Dutch profanity

Dutch profanity can be divided into several categories. Often, the words used in profanity are based around various names for diseases. In many cases, these words have evolved into slang, and many euphemisms for diseases are in common use.[1]

Additionally, a substantial amount of curse words in the Dutch language are references to sexual acts, genitalia, or bodily functions. Religious curse words also make up a considerable part of the Dutch profanity vocabulary. Aside from these categories, the Dutch language has many words that are only used to describe animals; these words are insulting when used to describe people. English terms often complement the Dutch vocabulary, and several English curse words are commonly in use.

Because of the prominence of the diminutive in the Dutch language, most nouns used in Dutch profanity can also be said or written in their diminutive forms.

Contents

Profanity related to illness and disability

achterlijk Achterlijk (literally: "retarded") is an offensive term for the mentally handicapped. A humorous variation, "achterlijke gladiool" (literally: "retarded gladiolus"), was first lexicalized in 1984.[2]
debiel Debiel is an offensive term for the mentally handicapped. It is commonly used as an insult.
idioot Idioot means "idiot".
kanker Kanker means "cancer". It can be used as a strong expletive, as an adjective or as an adverb. Krijg de kanker ("get the cancer") is used as an insult. Some youth use it as either a positive or negative exaggeration, for example Kanker lekker ("extremely good tasting"). The word is sometimes shortened to its historical euphemism K.[3]
kankeren Kankeren (literally: "to cancer") is a verb, and means "to complain excessively".
kankerlijer Kankerlijer means "cancer sufferer". It is a strong insult: an example of its legal status can be found in a 2008 court case, in which using the word kankerlijer to insult a police officer was cited as a serious offense.[4]
klere Klere is a slang word for cholera. It can be used as an expletive, as an adjective or as an adverb. Kolere is a common variation.
klerelijer Klerelijer is a slang word meaning "cholera sufferer". It is used an as insult, and roughly analogous to "asshole".
kolere Kolere is a slang word for cholera. It can be used as an expletive, as an adjective or as an adverb. Klere is a common variation.
krijg de... To wish a disease upon someone, the words krijg de... ("catch the...", "get the...", "contract the...") are typically used. Examples include krijg de tering, krijg de tyfus, krijg de kanker, krijg de pest, krijg de takke, krijg de klere, krijg het lazarus and the more euphemistic (but more old-fashioned) krijg de ziekte. In standard Dutch, the article is superfluous or incorrect in these phrases, and consequently "de" and "het" are only paired with disease names in context of profanity.
lazarus Lazarus is a euphemism for leprosy. Krijg het lazarus ("catch the leprosy") is uncommonly used as an insult.[5] More common is the expression "zich het lazarus zuipen" ("to excessively drink oneself [into] leprosy"). Consequently, the expression "he or she is lazarus" has come to mean "he or she is drunk".
mongool Mongool ("mongoloid") is a common insult. It is an offensive term used to describe Down syndrome. Its diminutive mongooltje is often used as a somewhat more neutral or affectionate term for people with Down syndrome, although it is not considered politically correct. Kankermongool ("cancer-mongoloid") is a common variation: see kanker.
lijer Lijer (literally: "sufferer") is a noun and suffix. It is correctly spelled "lijder", but the "d" becomes silent in slang. It is used both as a standalone insult and in combination with diseases, such as kankerlijer, pleurislijer, pokke(n)lijer, takkelijer, teringlijer and tyfuslijer.
pest Pest (literally: "plague", compare "pestilence") can be used as an adjective or as an adverb. The verb pesten means "to bully" (whereas the etymologically related "plagen" means "to tease"). "De pest in hebben" ("to have the plague in") means "to be irritated". The word is sometimes shortened to its historical euphemism P.
pestkop Literally meaning "plague head", the word pestkop is used to describe someone who engages in bullying. See pest and kop.
pleur(it)is Pleuris, or less commonly pleuritis, is a slang word for tuberculosis (compare tering), originally referring to any form of lung infection. It can be used as an expletive, as an adjective or as an adverb. Krijg de pleuris ("catch the tuberculosis") is also commonly used. As with tering, the phrase "alles ging naar de pleuris" ("everything went to the tuberculosis", analogous to "everything went to hell") is commonly used. As a verb, the word oppleuren (literally "to tuberculosis off") can mean "to fuck off" (compare optiefen under tyfus).
