopy walk.

Cagayan de Oro also boasts a number of sports venues, including the largest sports complex in Mindanao the Pelaez Memorial Sports Center, Xavier University Gym, Liceo de Cagayan University Gym and other, a sports and entertainment complex that also hosts concerts. The Pelaez Memorial Sports Center serves as the home complex of Misamis Oriental sports teams.


Religion

Most Reverend James T.G. Hayes, the first Archbishop of Cagayan de Oro.

Roman Catholic is the city's dominant religion, represented by almost 87% of the population. Other religious affiliations includes Seventh Day Adventist, Iglesia ni Cristo, Philippine Independent Church, United Church of Christ in the Philippines, Christ's Commission Fellowship, Islam among others.

Archdiocese of Cagayan de Oro is an Archdiocese of the Roman Catholic Church in the Philippines. The archdiocese comprises three civil Provinces of Misamis Oriental, Bukidnon and Camiguin. It is a metropolitan see in the island of Mindanao.

The current Archbishop is Most Reverend Antonio J. Ledesma, S.J., D.D., who was installed on March 4, 2006 and its seat is located at St. Augustine Metropolitan Cathedral.

Recently, the Basilica of the Black Nazarene in Quiapo Church has also decided to move the replica statue of the Black Nazarene to Jesus Nazareno Parish Church in Cagayan de Oro, so that Black Nazarene devotees from Mindanao may not have to travel to Quiapo in Manila for their annual pilgrimage.

Protestant

Celebration International Church, the highest attendance in Pentecostalism churches at the city.

In recent decade, the protestant abound in the city. Many foreign evangelist has been lathered in diplomatic metropolitan area. One of the protestant is Pentecostalism which dramatically increase forthwith 2.8 of population percentage. About 20 churches has been settled in the Metro Cagayan de Oro.

The Celebration International church is one of the highest attendance of Pentecost churches with the record of 735 members. In addition, three main mother churches of Pentecost is situated in the suburban and few in the metro.

Also, Adventist, Mormons, and other member of Methodist is surge in suburban and few to the city. Although, many protestant are sourced in foreign countries such as Korea, Australia, and USA and other countries which affiliated in protestant.

Annual events

There are several notable events in the city. Each barangays or barrios has its own feast locally known as Fiesta literally as festivals honoring their patron saints after achieving recognition in their own rights.

The Kagay-an Festival[12] is a week-long festival in celebration of Cagayan de Oro's patron saint Señor San Agustin, held every month of August. "Kagay-an" thus means a river. Highlights of the Kagay-an Festival are Kahimuan Trade Fair that features the native products of the city and province particularly on agriculture products, Miss Kagay-an, Folkloric Street Dancing Competition which features colorful attires and cultural dances of the Higaonon tribes, Golden Float Parade, Halad sa Lambagohan, PE Rhythmic Dance Competition, Kalo Festival and Kumbira that started on 1996 by Kagay-anons hoteliers and restaurants. A culinary show and exhibit, it has been evolved over the years and it now hosts a culinary competition among students and professionals all over Mindanao. The competition is divided into students and professionals where Hotel and Restaurant Management schools and professional chefs compete against each other in their respective categories. There are also cultural shows, competitions and celebrity concerts.

Charter Day is the city's celebration of its cityhood established on June 15, 1950. It is a non-working holiday and a roster of special activities is lined up annually to mark this special occasion.

Government

Executive Building (Old City Hall), Seat of the Local Government.

Elected and appointed officials have administered Cagayan de Oro since June 15, 1950, with a strong Mayor-council government. The city political government is composed of the Mayor, Vice Mayor, two Congressional districts Representatives, sixteen Councilors, one Sangguniang Kabataan (SK) Federation Representative and an Association of Barangay Captains (ABC) Representative.

Each official is elected publicly to a three-year terms.

