Mansakan languages

Davao Region, Mindanao
Linguistic classification: Austronesian

The Mansakan languages are a group of languages spoken in the Philippines. Davawenyo is the principal native language of the Davao region, though there is a high degree of bilingualism in Cebuano.




The Mansakan languages are:

  • Davawenyo
  • Eastern
    • Karaga
    • Mandayan: Mansaka, Mandaya
  • Kamayo
  • Kalagan (a dialect cluster)

Gray, et. al. (2008)

A 2008 analysis of the Austronesian Basic Vocabulary Database[1] concluded that with 80% confidence, the Butuanon-Tausug languages are more closely related to Mansakan than to the Visayan languages, their traditional classification. The Mamanwa language, previously left unclassified within Central Philippines, was connected with 95% confidence. The resulting family is,

Greater Mansakan

Gallman (1974)

The Mansakan subgrouping below is from Gallman (1974).[2]

Individual languages are marked by italics, and primary branches by bold italics.

  • Mansakan
    • North Mansakan
      • Kamayo North and Kamayo South
    • Davaw
      • Davawenyo (Davaweño)
    • Eastern Mansakan
      • Isamal
      • Caraga (Karaga)
      • Kabasagan, Boso, Mansaka, Mandayan
    • Western Mansakan
      • Kalagan and Tagakaolo
  • Mamanwa


  1. ^ Greenhill, S.J., Blust. R, & Gray, R.D. (2008). The Austronesian Basic Vocabulary Database: From Bioinformatics to Lexomics. Evolutionary Bioinformatics, 4:271-283.
  2. ^ Gallman, Andrew Franklin. A Reconstruction of Proto-Mansakan. M.A. dissertation. Arlington, Texas: Dept. of Liunguistics, University of Texas at Arlington, 1974.

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