pleurislijer Pleurislijer is a slang word meaning "tuberculosis sufferer". It is used an as insult, and roughly analogous to "asshole".
polio Polio is uncommon as a curse word, and is mostly heard in the phrase "heb je soms polio?" ("do you have polio or something?"), which can be used to insult someone's perceived laziness. The Genootschap Onze Taal (Dutch Language Society) has recently noted a rise in the use of polio as an expletive and adjective in the Rotterdam area, and describes it as a possible alternative to the more severe kanker.[6]
pokke(n) Pokke(n) (correctly spelled "pokken"; however, the "n" after a schwa is silent in standard Dutch, which affects the spelling of slang words) is a slang word for smallpox. It can be used as an adjective or as an adverb.
pokke(n)lijer Pokke(n)lijer is a slang word meaning "smallpox sufferer". It is used an as insult, and roughly analogous to "asshole".
stom Stom (literally: "unintelligent", "dumb", "mute") can be used an intensifier when using curse words. Examples are "stomme hoer" ("dumb whore") and "stomme kut" ("dumb cunt").
takke Takke (from the French "attaque") is a slang word for stroke.[7] It can be used an adjective or as an adverb. Krijg de takke ("have the stroke") is used as an insult. A common variation is takkewijf ("stroke woman"): see also wijf.
tering Tering is a slang word for tuberculosis. It is short voor "vertering" (literally: "digestion"; compare English "consumption"). It can be used as an expletive, as an adjective or as an adverb. Vliegende tering ("flying tuberculosis") is a humorous variation, originally referring to sudden-onset tuberculosis. Krijg de tering ("catch the tuberculosis") is used as an insult. Other words for tuberculosis include TB and TBC, which were historically used as euphemisms, owing to the fact that names of diseases were considered profane.[8][9] As with pleuris, the phrase "alles ging naar de tering" ("everything went to the tuberculosis", analogous to "everything went to hell") is commonly used.
teringlijer Teringlijer is a slang word meaning "tuberculosis sufferer". It is used an as insult, and roughly analogous to "asshole".
tyfus Tyfus is a word for typhoid fever. It can be used as an expletive, as an adjective or as an adverb. Krijg de tyfus ("catch the typhoid fever") is used as an insult. The variation optiefen ("to typhoid off") is analogous to "fuck off" (compare oppleuren under pleuris). Sanders and Tempelaars (1998) note tiefttering ("typhoid tuberculosis") as a variation common in Rotterdam.[10]
tyfuslijer Tyfuslijer is a slang word meaning "typhoid fever sufferer". It is used an as insult, and roughly analogous to "asshole".
vinkentering Vinkentering (literally: "finch tuberculosis") is noted by Sanders and Tempelaars (1998) as an expression that is typical in the Rotterdam vocabulary. A noted humorous variation is krijg de (vliegende) vinkentering ("catch the (flying) finch tuberculosis").[11] See also tering.
ziekte Ziekte (literally: "sickness", "illness" or "disease") is used in the expression krijg de ziekte ("catch the disease"). It is a euphemism that can be used for various afflictions. Older variations include "drinken als de ziekte" ("drinking like the disease") and "lui als de ziekte" ("as lazy as the disease").

Profanity related to religion

gatverdamme A softened version of godverdomme, gatverdamme is used to express disgust. It is often shortened to gatver.
getverderrie A softened version of godverdomme, getverderrie is used to express disgust. It is often shortened to getver.
godverdomme Literally meaning "God damn it", godverdomme is a shortened version of the subjunctive phrase "God verdoeme het" ("may God damn it"). Verdomme ("damn") is a common variation.
hel Hel ("hell") is not typically used in Dutch profanity. The word can be seen in some expressions, including "loop naar de hel" (literally: "walk to hell", analogous to "go to hell") and the archaic helleveeg ("evil woman from hell").
jeetje Jeetje is a softened, diminutive version of the name of Jesus Christ. It is roughly analogous to "jeez".
Jezus Christus Jezus Christus is the Dutch name of Jesus Christ.
verdomme Literally meaning "God damn it", godverdomme is a shortened version of "God verdoeme het" ("may God damn it"). Verdomme ("damn") is a common variation.
verdorie Verdorie is a softer variation of verdomme.

