List of mammals of Singapore

Plantain Squirrel (Callosciurus notatus)
Long-tailed Macaque (Macaca fascicularis)

Mammals in Singapore currently number about 50 species. Since the founding of modern Singapore in 1819, over 90 species have been recorded, including large species such as Tigers, Leopards and Asian Elephants. Most of these have since become extinct largely due to rapid urban development, with occasional large mammals such as Asian Elephants swimming across the Straits of Johor from Johor, Malaysia.

Many surviving species have critically low population numbers, the most seriously endangered being the Cream-coloured Giant Squirrel, last sighted in 1995 and now possibly extinct. The Banded Leaf Monkey is also down to around 30 individuals. However, some species may be rediscovered in more remote parts of the country, such as the Malaysian Porcupine which was found on Pulau Tekong in 2005.

The most commonly seen native mammals are the Long-tailed Macaque and the Plantain Squirrel. The largest terrestrial mammal that can still be found is the Wild Pig, which is common on the offshore islands of Pulau Ubin and Pulau Tekong, but also found on the mainland. The largest mammals in Singapore, however, are marine creatures such as Dugongs and Dolphins. The Colugo is also doing well, but these are rarely seen due to their elusiveness and camouflage.


List of mammals

Order Insectivora (Insectivores)

Family Soricidae (Shrews)

  • House Shrew (Suncus murinus) - Urban
  • Southeast Asian White-toothed Shrew (Crocidura fuliginosa)

Order Pholidota (Pangolins)

Family Manidae (Pangolins)

  • Sunda Pangolin (Manis javanica) - Bukit Batok/Bukit Timah/Central Catchment/Pulau Ubin/Pulau Tekong/Western Catchment

Order Carnivora (Carnivores)

Family Herpestidae (Mongooses)

  • Short-tailed Mongoose (Herpestes brachyurus) (extinct)

Family Viverridae (Civets)

  • Binturong (Arctictis binturong) - Bukit Panjang/East Coast (escapee?)
  • Common Palm Civet (Paradoxurus hermaphroditus) - Bukit Timah/Central Catchment/Bukit Batok/Pulau Ubin/Pasir Panjang/Kembangan
  • Three-striped Palm Civet (Arctogalidia trivirgata)
  • Masked Palm Civet (Paguma larvata) (extinct)
  • Large Indian Civet (Viverra zibetha)
  • Large-spotted Civet (Viverra megaspila) (extinct)
  • Malayan Civet (Viverra tangalunga) (extinct)
  • Otter Civet (Cynogale bennettii) (extinct)

Family Mustelidae (Weasels, Otters and relatives)

  • Small-clawed Otter (Aonyx cinereus) - Western Catchment/Sungei Buloh/Pulau Tekong/Pulau Ubin/Kranji
  • Smooth Otter (Lutrogale perspicillata) - Western Catchment/Sungei Buloh/Pulau Ubin
  • Hairy-nosed Otter (Lutra sumatrana) (extinct)

Family Felidae (Cats)

  • Domestic Cat (Felis silvestris catus)
  • Leopard Cat (Prionailurus bengalensis) - Bukit Timah/Central Catchment/Pulau Ubin/Pulau Tekong/Western Catchment
  • Flat-headed Cat (Prionailurus planiceps) (extinct)
  • Tiger (Panthera tigris) (extinct)
  • Leopard (Panthera pardus) (extinct)
  • Clouded Leopard (Neofelis nebulosa) (extinct)

Family Canidae (Dogs)

  • Domestic/Feral Dog (Canis lupus familiaris)

Order Sirenia (Sea cows)

Family Dugongidae (Dugong)

  • Dugong (Dugong dugon) - Pulau Ubin/Pulau Tekong/Changi

Order Proboscidea (Elephants)

Family Elephantidae (Elephants)

  • Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) (extinct)

Order Perissodactyla (Odd-toed Ungulates)

Family Tapiridae (Tapirs)

  • Malayan Tapir (Tapirus indicus) (extinct)

Order Cetartiodactyla (Cetaceans & Even-toed Ungulates)

Family Delphinidae (Marine dolphins)

  • Indo-Pacific Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) - Singapore Strait
  • Common Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) - Singapore Strait
  • Indo-Pacific Humpback Dolphin (Sousa chinensis) - Singapore Strait
  • Irrawaddy Dolphin (Orcaella brevirostris) - Singapore Strait
  • Risso's Dolphin (Grampus griseus)
  • Fraser's Dolphin (Lagenodelphis hosei)
  • False Killer Whale (Pseudorca crassidens) - Tuas
  • Pantropical Spotted Dolphin (Stenella attenuata)
  • Spinner Dolphin (Stenella longirostris)

Family Phocoenidae (Porpoises)

  • Finless Porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides) - Singapore Strait

Family Balaenopteridae (Rorquals)

  • Sei Whale (Balaenoptera borealis)
  • Bryde's Whale (Balaenoptera edeni)

Family Suidae (Pigs)

  • Wild Pig (Sus scrofa) - Western Catchment/Pulau Ubin/Pulau Tekong/Changi/Seletar/Central Catchment

Family Cervidae (Deer)

  • Sambar (Cervus unicolor) - Central Catchment
  • Indian Muntjac (Muntiacus muntjak) (extinct)

Family Tragulidae (Mousedeer)

  • Lesser Mousedeer (Tragulus kanchil) - Bukit Timah/Central Catchment
  • Greater Mousedeer (Tragulus napu) - Pulau Ubin

Order Rodentia (Rodents)

Family Muridae (Mice and Rats)

