Strychnine


Strychnine

Chembox new
ImageFile=Strychnine2.svg
ImageSize=200px
ImageFile1=Strychnine-from-xtal-3D-balls.pngIUPACName=
OtherNames=Strychnidin-10-one
Section1= Chembox Identifiers
CASNo=57-24-9
PubChem=441071
SMILES= [H] [C@] ( [C@@] (C(C=CC=C7) =C7N34)5 [C@H] 6N(CC5)C2)3 [C@@] 1( [H] ) [C@@H] (C6) [C@] 2=CCO [C@H] 1CC4=O

Section2= Chembox Properties
Formula=C21H22N2O2
MolarMass=334.41
Appearance=
Density=
MeltingPt=284-286 °C
BoilingPt=
Solubility=

Section3= Chembox Hazards
MainHazards=
FlashPt=
Autoignition=

Strychnine (pronEng|ˈstrɪkniːn (British, U.S.), IPA|/-naɪn/ or IPA|/-nɪn/ (U.S.)) is a very toxic (LD50 = 10 mg approx.), colorless crystalline alkaloid used as a pesticide, particularly for killing small vertebrates such as birds and rodents. Strychnine causes muscular convulsions and eventually death through asphyxia or sheer exhaustion. The most common source is from the seeds of the "Strychnos nux vomica" tree. Strychnine is one of the most bitter substances known. Its taste is detectable in concentrations as low as 1 ppm.

Pharmacology

Strychnine acts as a blocker or antagonist at the inhibitory or strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor (GlyR), a ligand-gated chloride channel in the spinal cord and the brain.

Although it is best known as a poison, small doses of strychnine were once used in medications as a stimulant, a laxative and as a treatment for other stomach ailments. A 1934 drug guide for nurses described it as "among the most valuable and widely prescribed drugs". ["Principal Drugs and Their Uses", A.L. Morton, Faber and Faber, London, 1934] Strychnine's stimulant effects also led to its use historically for enhancing performance in sports. ["Performance-Enhancing Substances in Sport and Exercise", Michael S. Bahrke and Charles Yesalis, Human Kinetics, 2002, ISBN 0736036792 [http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=nPJaTdp47mcC&pg=PA3&dq=strychnine+stimulant+sport&sig=IT3Yoh4vmV6sSI8TdBelcTIxep8 Google Books] ] Because of its high toxicity and tendency to cause convulsions, the use of strychnine in medicine was eventually abandoned once safer alternatives became available.

The dosage for medical use was cited as between "1/60th grain–1/10th grain", which is between 1.1 milligrams and 6.4 milligrams in modern measures. Normally the maximum dosage used was 3.2 mg, half of a "full dose". [ [http://www.henriettesherbal.com/eclectic/potter-comp/strychnos-nux.html Nux Vomica. | Henriette's Herbal Homepage ] ] A lethal dose was cited as 1/2 a grain (32 mg), but people have been known to die from as little as 5 mg of strychnine.

ee also

*avicide
*Strychnine poisoning

References


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • STRYCHNINE — Alcaloïde de formule brute C21H2222, extrait de la graine du vomiquier (Strychnos nux vomica ) ou noix vomique, de la famille des loganiacées. Très toxique, la strychnine est inscrite au tableau A de la pharmacopée. On trouve le vomiquier à… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Strychnine — Strych nine, n. [L. strychnos a kind of nightshade, Gr. ?: cf. F. strychnine.] (Chem.) A very poisonous alkaloid resembling brucine, obtained from various species of plants, especially from species of {Loganiace[ae]}, as from the seeds of the St …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • strychnine — powerful poisonous alkaloid, 1819, from Fr. strychnine, from Mod.L. Strychnos, the genus name of the plant (nux vomica) from which the poison is obtained, from Gk. strychnon, a kind of nightshade, of uncertain origin. The chemical was discovered… …   Etymology dictionary

  • strychnine — ► NOUN ▪ a bitter and highly poisonous substance obtained from nux vomica and related plants. ORIGIN from Greek strukhnos, denoting a kind of nightshade …   English terms dictionary

  • strychnine — [strik′nin, strik′nēn΄, strik′nīn΄] n. [Fr < ModL Strychnos < L < Gr strychnos, nightshade] a highly poisonous, colorless, crystalline alkaloid, C21H22N2O2, obtained from nux vomica and other similar plants …   English World dictionary

  • Strychnine — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Strychnine (homonymie). Strychnine Molécule de strychnine …   Wikipédia en Français

  • strychnine — strychnic, adj. /strik nin, neen, nuyn/, n. 1. Pharm. a colorless, crystalline poison, C21H22N2O2, obtained chiefly by extraction from the seeds of nux vomica, formerly used as a central nervous system stimulant. 2. an Indian tree, Strychnos nux… …   Universalium

  • strychnine — Alkaloid obtained from the Indian tree Strychnos nux vomica ; specific blocking agent for the action of the amino acid transmitter glycine. Convulsive effects of strychnine are probably due to its blockage of inhibitory synapses onto spinal cord… …   Dictionary of molecular biology

  • strychnine — An alkaloid from Strychnos nux vomica; colorless crystals of intensely bitter taste, nearly insoluble in water. It stimulates all parts of the central nervous system, and was used as a stomachic, an antidote for depressant poisons, and in the… …   Medical dictionary

  • strychnine — [[t]strɪ̱kniːn, AM naɪn[/t]] N UNCOUNT Strychnine is a very poisonous drug which is sometimes used in very small amounts as a medicine …   English dictionary


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