Malpighia emarginata

Malpighia emarginata
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Malpighiales
Family: Malpighiaceae
Genus: Malpighia
Species: M. emarginata
Binomial name
Malpighia emarginata
DC.
Synonyms

Malpighia biflora Poir.
Malpighia glabra L.[1]
Malpighia punicifolia L.[2]
Malpighia retusa Benth.[3]

Malpighia emarginata is a tropical fruit-bearing shrub or small tree in the family Malpighiaceae. Common names include acerola, Barbados cherry, West Indian cherry[4] and wild crapemyrtle.[5] Acerola is native from Southern Mexico, Central and South America, but now being also grown as far North as Texas and in subtropical areas – Asia and India. It is known for being extremely rich in vitamin C although it also contains vitamins A, B1, B2 and B3 as well as carotenoids and bioflavonoids which provide very important nutritive value and a possible use as an antioxidant.[6] This vitamin C produced by the fruit is better absorbed by human organisms than synthetic ascorbic acid.[7]

Contents

Distribution

M. emarginata is originally from Yucatán can be found in the southernmost parts of the contiguous United States (southern Florida[3] and the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas),[8] Mexico, Central America, the Caribbean, and South America as far south as Peru and Minas Gerais in Brazil.[2][3] It is cultivated in the tropics and subtropics throughout the world, including the Canary Islands, Ghana, Ethiopia, Madagascar, Zanzibar, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, India, Java, Hawaii, and Australia.[9]

Adaptation

Acerola can be propagated by seed, cutting and other methods. M. emarginata prefers dry sandy soil and full sun and it’s very susceptible to cold (cannot endure temperature lower than 30⁰F). Because of its shallow roots, it has very low tolerance to winds.

Description

Acerola is an evergreen shrub or small tree with spreading branches on a short trunk. It is usually 2–3 m (6.6–9.8 ft) tall, but sometimes reaches 6 m (20 ft) in height.[10]

Leaves

The leaves are simple ovate-lanceolate, 2–8 cm (0.79–3.1 in) long, 1–4 cm (0.39–1.6 in), and are attached to short petioles. They are opposite, ovate to elliptic-lanceolate, and have entire or undulating marginswith small hairs, which can irritate skin.

Flowers

Flowers are bisexual and 1–2 cm (0.39–0.79 in) in diameter. They have five[10] pale to deep pink or red[11] fringed petals, ten stamens, and six to ten glands on the calyx. There are three to five flowers per inflorescence, which are sessile or short-peduncled axillary cymes.[10]

Fruit

The fruit is a bright red drupe 1–3 cm (0.39–1.2 in) in diameter with a mass of 3–5 g (0.11–0.18 oz). Drupes are in pairs or groups of three, and each contains three triangular seeds. The drupes are juicy and very high in vitamin C(3-46g kg-1)[12] and other nutrients. They are divided into three obscure lobes and are usually acid to subacid, giving them a sour taste,[10] but may be sweet if grown well.[13] While the nutrient composition depends on the species and environmental conditions, the most common components of acerola and their concentration range are as follow: proteins (2.1-8g), lipids (2.3-8g), carbohydrates (35.7-78g), calcium (117 mg), phosphor (171 mg), iron (2.4 mg), pyridoxine (87 mg), riboflavin (0.7 mg), thiamine (0.2 mg), water (906-920g) and dietic fibre (30g)[6]

Uses

As food

Close-up on the blossom and unripe fruits

The fruit is edible and widely consumed in the species' native area, and is cultivated elsewhere for its high vitamin C content. There are 1677.6 mg of vitamin C in 100 g of fruit.[4]

  • Fruit can be used to make juices and pulps, both very rich in vitamin C and antioxidants;
  • Acerola fruit can be used to produce vitamin C concentrate;[7]
  • Baby food and juice[14]

A comparative analysis of antioxidant potency among a variety of frozen juice pulps was carried out, including the acerola fruit. Among the eleven fruits' pulps tested, acerola was the highest-scoring domestic fruit, meaning it had the most antioxidant potency, with a TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant activity) score of 53.2 mmol g.[15]

Absolut Vodka released Absolut Los Angeles, a limited-edition spirit flavored with acerola, açai, pomegranate, and blueberry, in July 2008.[16]

Chiquita's Strawberry-Banana C-Optima drink, sold in 4-packs of 125ml apiece in Belgium and Germany, advertises on its lid that it contains 3 acerolas and 200 mg of Vitamin C.