Profanity related to sexuality, the human body, and animals

bek Bek ("animal mouth") is most commonly used in the phrase "houd je bek" ("shut your mouth"). Compare kop and muil.
bitch Bitch is an English loan word. Its Dutch equivalent is teef.
chips Chips is a softer version of shit, an English loan word.
eikel Eikel (literally: "acorn") is a neutral word used to describe the male glans (originally a Latin word also meaning "acorn"). As an insult, it's comparable to the English word "dickhead" when used to describe a person.
flikker Flikker is analogous to faggot.
fok Fok (literally: the first person singular of "to breed") is used as a variation of the English loan word fuck. It is also in use in the Afrikaans language. The Dutch news site and virtual community FOK! uses this word as its name.
fuck An English loan word, fuck is a common expletive. Its adjective "fucking" is also commonly in use. The word is productive in Dutch: a standard variation is "fucken met" ("to fuck with").
hoer Hoer is the Dutch word for whore.
homo Homo is the politically correct term to describe a homosexual man (or sometimes woman).[12] Depending on context, it can also be used as an insult.
huppelkut Huppelkut (literally: "skipping cunt") can be used to insult a woman's perceived shallowness. The word was first used by stand-up comedian Youp van 't Hek.[13] The diminutive form huppelkutje is most commonly in use. It can be seen as a comedic variation of the noun kut.
kak Kak means "crap". Although it is no longer commonly used in profanity, it is still used as a social slur (see kakker).
kattenkop Kattenkop (literally: "cat's head") is a mild insult commonly aimed at young girls, and describes a mean or crass character. Compare kop. The related adjective and adverb kattig is equivalent to the English "catty".
klootzak Klootzak (literally: "orb sack") is a word used to describe the testicles, and is a common insult. It's comparable to the English word "asshole" when used to describe a person. See also zak.
klote Klote (correctly spelled "kloten"; however, the "n" after a schwa is silent in standard Dutch, which affects the spelling of slang words) is a word commonly used to describe the testicles. It can be used as an expletive, as an adjective or as an adverb. Several common expressions use the word klote, such as "ik voel me klote" ("I feel balls" - "I don't feel good"), "het examen ging klote" ("the exam went balls" - "the exam went badly") and "het weer is klote" ("the weather is balls" - "the weather is bad"). Compare kut.
kop Kop ("animal head") is most commonly used in the phrase "houd je kop" ("shut your mouth"). Compare bek and muil.
kreng Kreng (literally: "cadaver") is a common insult aimed at women, and describes a mean or crass character.
kut Kut is a word commonly used to describe the vagina. It is commonly used as a curse word. It can be used as an expletive, as an adjective or as an adverb. Several common expressions use the word kut, such as "ik voel me kut" ("I feel cunt" - "I don't feel good"), "het examen ging kut" ("the exam went cunt" - "the exam went badly") and "het weer is kut" ("the weather is cunt" - "the weather is bad"). Compare klote. Its common idiomatic use in the phrase "wat kut voor je" ("how cunt for you") expresses roughly the same sentiment as the English "I'm sorry to hear that", albeit in a somewhat profane way. When used as a noun to describe a woman, the meaning of kut is analogous to the American English severity of the word cunt. (Huppelkut is a common comedic variation of this use.)
lul Lul is a word commonly used to describe the penis. It is used as a insult, and is roughly analogous to the English "dick" when describing a person.
lullen Lullen (literally: "to dick") is a verb, meaning "to talk pointlessly". It is somewhat analogous to the English phrase "to dick around". Compare ouwehoeren.
mierenneuken Mierenneuken (literally: "ant fucking") is analogous to "nitpicking". It is considered less offensive than the standalone word neuken.
muil Muil ("large animal mouth") is most commonly used in the phrase "houd je muil" ("shut your mouth"). Compare bek and kop.
neuken Neuken literally means "to fuck". It can be used neutrally, as an intimate or romantic term, or as a form of profanity.
