Marine reserves of New Zealand
New Zealand has over thirty marine reserves spread around the North, the South Island, and neighbouring islands, and another two on outlying island groups. They are governed by the Marine Reserves Act 1971 and administered by the Department of Conservation with assistance from the Ministry of Fisheries, New Zealand Customs and the New Zealand Defence Forces.
The Marine Reserves Act was passed by the Parliament of New Zealand in 1971. In 2000 the Department of Conservation started a review of the Act resulting in a draft Marine Reserves Bill that was introduced into Parliament in June 2002, but has not yet been voted on.
The first marine reserve to be created was the Cape Rodney-Okakari Point Marine Reserve. The Poor Knights Islands Marine Reserve was established next, although with only a partial ban on fishing; a full ban was implemented in 1998. The first two marine reserves in Fiordland were established at the request of New Zealand Federation of Commercial Fishermen in 1993. An additional eight reserves were established in Fiordland on the recommendation of the Guardians of Fiordland in 2005. The Whangarei Harbour Marine Reserve was established in 2006 with the active support of the students and faculty of nearby Kamo High School.
The abundance of fish within the reserves creates spillover, or larval export, that boosts catches in neighbouring areas. In general, the reserves tend to attract a lot of recreational divers and fishermen. The divers are attracted to the abundant fish, coral, etc inside the reserves. The fishermen are attracted to the areas just outside the reserves – where spillover creates an abundance of large game fish not found in other areas.
The Cape Rodney-Okakari Point Marine Reserve, in particular, receives more than 200,000 visitors per year. It is a popular spot for snorkelers and scuba-divers, due to the abundance and diversity of fish now living within the reserve after over 30 years of protection. Species that can be found in the reserve include Australasian snapper and New Zealand sea urchin (kina).
List of reserves
External images Location map of marine reserves List of marine reserves in New Zealand Name Area (ha) Date created Auckland Islands Marine Reserve 498,000 2003 Cape Rodney-Okakari Point Marine Reserve (Goat Island) 518 1975 Hawea Marine Reserve (Clio Rocks) 411 2005 Horoirangi Marine Reserve 904 2006 Kahukura Marine Reserve (Gold Arm) 464 2005 Kapiti Marine Reserve 2167 1992 Kermadec Islands Marine Reserve 748,000 1990 Kutu Parera Marine Reserve 433 2005 Long Bay-Okura Marine Reserve 980 1995 Long Island-Kokomohua Marine Reserve 619 1993 Mayor Island Marine Reserve (Tuhua) 1060 1992 Moana Uta Marine Reserve 2007 2005 Motu Manawa (Pollen Island) Marine Reserve 500 1995 Parininihi Marine Reserve 1800 2006 Piopiotahi Marine Reserve (Milford Sound) 690 1993 Pohatu Marine Reserve 215 1993 Poor Knights Islands Marine Reserve 2400 1981 Taipari Roa Marine Reserve 613 2005 Tapuae Marine Reserve 1404 2008 Taputeranga Marine Reserve 854 2008 Taumoana Marine Reserve 1466 2005 Te Angiangi Marine Reserve 446 1997 Te Awaatu Channel Marine Reserve (The Gut) 93 1993 Te Hapua Marine Reserve 449 2005 Te Matuku Bay Marine Reserve 690 2003 Te Paepae o Aotea Marine Reserve 1 267.24 2006 Te Tapuwae O Hua Marine Reserve 3672 2005 Te Tapuwae O Rongokako Marine Reserve 2452 1999 Whanganui A Hei Marine Reserve (Cathedral Cove) 840 1993 Tonga Island Marine Reserve 1835 1993 Ulva Island/Te Wharawhara Marine Reserve 1075 2004 Westhaven Marine Reserve (Te Tai Tapu) 536 1994 Whangarei Harbour Marine Reserve 254 2006
- ^ a b Enderby, Jenny & Tony (2006). A guide to New Zealand's marine reserves. NZ: New Holland Publishers. ISBN 978-1-86966-114-4.
- ^ "Review of the Marine Reserves Act 1971". Department of Conservation. May 2001. http://doc.govt.nz/publications/conservation/marine-and-coastal/marine-protected-areas/review-of-the-marine-reserves-act-1971/. Retrieved 24 April 2010.
- ^ Department of Conservation – Marine reserves A–Z
- ^ a b c d Warne, Kennedy. Blue Haven: New Zealand marine reserves are a model for the world National Geographic Magazine April 2007.
- ^ New Zealand Department of Conservation (DOC). "Hawea (Clio Rocks): Fiordland marine reserves". http://www.doc.govt.nz/conservation/marine-and-coastal/marine-protected-areas/marine-reserves-a-z/fiordlands-marine-reserves/facts/fiordland-marine-reserves-a-z/hawea-clio-rocks/. Retrieved 2011-08-28.
- ^ Lynch, Brigid (2006-10-19). "Marine reserve created by young enthusiasm". New Zealand Herald. ISSN 1170-0777. http://www.nzherald.co.nz/nz/news/article.cfm?c_id=1&objectid=10406518. Retrieved 2011-08-28.
- ^ "Five marine reserves announced for West Coast". New Zealand Government - Beehive. 26 August 2011. http://beehive.govt.nz/release/five-marine-reserves-announced-west-coast. Retrieved 28 August 2011.
- Marine reserves & other protected areas at New Zealand Department of Conservation
- Effects of a 30-year fishing ban – NIWA
- Forest and Bird – The Benefits of Marine Reserves
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