Other uses

Acerola is a popular bonsai subject because of its small leaf, fruit and fine ramification. It is also grown as an ornamental[17] and for hedges.[9]

Malpighia glabra is one of three ingredients in a propriety herbal medicine for allergic rhinitis.[18]

Ecology

M. emarginata is a host plant for the caterpillars of the white-patched skipper (Chiomara asychis),[19] Florida duskywing (Ephyriades brunneus),[20] and brown-banded skipper (Timochares ruptifasciatus).[21] Larvae of the acerola weevil (Anthonomus macromalus) feed on the fruits, while adults consume young leaves.[22]

References

  1. ^ Janick, Jules; Robert E. Paull (2008). The Encyclopedia of Fruit & Nuts. CABI. p. 462. ISBN 9780851996387. http://books.google.com/books?id=cjHCoMQNkcgC. 
  2. ^ a b "Malpighia glabra L.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 2007-02-11. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?23206. Retrieved 2009-12-16. 
  3. ^ a b c "Malpighia emarginata DC.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 1998-05-18. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?404858. Retrieved 2010-02-02. 
  4. ^ a b Johnson, Paul D. (2003). "Acerola (Malpighia glabra L., M. punicifolia M. emarginata DC.) Agriculture, Production, and Nutrition". In Artemis P. Simopoulos; C. Gopalan. Plants in Human Health and Nutrition Policy. 91. Karger Publishers. pp. 63–74. ISBN 9783805575546. http://books.google.com/books?id=ZVSh_u7KxQIC&source=gbs_navlinks_s. 
  5. ^ "Malpighia glabra L. wild crapemyrtle". PLANTS Database. United States Department of Agriculture. http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=MAGL6. Retrieved 2009-10-17. 
  6. ^ a b Mezadri T, Villan˜o M, Fernandez-Pachon M, Garcia-Parrilla M, Troncoso A (2008). "Antioxidant compounds and antioxidant activity in acerola(Malpighia emarginata DC.) fruits and derivatives". Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 21 (4): 282–290. 
  7. ^ a b De Assis S, Fernandes F, Martins A, Oliveira O (2008). "Acerola: importance, culture, conditions, production and biochemical aspects". Fruits 63: 93–101. 
  8. ^ "Barbados Cherry, Mexican Myrtle, Manzanita, Cerez, Huacacote, Wild Crepe Myrtle, Manyonita, Cerezo de Jamaica, Cerezo de Castillo, Pallo de Gallina, Escobillo, Chia, Arrayncito, Xocat, Xocatatl Malpighia glabra". Benny Simpson's Texas Native Shrubs. Texas A&M University. http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/ornamentals/nativeshrubs/malpighiaglabra.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-15. 
  9. ^ a b Hanelt, Peter (2001). Mansfeld's Encyclopedia of Agricultural and Horticultural Crops (Except Ornamentals). Springer. pp. 1127–1128. ISBN 9783540410171. http://books.google.com/books?id=10IMFSavIMsC. 
  10. ^ a b c d "Malpighia glabra L. Malpighiaceae" (PDF). Agroforestree Database 4.0. World Agroforestry Centre. 2009. http://www.worldagroforestry.org/af/treedb/AFTPDFS/Malpighia_glabra.pdf. Retrieved 2009-12-16. 
  11. ^ National Geographic (2008). Edible: An Illustrated Guide to the World's Food Plants. National Geographic Books. p. 106. ISBN 9781426203725. http://books.google.com/books?id=HORIzBx17DYC. 
  12. ^ Vendramini T, Tugo L (2000). "Chemical Composition of acerola fruit (Malpighia punicifolia L.) at three stage of maturity". The Food Chemistry 71: 195–198. 
  13. ^ Nugent, Jeff; Julia Boniface (2004). Permaculture Plants: a Selection (2 ed.). Chelsea Green Publishing. p. 63. ISBN 9781856230292. http://books.google.com/books?id=40n-Z_8ihZMC. 
  14. ^ Clein N (1956). "Acerola juice—The richest known source of Vitamin C: A clinical study in infants". The Journal of pediatrics 48 (2): 140–145. 
  15. ^ Kuskoski EM, Asuero AG, Morales MT, Fett R (2006). "Wild fruits and pulps of frozen fruits: antioxidant activity, polyphenols and anthocyanins". Cienc Rural 36 (4 (July/Aug)). http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-84782006000400037&lng=en&nrm=iso. 
  16. ^ "Absolut unveils Los Angeles ‘flavour’". POPSOP.com. 2008-07-24. http://popsop.com/2330. 
  17. ^ Gillman, Edward F. (October 1999). "Malpighia glabra". Cooperative Extension Services Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. University of Florida. http://hort.ifas.ufl.edu/shrubs/MALGLAA.PDF. Retrieved 2009-12-16. [dead link]
  18. ^ Corren J, Lemay M, Lin Y, Rozga L, Randolph RK.,"Clinical and biochemical effects of a combination botanical product (ClearGuardTM) for allergy: a pilot randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial." Nutr J. 2008 Jul 14;7(1):20
  19. ^ "White-patched Skipper Chiomara georgina (Reakirt, 1868)". Butterflies and Moths of North America. http://www.butterfliesandmoths.org/species?l=1987&chosen_state=MX*Mexico. Retrieved 2010-03-30. 
  20. ^ "Florida Duskywing Ephyriades brunnea (Herrich-Schäffer, 1865)". Butterflies and Moths of North America. http://www.butterfliesandmoths.org/species?l=1990. Retrieved 2010-03-30. 
  21. ^ "Brown-banded Skipper Timochares ruptifasciata (Plötz, 1884)". Butterflies and Moths of North America. http://www.butterfliesandmoths.org/species?l=1986. Retrieved 2010-03-30. 
  22. ^ Ooi, P.A.C.; A. Winotai; Jorge E. Peña (2002). "Pests of Minor Tropical Fruits". In Jorge E. Peña; Jennifer L. Sharp; M. Wysoki. Tropical Fruit Pests and Pollinators: Biology, Economic Importance, Natural Enemies, and Control. CABI. p. 326. ISBN 9780851994345. http://books.google.com/books?id=t_BSs0hrAPAC&. 

