- Magnus, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Magnus (died 1369), called the Pious (Latin Pius), was duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg.
The son of Albert the Fat, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Magnus was still a minor when his father died in 1318; he and his brother Ernest were put under the guardianship of their elder brother Otto, who continued as sole ruler even after his brothers came of age. After marrying Sophie, a niece of Louis IV, Holy Roman Emperor, Magnus was appointed margrave of Landsberg and count palatine of Saxony by the Emperor in 1333. Magnus took residence at Sangerhausen. When Otto died in 1344, Magnus and Ernest jointly took over government of the state; but already on 17 April 1345, they agreed to divide the territory. Magnus received the Principality of Wolfenbüttel.
In 1346, a border war between Wolfenbüttel and the Archbishop of Magdeburg broke out. In exchange for help in this conflict, Magnus sold the Margraviate of Landsberg to Frederick II, Margrave of Meißen. But the Archbishop conquered Schöningen in 1347, and Magnus had to cede Hötensleben and some other possessions to the Archbishop. Financially ruined by the war, Magnus could not stop the cities in the state from acquiring more and more rights; especially the City of Brunswick was becoming more powerful.
In 1348, the Emperor gave Landsberg and the Palatinate of Saxony to Bernard, Prince of Anhalt. The ensuing conflict over these territories between Magnus and Bernard ended amicably with a marriage between Magnus' son Magnus and Catherine, daughter of Valdemar, Prince of Anhalt.
Magnus attempted to secure the Principality of Lüneburg for his son Louis, so that it could be reunited with Wolfenbüttel. The prince of Lüneburg, William II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, a member of the same house to which Magnus belonged, the House of Welf, did not have sons; however, he had already promised the principality to a son of his daughter, a relative of the Duke of Saxony, before he agreed to Magnus' plan. Louis then married William's daughter Matilda. A lengthy conflict broke out that culminated in the Lüneburg Succession War, which was resolved only in 1388.
In 1367, Magnus joined Dietrich, Archbishop of Magdeburg, Albert, Bishop of Halberstadt, Valdemar, Prince of Anhalt, and others in a campaign against Gerhard of Berg, Bishop of Hildesheim; they were defeated by Hildesheim in a battle near Farmsen and Dinklar on 3 September. Magnus was taken prisoner, and had to buy his freedom. He died in Summer of 1369.
Around 1327, Magnus married Sophie (died 1356), daughter of Henry I, Margrave of Brandenburg. They had the following children that reached adulthood:
- Magnus (died 1373)
- Louis (died 1367)
- Albert, Prince-Archbishop of Bremen (died 1395)
- Henry, Provost of Halberstadt Cathedral
- Matilda, married Bernard III, Prince of Anhalt
- Helen, married Otto, Count of Hoya
- Agnes, married Eric, Count of Hoya
Ancestors of Magnus, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg 16. William of Winchester, Lord of Lüneburg 8. Otto I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg 17. Helena of Denmark 4. Albert I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg 18. Albert II, Margrave of Brandenburg 9. Matilda of Brandenburg 19. Matilda of Lusatia 2. Henry I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg 20. William VI, Marquess of Montferrat 10. Boniface II, Marquess of Montferrat 21. Berta di Clavesana 5. Adelheid of Montferrat 22. Amadeus IV, Count of Savoy 11. Margaret of Savoy 23. Anne of Burgundy 1. Magnus the Pious, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg 24. Henry Borwin II of Mecklenburg 12. Nicholas I, Prince of Mecklenburg-Werle 25. Kristina of Sweden 6. Henry I, Prince of Mecklenburg-Güstrow 26. Henry I, Count of Anhalt 13. Jutta of Anhalt 27. Irmgard of Thuringia 3. Rixa of Mecklenburg-Werle 28. Magnus Minnesköld 14. Birger Jarl 29. Ingrid Ylva 7. Rikissa Birgersdotter 30. Eric X of Sweden 15. Ingeborg Eriksdotter of Sweden 31. Richeza of Denmark
Magnus Pious, Duke of Brunswick and LunenburgCadet branch of the House of EsteBorn: 1304 Died: 1369
- Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, vol. 20, p. 62-64
- Zedlers Universal-Lexicon, vol. 19, p. 240-241
- at the House of Welf site
Regnal titles Preceded by
Otto the Mild
Duke of Brunswick and Lunenburg
Prince of Wolfenbüttel
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