neukertje Neukertje is a diminutive noun derived from the word neuken ("to fuck"). It can be used to describe a person that the speaker is sexually involved with. It can be either used as a term of affection, or as an insult, depending on context.
nicht Nicht (literally: "female cousin" or "niece") can be used to mean "queer" (noun) or "fairy", to describe a homosexual man. It is commonly used within the LGBT community as a term of endearment or self-description. Its adjective and adverb are nichterig.
ouwehoeren Ouwehoeren (literally: "to old whore") is a verb, meaning "to talk pointlessly". See also hoer, compare lullen.
pissig Pissig (literally: "pissy") can mean "pissed off", "angry".
poep Poep means "poop". Its diminutive poepje (or poepie) is used as a term of endearment comparable to "sweetie", and is not considered profane. In Flemish, a language mutually intelligable with Dutch, the verb poepen instead means "to fuck". The noun poep is the Flemish term for "buttocks". In the Northern provinces of the Netherlands, poep is also used as an ethnic slur to describe German people.
poes Poes (literally: "puss", "cat") is a word sometimes used to describe the vagina. Its diminutive poesje ("pussy") is also used.
poot Poot ("animal leg/foot") is a crude word that can be used to describe someone's legs or feet in a rude way. It can also mean "homosexual man".
pot Pot can mean "homosexual woman". It is somewhat more reappropriated than poot, and consequently analogous to dyke.
teef Teef means "bitch". Like in English, the word can either be a neutral term for a female dog, or a strong insult aimed at women.
trut Trut is a common insult aimed at women. It was originally a slang word for vagina.[14] It is significantly milder than kut.
tut Tut is a common mild insult aimed at women. It is a softer form of trut. Its diminutive tutje is also common, as is the variation tuthola.
reet Reet (literally: "gash", "tear") is a word used to describe the intergluteal cleft. It's used in a number of common expressions, such as "ik vind er geen reet aan" ("it doesn't interest me at all", literally: "I find no asscrack on it"), "het interessert me geen reet" ("it doesn't interest me one bit", literally: "it interests me no asscrack") and "ik snap er geen reet van" ("I don't understand it one bit", literally: "I understand no asscrack of it"). Compare zak.
rot- The particle rot- can be used as an adjective when combined with a noun, and is commonly used in words such as "rothond" ("rotten dog"), "rotjoch" ("rotten kid") and "rotweer" ("rotten weather").
rotzak Literally meaning "rotten sack" or "rotten testicles", rotzak can be used as an insult, roughly analogous to "asshole". Compare zak, klootzak.
schijt Schijt means "shit". It's not used as an exclamation, but can be used as part of some common expressions: for example, schijtluis (literally: "shit louse") means "coward". See also stront.
shit An English loan word, shit is a common expletive. It is commonly softened to chips.
slet Slet (literally: "rag") is the Dutch word for slut. The diminutive sletje is also commonly in use.
slons Slons (literally: "rag") is a Dutch word comparable to slut, and can also be used to describe a woman whose appearance is untidy. Its adjective "slonzig" additionally corresponds to the English word "sluttish" and the German word "schlampig" in its double meaning of "sexually promiscuous" and "negligent".
stront Stront means "shit". It's not used as an exclamation, but can be used an adjective (for example, "strontjoch", which translates to "shit kid"), or as a part of fixed expressions such as "zak in de stront" ("sink into shit"). Unlike "shit", the word can also be used neutrally. See also schijt.
zak Zak (literally: "sack") is a word used to describe the testicles, and is a common insult. It's comparable to the English word "jerk" when used to describe a person. Additionally, it's used in a number of common expressions, such as "ik vind er geen zak aan" ("it doesn't interest me at all", literally: "I find no sack on it"), "het interessert me geen zak" ("it doesn't interest me one bit", literally: "it interests me no sack") and "ik snap er geen zak van" ("I don't understand it one bit", literally: "I understand no sack of it"). Compare reet.

