- Napoleon II
Napoleon II Emperor of the French Reign 22 June 1815 – 7 July 1815
Predecessor Napoleon I
as Emperor of the French; Napoleon II's succession was not officially proclaimed as the Bourbon Restoration was proclaimed immediately after the abdication of Napoleon I.
Successor Louis XVIII
as Bourbon king of France
Duke of Reichstadt Reign 1818-1821 Predecessor Ferdinand, Duke of Parma Successor Jean Jacques Régis de Cambacérès Full name Napoléon François Joseph Charles Bonaparte Father Napoleon I Mother Marie Louise, Duchess of Parma Born 20 March 1811
Tuileries Palace, Paris, France
Died 22 July 1832(aged 21)
Schönbrunn Palace, Vienna, Austria
Napoléon II (20 March 1811 – 22 July 1832), after 1818 known as Franz, Duke of Reichstadt, was the son of Napoleon I, Emperor of the French, and his second wife, Marie Louise of Austria. By Title III, article 9 of the French Constitution of the time, he was Prince Imperial, but he was also known from birth as the King of Rome which Napoleon I declared was the courtesy title of the heir-apparent. His father abdicated in his favour after the Battle of Waterloo, thereby transferring to him the title of Emperor of the French, in 1815. Although he never actually ruled France, he was the titular Emperor and he is still generally referred to by historians as Napoleon II.
Napoléon François Joseph Charles Bonaparte was born at the Tuileries Palace in Paris to Emperor Napoleon I and his second wife, Marie Louise of Austria in 1811. As Napoleon I's eldest legitimate son, he was already constitutionally Prince Imperial and heir-apparent, but the Emperor also gave his son the style "His Majesty the King of Rome". Three years later, the First French Empire, to which he was heir, collapsed. Napoleon wanted to abdicate the throne in favour of his toddler son, but the Allied Powers, at the insistence of the Emperor Alexander I of Russia, refused.
On 29 March 1814, accompanied by her suite, the empress left the Tuileries Palace with her son. Their first stop was the Château de Rambouillet; then, fearing the advancing enemy troops, they continued on to the Château de Blois. On 13 April, with her suite much diminished, Marie-Louise and the three-year-old King of Rome were back in Rambouillet where they met her father, the Emperor Francis II of Austria, and the Emperor Alexander I of Russia. On 23 April, escorted by an Austrian regiment, mother and son left Rambouillet and France forever, for their exile in Austria.
The day after Napoleon's abdication, a Commission of Government of five members took the rule of France, awaiting the return of King Louis XVIII, who was in Le Cateau-Cambrésis. The Commission held the power for two weeks, and it never summoned Napoleon II as emperor, and no regent was ever appointed. The entrance of the Allies into Paris on 7 July brought a rapid end to his supporters' wishes. Napoleon II, aged 4, was residing in Austria with his mother and was probably never aware at the time that he had been proclaimed Emperor on his father's abdication. The next Bonaparte to come to the throne of France (in 1852) took the name Napoleon III in deference to his cousin's titular reign.
Upon the death of his stepfather, Neipperg, and the revelation that his mother had borne two illegitimate children to him prior to her marriage, Franz said to his friend, Prokesch von Osten, "'If Josephine had been my mother, my father would not have been buried at Saint Helena, and I should not be at Vienna. My mother is kind but weak; she was not the wife my father deserved".
Disposition of his remains
On 15 December 1940, the remains of Napoléon II were transferred from Vienna to the dome of Les Invalides in Paris. This was done as a gift to France by the German dictator Adolf Hitler. The remains of Napoleon I had been returned to France in December 1840, at the time of the July Monarchy. For some time, the young prince who had briefly been an Emperor rested beside his father. Later the remains of the prince were moved to the lower church. While most of his remains were transferred to Paris, his heart and intestines remained in Vienna. They are in Urn 42 in the "Heart Crypt" (Herzgruft) and his viscera are in Urn 76 of the Ducal Crypt.
Napoléon II was also known as "The Eaglet" (L'Aiglon). Edmond Rostand wrote a play, L'Aiglon, about his life. Serbian composer Petar Stojanović composed the operetta Napoleon II: Herzog von Reichstadt, which premiered in Vienna in the 1920s. Arthur Honegger and Jacques Ibert collaborated on an opera, L'aiglon, which premiered in 1937. Pet Shop Boys used him as an emblem of loneliness amid wealth in their 2009 track "King of Rome," on their album Yes. The journalist Henri Rochefort joked Napoleon II, having never really governed, was France's best leader, since he brought no war, taxes or tyranny.