Respected leader

Many residents of Cagayan de Oro consider Justiniano R. Borja the most admired and respected Mayor of Cagayan de Oro. A graduate of Silliman University, Borja started his government service in 1954. He was responsible for the phenomenal growth of the city since 1959, when he opened the Cogon Market (now Cogon Public Market and Commercial Complex).

A statue built in his honor stands at the Plaza Divisoria, made by national artist for sculpture Napoleon V. Abueva.

Borja was called the "Arsenio Lacson of Cagayan de Oro" because he was above all and no non-sense. He ruled without fear or favor. He had political will. Most importantly, he remained simple and would walk to and from his office without any bodyguards.

Borja is the only Mayor that has been given multiple honors; proof of how much he was loved by the city that he served so well. There are J. R. Borja Street, J. R. Borja Memorial Medical Hospital (formerly City Hospital) and a statue located at Plaza Divisoria.

He was the only Mayor of Cagayan de Oro given a doctorate degree "Honoris causa" in public administration by Xavier University - Ateneo de Cagayan.

Administrative districts

Cagayan de Oro is politically subdivided into 80 barangays. These are grouped into two congressional districts, 24 barangays in the 1st District (West) and 56 barangays in the 2nd District (East), with Cagayan de Oro River as the natural boundary.

The city has a 57 urbanized barangays and 23 rural barangays all in all.

1st district (West)

  • Bonbon
  • Bayabas
  • Patag
  • Bulua
  • Iponan
  • Kauswagan[13]
  • Baikingon
  • San Simon
  • Pagatpat
  • Carmen
  • Canitoan
  • Balulang
  • Lumbia
  • Pagalungan
  • Tagpangi
  • Taglimao
  • Tuburan
  • Pigsag-an
  • Tumpagon
  • Bayanga
  • Mambuaya
  • Dansolihon
  • Tignapoloan
  • Besigan

2nd district (East)

  • Macabalan
  • Puntod
  • Consolacion
  • Camaman-an
  • Nazareth
  • Balubal
  • Indahag
  • Lapasan
  • Cugman
  • F.S. Catanico
  • Tablon
  • Agusan
  • Macasandig
  • Bugo
  • Puerto
  • Gusa
  • Barangay 1-40 (City Proper barangays)

Law enforcement

Cagayan de Oro is the base to major military and police camps in Northern Mindanao region. Camp Vicente Alagar is the headquarters of the Philippine National Police (PNP). It is located in Barangay Lapasan on top of a hilly area overlooking the city.

Camp Alagar has jurisdiction over the entire Northern Mindanao, namely the Provinces of Bukidnon, Camiguin, Lanao del Norte, Misamis Occidental and Misamis Oriental including its major cities; Cagayan de Oro and Iligan City.[14]

Recently, the national government provided new vehicles and equipments to improve police response time and increase police visibility in the city.

Camp Edilberto Evangelista, located in Barangay Patag is the largest military camp in Mindanao with an area of 129 hectares. It is home to the 4rth Infantry Division of the Philippine Army. Camp Evangelista's external jurisdiction covers the Northern Mindanao and Caraga regions.

Minor military camps are also located in Barangay Lumbia and Upper Puerto.

Crime

In 2009, crime in this city dramatically down along incidents. Forthwith, which annual accomplishment report revealed as posted a crime solution efficiency rate of 97.18 percent in 2007. As lathered by the Police patrols and stations is the easiest track to prevent for any incidents of crimes. By which this said accomplishment has significantly exceeded the 85 percent crime solution efficiency rate goal set by the regional headquarters of the Philippine National Police. At the year 2008-2009[15], the city has the total crime volume of 403 cases of 50.95%. In classification, the crimes are murder, homicide, physical injury, robbery, theft and rape. The decreased crimes in the city is motivated to consistency[16] to the Cagayan de Oro Police Officers.

