Cataclysmic variable star
Cataclysmic variable stars (CV) are stars which irregularly increase in brightness by a large factor, then drop back down to a quiescent state. They were initially called
novae, from the Latin 'new', since ones with an outburst brightness visible to the naked eye and a quiescent brightness invisible appeared as new stars in the sky.
They consist of two component stars; a
white dwarfprimary, and a mass transferring secondary, with an orbital period generally between about 80 and 700 minutes. The stars are so close to each other that the gravity of the white dwarf distorts the secondary, and the white dwarf accretes matter from the companion. Therefore, the secondary is often referred to as the "donor star". The infalling matter, which is usually rich in hydrogen, forms in most cases an accretion discaround the white dwarf. Strong UV and X-ray emission is often seen from the accretion disc. The accretion disk may be prone to an instabilityleading to dwarf novaoutbursts, when a portion of the disk material falls onto the white dwarf; the cataclysmic outbursts occur when the densityand temperatureat the bottom of the accumulated hydrogen layer rise high enough to ignite nuclear fusionreactions, which rapidly burn the hydrogen layer to helium.
If the accretion process continues long enough to bring the white dwarf close to the
Chandrasekhar limit, the increasing interior density can ignite runaway carbonfusion and trigger a Type Ia supernovaexplosion, which completely disrupts the white dwarf.
Classification of cataclysmic variables
Cataclysmic variables are subdivided into several smaller groups, often named after a bright prototype star characteristic of the class. In some cases the
magnetic fieldof the white dwarf is strong enough to disrupt the inner accretion disk or even prevent disk formation altogether. Magnetic systems often show strong and variable polarizationin their optical light, and are therefore sometimes called polars; these often exhibit small-amplitude brightness fluctuations at what's presumed to be the period of rotation of the white dwarf Dwarf novae Dwarf novae, or U Geminorum stars, are cataclymic variables which are observed to brighten repeatedly, though by a smaller amount than classical novae. Z Camelopardalis stars Temporarily "halt" at a particular brightness below their peak SU Ursae Majoris stars Have "superoutbursts" which are brighter than the average SS Cygni stars Have outbursts of two distinct lengths Polars AM Herculis These are stars where the magnetic field of the white dwarf has locked the binary into synchronous rotation, and matter streams down fairly constantly onto the white dwarf rather than forming a disc. DQ Herculis Also called 'intermediate polars', these have a slightly weaker magnetic field than AM Herculisstars; there is an accretion disc, but substructure in it is created by the field. VY Sculptoris These are stars which occasionally drop in brightness by more than one magnitude, with very occasional dwarf-nova-type outbursts during the dim state. They may be a subclass of polars [cite arXiv |author= Jean-Marie Hameury |eprint=astro-ph/0207084 |title= VY Sculptoris stars as magnetic CVs |year=2002 |version=v1 ] AM Canum Venaticorum These are cataclysmic variables both of whose components are white dwarfs; the accretion disc is composed primarily of helium, and they are of interest as sources of gravitational waves SW Sextantis These are like dwarf novae but have the accretion disc in a steady state, so don't show outbursts; the disc emits non-uniformly. They are usually also eclipsing variables, though this appears to be a selection artefact. [cite web | title=Defining Characteristics of the SW Sextantis Stars | url=http://spider.ipac.caltech.edu/staff/hoard/research/swsex/characteristics.html] .
Catalogues of cataclysmic variables
There are over 1600 known CV systems [cite web | url = http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/cvcat/index.html | title = A Catalog and Atlas of Cataclysmic Variables | author = Ronald Downes, et al.] , though more are discovered each year whilst that catalogue was frozen as of 1 February 2006.
Discovery of cataclysmic variables
Cataclysmic variables are among the classes of astronomical objects most commonly found by amateurs, since a cataclysmic variable in outburst is bright enough to be detectable with very modest instruments, and the only celestial objects easily confused with them are bright
asteroidswhose movement from night to night is clear.
Around six novae are discovered each year, whilst models based on observations in other galaxies suggest that the rate of occurrence ought to be between 20 and 50 [cite arXiv | author=M Darnley et al | eprint=astro-ph/0509493 | title=Classical novae from the POINT-AGAPE microlensing survey of M31 -- II. Rate and statistical characteristics of the nova population | year=2005] ; this discrepancy is due partly to obscuration by interstellar dust, and partly to a lack of observers in the southern hemisphere and to the difficulties of observing while the Sun is up and at Full Moon.
Verifying that an object is a cataclysmic variable is also fairly straightforward: they are usually quite blue objects, they exhibit rapid and strong variability, and they tend to have peculiar
emission lines. They emit in the ultravioletand X-rayranges; they are expected also to emit gamma rays, from annihilation of positrons from proton-rich nuclei produced in the fusion explosion, but this has not yet been detected [cite arXiv | author=F Senziani et al | eprint=0804.4791 | title=Detectability of gamma-ray emission from classical novae with Swift/BAT | class=astro-ph | year=2008]
* [http://archive.stsci.edu/prepds/cvcat/index.html The Catalog and Atlas of Cataclysmic Variables]
* [http://www.cvcat.net/ TPP/CVcat - a catalogue of Cataclysmic Variable Stars]
* [http://www.mpa-garching.mpg.de/RKcat/ RKcat (Ritter and Kolb), 7th edition]
* [http://cvnet.aavso.org CVNet, a web site and community for CV enthusiasts and researchers] - features announcements of new discoveries
* [http://www.mssl.ucl.ac.uk/www_astro/gal/cv_beginners.html A Beginner's Guide to Cataclysmic Variables] - features a very good categorisation of the different classes of stars
* [http://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/objects/cvs/cvstext.html Cataclysmic Variables] , NASA's HEASARC page
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