  • House Mouse (Mus musculus) - urban
  • Norway Rat (Rattus norvegicus) - urban (introduced)
  • Asian House Rat (Rattus tanezumi) - urban
  • Black Rat (Rattus rattus) - urban
  • Polynesian Rat (Rattus exulans)
  • Malaysian Wood Rat (Rattus tiomanicus)
  • Singapore Rat (Rattus annandalei) - forests
  • Brown Spiny Rat (Maxomys rajah)
  • Red Spiny Rat (Maxomys surifer)

Family Sciuridae (Squirrels)

  • Plantain Squirrel (Callosciurus notatus) - gardens/forests
  • Finlayson's or Variable Squirrel (Callosciurus finlaysonii) (introduced) - Woodleigh/Bidadari
  • Slender Squirrel (Sundasciurus tenuis) - Bukit Timah/Central Catchment
  • Cream-coloured Giant Squirrel (Ratufa affinis) - (extinct)
  • Shrew-faced Ground Squirrel (Rhinosciurus laticaudatus)
  • Red-cheeked Flying Squirrel (Hylopetes spadiceus) - Bukit Timah
  • Horsfield's Flying Squirrel (Iomys horsfieldii)
  • Red Giant Flying Squirrel (Petaurista petaurista) (extinct)

Family Hystricidae

  • Malaysian Porcupine (Hystrix brachyura) - Pulau Tekong

Order Chiroptera (Bats)

Family Pteropodidae (Old World Fruit Bats)

  • Island Flying Fox (Pteropus hypomelanus) - unverified
  • Malayan Flying Fox (Pteropus vampyrus)
  • Geoffroy's Rousette (Rousettus amplexicaudatus) (extinct)
  • Lesser Dog-faced Fruit Bat (Cynopterus brachyotis) - urban
  • Short-nosed Fruit Bat (Cynopterus sphinx) - Pulau Tekong (unconfirmed)
  • Dusky Fruit Bat (Penthetor lucasi) - Bukit Timah/Central Catchment
  • Common Long-tongued Fruit Bat (Macroglossus minimus)
  • Cave Nectar Bat (Eonycteris spelaea)

Family Emballonuridae (Sheath-tailed Bats)

  • Lesser Sheath-tailed Bat (Emballonura monticola)
  • Black-bearded Tomb Bat (Taphozous melanopogon)
  • Pouched Tomb Bat (Saccolaimus saccolaimus)

Family Nycteridae (Hollow-faced Bats)

  • Southeast Asian Hollow-faced Bat (Nycteris tragata)

Family Megadermatidae (False Vampires)

  • Lesser False Vampire (Megaderma spasma)

Family Rhinolophidae (Horseshoe Bats)

  • Glossy Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus lepidus)
  • Woolly Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus luctus)
  • Lesser Woolly Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus sedulus) (extinct)
  • Lesser Brown Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus stheno) (extinct)
  • Trefoil Horseshoe Bat (Rhinolophus trifoliatus)

Family Hipposideridae (Old World Leaf-nosed Bats)

  • Bicolored Roundleaf Bat (Hipposideros bicolor) - Bukit Timah
  • Fawn Roundleaf Bat (Hipposideros cervinus) (extinct)
  • Ridley's Roundleaf Bat (Hipposideros ridleyi) (extinct)

Family Vespertilionidae (Evening Bats)

  • Hardwicke's Woolly Bat (Kerivoula hardwickii) - Central Catchment
  • Whiskered Myotis (Myotis muricola)
  • Singapore Whiskered Bat (Myotis oreias) - endemic to Singapore but possibly globally extinct
  • Grey Large-footed Myotis (Myotis adversus)
  • Asiatic Lesser Yellow Bat (Scotophilus kuhlii)
  • Lesser Bamboo Bat (Tylonycteris pachypus)
  • Greater Bamboo Bat (Tylonycteris robustula)
  • Javan Pipistrelle (Pipistrellus javanicus) - Ayer Rajah
  • Narrow-winged Pipistrelle (Pipistrellus stenopterus) - Bukit Timah
  • Brown Tube-nosed Bat (Murina suilla)

Family Molossidae (Free-tailed Bats)

  • Naked Bulldog Bat (Cheiromeles torquatus) - Bukit Timah
  • Wrinkle-lipped Free-tailed Bat (Chaerephon plicatus) (extinct)

Order Scandentia (Treeshrews)

Family Tupaiidae (Treeshrews)

  • Common Treeshrew (Tupaia glis) - Bukit Timah/Central Catchment

Order Dermoptera (Colugo)

Family Cynocephalidae (Colugo)

  • Malayan Colugo or Malayan Flying Lemur (Cynocephalus variegatus) - Bukit Timah/Central Catchment

Order Primates (Primates)

Family Lorisidae (Lorises)

  • Slow Loris (Nycticebus coucang) - Bukit Timah/Central Catchment/Pulau Tekong

Family Cercopithecidae (Old World Monkeys)

  • Long-tailed Macaque (Macaca fascicularis) - Bukit Timah/Central Catchment/Pulau Ubin/Sisters Islands/Western Catchment
  • Pig-tailed Macaque (Macaca nemestrina) (extinct)
  • Banded Leaf Monkey (Presbytis femoralis) - around 30 left in Central Catchment
  • Silvered Leaf Monkey (Trachypithecus cristatus) (extinct)
  • Dusky Leaf Monkey (Trachypithecus obscurus) - Kent Ridge (escapee)

Family Hominidae (Great Apes)

  • Human (Homo sapiens)

Note: (extinct) means locally extinct in Singapore.

See also

External links

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