Education

Aside from being the commercial capital of Northern Mindanao region, Cagayan de Oro is also considered as the school capital of the region and home to several universities, colleges and tertiary schools. It has three major private universities Capitol University, Liceo de Cagayan University and Xavier University - Ateneo de Cagayan. These institutions specialize in various disciplines such as medicine, nursing, commerce, computer science, engineering, and law, as well as graduate and post-graduate courses.

Among the most popular schools are Southern de Oro Philippine College (SPC), Pilgrim Christian College, Cagayan de Oro College-PHINMA Education Network, Lourdes College run by the RVM Sisters, STI College-Cagayan de Oro with secondary education in Barangay Kauswagan. Other schools in the city are Cagayan de Oro National High School, Corpus Christi School, Nanuri International School run by the Koreans, International School (IS), Golden Heritage Polytechnic College, Vineyard International Polytechnic College, and Montessori de Oro. There are schools in Cagayan de Oro using the Accelerated Christian Education system, one of these schools including Lapasan Baptist Christian Academy. There are two Chinese schools in the city: Kong Hua School and Oro Christian Grace School.

The Mindanao University of Science and Technology (formerly Mindanao Polytechnic State College) is the only state university in the city.[17] AMA Computer University,[18] and College of the Holy Spirit has campus branches in the city offering limited courses.

There are also a number of foreign schools in the city with study programs.

Infrastructure

The scenic infrastructures in the city in an aerial view. The apparent Marcos bridge is the longest bridge in Mindanao.

The presence of infrastructures within the city such as highways, flyovers, bridges, airports, seaport, telecommunications, condominiums, shopping malls and hotels has sustained the economic growth in Cagayan de Oro.

There are a number of modernization projects now ongoing to meet the demands of the future.

Cagayan de Oro is the shopping capital of the Northern Mindanao region. Residents from nearby provinces visit the city to shop and enjoy the mall facilities with numerous of malls, smaller shopping centers, department stores, supermarkets, retail to stand-alone stores and modern public markets.

Limketkai Center is located within the heart of Cagayan de Oro that covers around 25 hectares in area making it one of the most expansive commercial complexes in the country. Other popular malls in the city are SM City Cagayan de Oro, Robinsons Cagayan de Oro, Gaisano City Mall, Centrio currently under construction same with Paseo Mall and Market City.

The Divisoria Night Market is set up on Friday and Saturday nights where people can buy great bargains from the nearby Night Market.

There are also public markets in the city, locally called as Palengke serving Kagay-anons namely Cogon Public Market and Commercial Complex, where cheap buys or goods are being sold at rock-bottom prices, the Carmen Public Market and Commercial Complex. This public markets are often divided into two sections, namely the dry goods section and the wet goods section.

Transportation

As the gateway to Northern Mindanao, Cagayan de Oro is very accessible by land, air and water transportations. It is also home of the busiest airport and seaport in the country, the place can assure safe and secure journey.

Cagayan de Oro Port, is one of the most modern international seaport in the country.[19]

Cagayan de Oro Port in Macabalan area is a modern international seaport situated near the estuary of Cagayan de Oro River, it has an anchorage depth of 18 meters and is around 400 meters from the shoreline. It has two authorized cargo-handling operators. With the recent completion of the P250 million rehabilitation project, the port is now the largest international and domestic seaport in the country.[20]

The international seaport serves regular trips to and from Manila, Cebu City, Tagbilaran, Bacolod, Dumaguete, Iloilo City and Jagna, Bohol. It is the busiest seaport in the Philippines.

General Milling and Del Monte Philippines also operates their own port facilities within Cagayan de Oro. The $85 million Mindanao International Container Port is located in Tagoloan, Misamis Oriental 17 kilometers from Cagayan de Oro serves the PHIVIDEC Industrial Estate.

Lumbia Airport is the second-busiest airport in Mindanao after Francisco Bangoy International Airport in Davao City, often called as Cagayan de Oro Airport, which caters domestic flights to and from Manila, Cebu City and Davao City. From Manila, it is an hour and fifteen minutes away by plane and from Cebu is about forty-five minutes away.