Profanity related to ethnic slurs and social slurs

bosneger Bosneger (literally: "forest nigger") is an ethnic slur, to describe niggers from the jungle.
geitenneuker Geitenneuker (literally: "goat fucker") is an ethnic slur, and is used to describe people of Middle Eastern descent. See also neuken.
kakker Kakker (literally: "crapper") is social slur, referring to people of higher social standing than the speaker. Its variation "kouwe kak" (literally: "cold crap") can be used to mock someone's wealth or upper-class mannerisms. See also kak.
kut-Marokkaan Kut-Marokkaan (literally: "cunt-Moroccan") is an ethnic slur aimed at people from Morocco. It was first publicly used by municipality executive Rob Oudkerk, who was not aware that he was being recorded.[15] It has since been added to the Van Dale dictionary.[16] See also kut.
lijp Lijp originated as a slur to describe Jewish people, being based on the surname Levi.[17] Later on, it came to mean "slow", "dumb", "sluggish". More recently, the word has also come to mean "cool", interesting" in youth slang.
Mocro Mocro is an ethnic slur, and is used to describe people of Moroccan descent. It has largely been reappropriated.
mof Mof is an ethnic slur, and is used to describe people of German descent. It was first noted in 1574.[18] During World War II, the word became more common. In the northern parts of the Netherlands, the word poep is used instead. A variation is moffenhoer, used to describe a woman who was sexually or romantically involved with a proponent of National Socialism (see also hoer).
neger Neger is analogous to nigger, negro, or the more neutral black person, depending on context. It has largely been reappropriated.
nikker Nikker is analogous to nigger. However, unlike "nigger", it has never been reappropriated.
pauper Pauper is a social slur, referring to people of low social standing. Although it is no longer in common use, the word is popular in Leiden student slang as a noun and as an adverb or adjective, and can be used to mean "trashy, gaudy".
rapalje / rapaille Rapalje / rapaille (originally French) is a pejorative term for lower classes. It is no longer commonly in use, but has recently gained some prominence as the name of the band Rapalje.
roetmop Roetmop (literally: "soot mop") is an ethnic slur. It is used to describe black people.
spaghettivreter Spaghettivreter (literally: "spaghetti eater", using the crude word for "eater") is an insulting term used to describe people of Italian descent. It can be compared to wop.
spleetoog Spleetoog (literally: "slit eye") is an insulting term used to describe people of East Asian descent.
zandneger Zandneger (literally: "sand nigger") is an ethnic slur, and is used to describe people of Middle Eastern descent.

Miscellaneous profanity

smeerlap Smeerlap (literally: "grease rag") can be used to mean "pervert".
sukkel Sukkel is a relatively mild insult, typically aimed at boys and men. The meaning of this word can be compared to "wimp", "dork", or "schlemiel". It was originally Frysian.
sul Sul is a relatively mild insult, typically aimed at boys and men. The meaning of this word can be compared to "wimp", "dork", or "schlemiel". Its etymology is unclear.
vreten Vreten is a rude form of the noun "to eat". It is often used in combination with other words, such as in spaghettivreter.
vuil Vuil means "filth" or "filthy". It can be used to intensify an insult, for example in the common expression "vuile tyfushoer" ("filthy typhoid whore"). "Stuk vuil" ("piece of filth") is also in use, although it is less common.
wijf Wijf is a common insult aimed at women. It originally simply meant "woman" (compare English "wife"). It can easily be combined with other curse words, leading to common forms such as kutwijf, kankerwijf and rotwijf.
zooi Zooi and its diminutive zooitje mean "mess". It can be used to intensify an expletive, for example in the common expressions teringzooi and kankerzooi. The variation rotzooi(tje) (literally: "rotten mess"), however, is fairly neutral and not commonly seen as profanity. Sanders and Tempelaars (1998) additionally note the use of krijg de kankerzooi ("get the cancer-mess").[19]