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Malpighia emarginata —   Acerola Malphigia emarginata …   Wikipedia Español

  • Malpighia emarginata — kraštuotoji malpigija statusas T sritis vardynas apibrėžtis Malpigijinių šeimos maistinis, vaisinis, vaistinis augalas (Malpighia emarginata), paplitęs Centrinėje ir Pietų Amerikoje. atitikmenys: lot. Malpighia emarginata; Malpighia glabra;… …   Lithuanian dictionary (lietuvių žodynas)

  • Malpighia emarginata — ID 51432 Symbol Key MAEM Common Name Barbados cherry Family Malpighiaceae Category Dicot Division Magnoliophyta US Nativity Introduced to U.S. US/NA Plant Yes State Distribution FL, PR, VI Growth Habit Tree, Shrub …   USDA Plant Characteristics

  • Malpighia emarginata Sessé & Moc. ex DC. — Symbol MAEM Common Name Barbados cherry Botanical Family Malpighiaceae …   Scientific plant list

  • Malpighia — M. emarginata Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae …   Wikipedia

  • Malpighia — Malpighia …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Malpighia glabra — kraštuotoji malpigija statusas T sritis vardynas apibrėžtis Malpigijinių šeimos maistinis, vaisinis, vaistinis augalas (Malpighia emarginata), paplitęs Centrinėje ir Pietų Amerikoje. atitikmenys: lot. Malpighia emarginata; Malpighia glabra;… …   Lithuanian dictionary (lietuvių žodynas)

  • Malpighia punicifolia — kraštuotoji malpigija statusas T sritis vardynas apibrėžtis Malpigijinių šeimos maistinis, vaisinis, vaistinis augalas (Malpighia emarginata), paplitęs Centrinėje ir Pietų Amerikoje. atitikmenys: lot. Malpighia emarginata; Malpighia glabra;… …   Lithuanian dictionary (lietuvių žodynas)

  • Malpighia retusa — kraštuotoji malpigija statusas T sritis vardynas apibrėžtis Malpigijinių šeimos maistinis, vaisinis, vaistinis augalas (Malpighia emarginata), paplitęs Centrinėje ir Pietų Amerikoje. atitikmenys: lot. Malpighia emarginata; Malpighia glabra;… …   Lithuanian dictionary (lietuvių žodynas)

  • Malpighia — Malpighia …   Wikipédia en Français


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