Lumbia Airport is set to be replaced by the larger Laguindingan International Airport, currently under construction in the Municipality of Laguindingan, some 46 kilometers southwest of Cagayan de Oro. When it finished, the international airport will serve Northern Mindanao including its major cities; Cagayan de Oro and Iligan City.

Laguindingan International Airport, currently ongoing construction located in the Municipality of Laguindingan, is a first class airport that will serve Northern Mindanao including its major cities; Cagayan de Oro and Iligan City, and soon caters international flights to Seoul, South Korea and other parts of the world. It is a flagship project of the Cagayan de Oro-Iligan Corridor Special Development Project, which covers both cities of Cagayan de Oro and Iligan City, as well as five coastal towns in Lanao del Norte, and in the twenty-two towns especially Gingoog City of Misamis Oriental first and second congressional districts.

Laguindingan International Airport sits on a 4.17 square kilometer site in Barangay Moog, Laguindingan, Misamis Oriental[21] and located 46 kilometers from the existing Lumbia Airport. It was inaugurated on January 11, 2006 with groundbreaking ceremonies presided by former President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, who advocated the idea of an international airport in the Cagayan de Oro-Iligan Corridor.[22]

Upon its completion, it will be the fourth international airport in Mindanao, after Francisco Bangoy International Airport in Davao City, Zamboanga International Airport in Zamboanga City and General Santos International Airport in General Santos City, as well as the first international airport in Northern Mindanao (Region X).

Construction of the airport will be completed by 2012.

Westbound Terminal in Bulua.

Cagayan de Oro has organized and sufficient system of public transportation. It can easily roam around the city by any means of land transportation. To go around, there is a number of private firms provide rent-a-car services; operate taxi cabs, public utility jeepneys and trucking or hauling services.Regular land trips to and from all points of Mindanao are quietly available.

Taxis in the city are all air-conditioned and most are new models. They are both color yellow and white, and have yellow plates.

Market City and Eastbound Integrated Bus Terminal offers a regular land trips to and from eastern towns of Misamis Oriental, Bukidnon including Malaybalay and Valencia City, Gingoog City, Kabacan, North Cotabato, Butuan City, Surigao in the Caraga region, Davao City, Tacurong and Balingoan (ferry going for Camiguin).

Westbound Integrated Bus and Jeepney Terminal is also offering a regular land trips to and from western towns of Misamis Oriental including Laguindingan and El Salvador, Iligan City, Marawi, Oroquieta, Ozamiz City, Dipolog, Pagadian, Zamboanga City and some parts of western Mindanao.

Another land transportation in the city is the Rela, Cagayan de Oro's version of the Philippine tricycle. It is a common mode of transportation within the city proper, which can seat around six to eight people and could get cramped. This is not an advised mode of transportation for plus sized people.

There is also a couple of river taxis that operates ply down to the Cagayan de Oro River for both locals and tourists.

Medical facilities

The Capitol University Medical City one of the modern medical utilities in Mindanao.

Cagayan de Oro has a hospital bed to population ratio of 1:474 as of 2003. There are twelve major well-equipped private and government-run hospitals including 50 Barangay Health Centers and 20 Family Planning Centers.

There are also modern diagnostic centers and laboratories operating in the city.[9] J. R. Borja Memorial Medical Hospital (formerly City Hospital) and Northern Mindanao Medical Center (formerly Provincial Hospital) are the two main government-run hospitals. Most of the hospitals in the city are equipped with advanced and modern medical instruments and services.

Polymedic Medical Plaza and Capitol University Medical City are the newer developments of the health services in city.

In the recent years, private hospitals in the city have embarked on an aggressive expansion program. There has been a strong demand for medical facilities not only within the city but also from nearby Mindanao provinces.