See also

References

  1. ^ Mieke van Baarsel (2003). "De tragiek van de tering". KennisLink. University of Leiden, Leids Universitair Medisch Centrum (LUMC). http://www.kennislink.nl/publicaties/de-tragiek-van-de-tering. Retrieved 11 July 2011. 
  2. ^ Laps, Kristiaan (1984). Nationaal Scheldwoordenboek: Schelden van Schelde tot Terschelling.. Amsterdam: Ploegsma. 
  3. ^ Sanders, Ewoud; Rob Tempelaars (1998). Krijg de vinkentering! 1001 hedendaagse Vlaamse en Nederlandse verwensingen. Amsterdam: Contact. 
  4. ^ {{{litigants}}} (Rechtbank Zutphen 2008). Text
  5. ^ Sanders, Ewoud; Rob Tempelaars (1998). Krijg de vinkentering! 1001 hedendaagse Vlaamse en Nederlandse verwensingen. Amsterdam: Contact. 
  6. ^ "Schelden en vloeken". Taaladviesdienst Onze Taal (Language Advice Service of the Dutch Language Society). March 20, 2008. http://taal.web-log.nl/taaladviesdienst/schelden_en_vloeken. Retrieved 11 July 2011. 
  7. ^ Sanders, Ewoud; Rob Tempelaars (1998). Krijg de vinkentering! 1001 hedendaagse Vlaamse en Nederlandse verwensingen. Amsterdam: Contact. 
  8. ^ Sanders, Ewoud; Rob Tempelaars (1998). Krijg de vinkentering! 1001 hedendaagse Vlaamse en Nederlandse verwensingen. Amsterdam: Contact. 
  9. ^ Mieke van Baarsel (2003). "De tragiek van de tering". KennisLink. University of Leiden, Leids Universitair Medisch Centrum (LUMC). http://www.kennislink.nl/publicaties/de-tragiek-van-de-tering. Retrieved 11 July 2011. 
  10. ^ Sanders, Ewoud; Rob Tempelaars (1998). Krijg de vinkentering! 1001 hedendaagse Vlaamse en Nederlandse verwensingen. Amsterdam: Contact. 
  11. ^ Sanders, Ewoud; Rob Tempelaars (1998). Krijg de vinkentering! 1001 hedendaagse Vlaamse en Nederlandse verwensingen. Amsterdam: Contact. 
  12. ^ Van Dalen, Frank; Marijke Steenbergen (2007). Beleidsvisie Homo-, lesbisch, biseksueel en transgenderbeleid: Visie van de Nederlandse homobeweging op de in het coalitieakkoord uitgezette lijn. Amsterdam: COC Nederland / MOVISIE. http://www.publiek.coc.nl/dossiers/politieke-lobby/Beleidsvisie-HLBT-2007.pdf. Retrieved 12 July 2011. 
  13. ^ "Youp van 't Hek Biografie". Muziekencyclopedie. Muziek Centrum Nederland. 2011. http://www.muziekencyclopedie.nl/action/entry/Youp+van+%27t+Hek. Retrieved 12 July 2011. 
  14. ^ Van Dale Groot woordenboek van de Nederlandse taal. Van Dale Uitgevers / VBK Media. 2005. ISBN 9789066481343. 
  15. ^ "PvdA voorman Rob Oudkerk spreekt van 'kut-Marokkanen'". Nu.nl. March 19, 2002. http://www.nu.nl/algemeen/32160/pvda-voorman-rob-oudkerk-spreekt-van-kut-marokkanen.html. Retrieved 11 July 2011. 
  16. ^ Van Dale Groot woordenboek van de Nederlandse taal. Van Dale Uitgevers / VBK Media. 2005. ISBN 9789066481343. 
  17. ^ Etymologisch woordenboek van het Nederlands. Amsterdam: AU. 2003-2009. http://www.etymologiebank.nl/trefwoord/lijp. Retrieved 13 July 2011. 
  18. ^ Ewoud Sanders (2003-05-22). "Mof". NRC Handelsblad. http://vorige.nrc.nl/krant/article1613201.ece/Mof. Retrieved 11 July 2011. 
  19. ^ Sanders, Ewoud; Rob Tempelaars (1998). Krijg de vinkentering! 1001 hedendaagse Vlaamse en Nederlandse verwensingen. Amsterdam: Contact. 

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