Utilities

  • There are five major land based phone companies MisOrTel, PLDT-PhilCom, Smart Broadband (formerly CruzTelCo), BayanTel and ItalTel serving the city.
  • Mobile phone services are provided by Globe Telecom, Smart Communications and Sun Cellular.
  • There are several internet companies operating in the city offering dial up, broadband, Wi-Fi and cable services. Pueblo de Oro Business IT Park located in Upper Carmen is the first PEZA-registered IT park in Mindanao. The IT Park currently houses one of Cagayan de Oro's call centers.
  • Water services are provided by the Cagayan de Oro Water District (COWD), it was the first water district established in the entire Philippines.
  • Electricity is provided by the Cagayan Electric Power and Light Company (CEPALCO). CEPALCO, which began operations in 1952 that covers Cagayan de Oro and the Municipalities of Tagoloan, Villanueva and Jasaan, all in the Province of Misamis Oriental, including the 3,000-hectare PHIVIDEC Industrial Estate and caters to more than 100,000 consumers. The company's distribution system network now includes 138KV, 69KV, 34.5KV and 13.8KV systems. CEPALCO is also operating the developing world's first and largest (at the time of its inauguration in 2004) on-grid Solar Photovoltaic power plant. The 1-megawatt polycrystalline silicon-based Photovoltaic (PV) plant in Barangay Indahag of this city is connected with the distribution network of CEPALCO. It is the biggest solar power plant connected to the power grid in Southeast Asia.[23]

Tourism

Cagayan de Oro is considered as a tourist spot in the Philippines. It is also a favorite among nature lovers and adventurers because of its famous whitewater rafting and kayaking. Whitewater rafting has been one of the tourism activities being promoted in the Cagayan de Oro River.[24] The city government and the Department of Tourism made it as the banner tourism activity in Cagayan de Oro.[25]

Due to the national government's aggressive tourism campaign, local and foreign tourist arrivals in the city is on the rise. In 2004, the city registered a tourist arrival of 307,820, an increase from a previous of 232,257 in 2003.[9]

Landmarks

St. Augustine Cathedral, one of the oldest cathedral church in Mindanao.
The tribal houses in Malasag Eco-Tourism Village.
  • Vicente de Lara Park includes a Press Freedom Monument and the Heritage Monument of Misamis Oriental designed by national artist Eduardo Castrillo. The park, which used to be known as McArthur Park, is a popular jogging area during the morning.
  • Divisoria Night Café and Market is set up on Friday and Saturday nights. Kagay-anons and visitors gather in the colorful street lights of Plaza Divisoria (Golden Friendship Park) to have barbecue and seafood among many choices and enjoy the live band music, beer, and also the great bargains from the nearby Night Market.[26]
  • Gaston Park and St. Augustine Cathedral is along St. Augustine Metropolitan Cathedral, the city's main Roman Catholic Church and Seat of the Archdiocese of Cagayan de Oro. This park eventually became an execution ground for Spanish criminals turned later into a training ground for the local revolutionaries during the American occupation and noted for its water-dancing fountain, is a favorite place to unwind for many Kagay-anons, especially during Sundays.
  • Whitewater rafting or Kayaking in the Cagayan de Oro River has gained popularity through the years after former President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo herself went whitewater rafting in 2002.[27]
  • MacArthur Memorial Marker is a historical marker located at the edge of Cagayan de Oro Port; the monument commemorates two historical events.
  • Plaza Divisoria is in the downtown area. It was built circa 1900s as a town divider Divisoria or fire breaker after a great fire that almost burned down the entire city. The park (used to be known as Golden Friendship Park) is dedicated to local and national heroes like former President Ramon Magsaysay, Andrés Bonifacio, José Rizal, and former Cagayan de Oro mayor Justiniano R. Borja. Most of the Kagay-anons soldiers who died during the Philippine–American War are buried beneath the monument and it has survived the ravages of time including World War II.[26]
  • Gardens of Malasag Eco-Tourism Village is located in a reforested area in Malasag Hill. This seven-hectare village has replicas of tribal houses in the region and a panoramic view of Macajalar Bay. The tourism village is owned and managed by the Philippine Tourism Authority.[28]
  • Makahambus Cave and Adventure Park is an underground cave with a 130 foot (40 m) circular gorge. The ravine is thick with plants and huge trees. It is the site of the historic Battle of Makahambus Hill between Kagay-anons and American soldiers during the Philippine–American War circa 1900s.[29]
  • Huluga Caves is an archaeological site in Sitio Taguanao, Barangay Indahag. It is composed of an open site and two caves where skeletal remains of a child and woman were found. A fragment of the woman's skull was dated to 377 A.D. by the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in La Jolla, California, United States. The open site is the venue of prehistoric settlement.
  • Plaza de Los Heroes is a memorial park dedicated to the heroes of the Three Battles of Cagayan de Oro during the Philippine–American War. It is located along Mastersons Avenue in Upper Carmen.
  • Kagay-an Resort, once the Lawndale Spring Resort in the Taguanao area, is usually packed with families and groups on weekends lounging in the cold springs.
  • Museo de Oro is on the campus of Xavier University - Ateneo de Cagayan. The museum exhibits artifacts dug from Huluga Cave and repertoire of Bukidnon and Maranao cultures that have survived the ravages of time.[26]
  • Pueblo de Oro Township in Upper Carmen is an expansive class business and residential area designed by Robert Trent Jones II. It is home to the Pueblo de Oro Business IT Park, the first PEZA-registered IT park in Mindanao. The IT Park houses one of Cagayan de Oro's call centers.
  • Museum of Three Cultures is in Capitol University. It houses a gallery of Maranao antiquities from Tugaya, Lanao del Sur; a gallery of ethno history which shall display Cagayan de Oro history, Butuan archaeological artefacts, lumad arts and crafts from the Higaonon and Manobo cultures, and a treasure of Christians lowland artifacts of Northern Mindanao; and an art gallery and coffee shop that promotes the visual arts of Mindanao. It has a research archives that will house Spanish-era documents, photographs, memorabilia of well-known personalities in Mindanao, which is open to all researchers and students of culture.
  • Monigue Cave is located in Barangay Mambuaya this city; the cave entrance is flowing water from underground stream. The cave has a small opening that seems too narrow to be passable, it has a six-inch airspace between ceiling and water where one can submerge, equipped with a helmet and a water-proof cap lamp. It contains a beautiful sparkling formation, which is called the Calcium Carbonates (CaCO3) or Calcites. These stalactites and stalagmites, white and brown, are sign of oxidized materials that take 50–60 years to form an inch the cave. They are definitely spellbinding. There were formations of flowstone, gurpool-resembling, rice terraces, transparent crystals and picturesque speleothems, such as cathedral drapes and icons.
  • Executive Building (Old City Hall) used to be known as Casa Real de Cagayán, is a former Spanish governors residence and seat of the local government.
  • Palalan Falls is surrounded by boulders and stones dubbed by the city as "Oro" stone similar in characteristics with the Mangima stone.
  • Migtugsok Falls is located at Barangay Cugman and it is composed of five cascading waters, where the beauty of nature could be experienced, unexploited by the carelessness of human search for progress and development.
  • MOGCHS Administration Building was part of the 1907 Gabaldon initiatives to established and build public schools all over the Philippines under the American regime.
  • Casa del Chino Ygua (Balay na Bato) was built in 1882 by the Sia family; they are the first Chinese migrants in Cagayan de Oro. Most of the revolutionaries died and were buried behind the house during the Philippine–American War.
  • High Ridge is located on a hilltop of Aluba area. It is open to the public for outdoor picnics and a scenic view of Cagayan de Oro.
  • Mapawa Nature Park for horseback riding, biking, ziplining and nature trekking adventures.
  • DXCC Museum showcases a well-known radio broadcasting station located at Don A. Velez Street.
  • City Archives Museum is newly opened; it used to be an Old Water Tower built circa 1922 just across the cathedral and Gaston Park. Recently, it was upgraded into a museum that houses antiquities, memorabilia of well-known families in the city and a gallery parade of Cagayan de Oro history.

Cityscape

Cagayan de Oro City panorama view.
Panorama from Pueblo de Oro.

International relations

Sister cities

Cagayan de Oro has a sister cities worldwide, as classified by the city government. Each sister city is divided into three parts, namely the International and Local City. Cagayan de Oro has 3 International Sister Cities and one Local Sister Cities.

International
Republic of China Tainan City, Taiwan (2005)
China Harbin, China (2007)
United States Norfolk, Virginia, United States (2008)
Local City
Philippines Butuan City, Philippines


See also

Ranking

Gallery

External links

Media related to Cagayan de Oro City at Wikimedia Commons

References

  1. ^ Distribution of Mindanao GDP by Industry, at Constant Price
  2. ^ Human development index: cagayan de oro Misamis oriental Urban Transition, Poverty, and Development in the Philippines
  3. ^ Antonio J. Montalvan II. "History of Cagyan de Oro, with Update on Destruction of Ancestral Home". Heritage Conservation Advocates, Philippines. http://heritage.elizaga.net/history/. 
  4. ^ "Central Luzon & & NCR, Philippines Unsung Heroes". MSC Institute of Technology. http://www.msc.edu.ph/centennial/hero/ncr/page3.html. 
  5. ^ Alan Berlow (1996-07-04). "The Independence Day That Wasn't" (Press release). Philippine History Group of Los Angeles. http://www.bibingka.com/phg/misc/july4not.htm. 
  6. ^ "An act creating the municipality of El Salvador, province of Misamis Oriental". LawPH.com. http://lawph.com/statutes/ra268.html. Retrieved 2011-04-08. 
  7. ^ "An act creating the municipality of Opol, province of Misamis Oriental". LawPH.com. http://lawph.com/statutes/ra524.html. Retrieved 2011-04-09. 
  8. ^ "An act creating the city of Cagayan de Oro". LawPH.com. http://lawph.com/statutes/ra521-cagayan-de-oro-city-charter.html. Retrieved 2011-04-08. 
  9. ^ a b c d Cagayan de Oro City Official Website
  10. ^ "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Cagayan de Oro, Philippines". Weatherbase. 2007. http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weather.php3?s=84789&refer=. Retrieved 2007-02-04. 
  11. ^ Cagayan De Oro City: Population Growth Rate Declined to 1.63 Percent
  12. ^ Kagay-anfestival.com
  13. ^ Brgykauswagan.gq.nu
  14. ^ PNP.gov.ph Philippine National Police
  15. ^ Cagayan de Oro crime rate drops
  16. ^ COCPO Marks 97% Crime Solution Efficiency Rate
  17. ^ Gov.ph
  18. ^ AMA-university.com
  19. ^ Infrastructure of Cagayan de Oro
  20. ^ P250-M rehab for Mindanao's biggest port completed, newsinfor.inquirer.net.
  21. ^ Waiting for the flight from Laguindingan, Philippine Daily Inquirer, July 22, 2007
  22. ^ Arroyo to inaugurate int'l airport project, Sun.Star Cagayan de Oro, January 11, 2006
  23. ^ Irradiance.com
  24. ^ Whitewater Kayaking with KayakDomain.com
  25. ^ Cagayan de Oro Tourism Website
  26. ^ a b c Cagayan De Oro Travel Guide
  27. ^ GMA goes whitewater rafting in Cagayan de Oro - and looks forward to mountain climbing : Philippines : Gov.Ph : News
  28. ^ Gardens of Malasag Eco-Tourism Village
  29. ^ cagayandeoro.cdo.ph

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