Ancestors of Napoleon II 16. Sebastiano Nicolo Buonaparte 8. Giuseppe Maria Buonaparte 17. Maria-Anna Tusilo di Bocognano 4. Carlo Buonaparte 18. Giuseppe Maria Paravicini 9. Maria-Saveria Paravicini 19. Maria-Angela Salineri 2. Napoleon I, Emperor of the French 20. Giovanni-Agostino Ramolino 10. Giovanni Geronimo Ramolino 21. Angela-Maria Peri 5. Letizia Ramolino 22. Giuseppe Pietrasanta 11. Angela Maria Pietrasanta 23. Maria-Giuseppe Malerba 1. Napoleon II, Emperor of the French 24. Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor 12. Leopold II, Holy Roman Emperor 25. Maria Theresa of Austria 6. Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor 26. Charles III of Spain 13. Maria Louisa of Spain 27. Maria Amalia of Saxony 3. Marie Louise of Austria 28. Charles III of Spain (= 26) 14. Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies 29. Maria Amalia of Saxony (= 27) 7. Maria Teresa of the Two Sicilies 30. Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor (= 24) 15. Marie Caroline of Austria 31. Maria Theresa of Austria (= 25)
- Welschinger, Le roi de Rome, 1811-32, (Paris, 1897)
- Wertheimer, The Duke of Reichstadt, (London, 1905)
- ^ http://www.nndb.com/people/345/000086087
- ^ G. Lenotre, le Château de Rambouillet, six siècles d'histoire, ch. L'empereur, Éditions Denoël, Paris, 1984 (1930 reedition), pp. 126-133, ISBN 2-207-23023-6.
- ^ Act of settlement of the Commission, June 23. (French)
- ^ Proclamation of the king, June 25. (French)
- ^ Markham, Felix, Napoleon, p. 249
- ^ Altman, Gail S. Fatal Links: The Curious Deaths of Beethoven and the Two Napoleons (Paperback). Anubian Press (September 1999). ISBN 1-888071-02-8
- ^ Poisson, Georges, (Robert L. Miller, translator), Hitler's Gift to France: The Return of the Ashes of Napoleon II, Enigma Books, ISBN 9781929631674, ISBN 1929631677 (Synopsis & Review by Maria C. Bagshaw).
- ^ Poisson, Georges, Le retour des cendres de l'Aiglon, Édition Nouveau Monde, Paris, 2006, ISBN : 2-847361847 (French)
- ^ Driskel, Paul (1993). As Befits a Legend. Kent State University Press. p. 168 ISBN 0873384849
- ^ Leo A. Loubere, Nineteenth-Century Europe: The Revolution of Life, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, p. 154.
Napoleon IIBorn: 20 March 1811 Died: 22 July 1832
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). "Napoleon II". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- Spencer Napoleonica Collection at Newberry Library
Titles in pretence Loss of title
— TITULAR —
Emperor of the French
22 June 1815 – 22 July 1832
French royalty Preceded by
Heir to the Throne
as Heir apparent
20 March 1811 — 11 April 1814
Charles, Count of Artois
Charles, Count of Artois
Heir to the Throne
as Heir apparent
20 March 1815 — 22 June 1815
List of French monarchs Detailed Family Tree • Simplified Family Tree Merovingians
(481–751)Clovis Ist (481–511) • Chlothar I (511–561) • Charibert I (561–567) • Guntram (561–593) • Chilperic I (561–584) • Sigebert I (561–575) • Chlothar II (584–629) • Dagobert I (629–639) • Sigebert II (639–656) • Clovis II (639–657) • Chlothar III (657–673) • Theuderic III (673–691) • Clovis III (691–695) • Childebert III (695–711) • Dagobert III (711–715) • Chilperic II (715–721) • Chlothar IV (717–719) • Thierry IV (721–737) • Childeric III (737–751)
(843–888, 898–922, 936–987)
House of Capet
(987–1328)Hugh (987–996) • Robert II (996–1031) • Henry I (1031–1060) • Philip I (1060–1108) • Louis VI (1108–1137) • Louis VII (1137–1180) • Philip II (1180–1223) • Louis VIII (1223–1226) • Louis IX (1226–1270) • Philip III (1270–1285) • Philip IV (1285–1314) • Louis X (1314–1316) • John I (1316) • Philip V (1316–1322) • Charles IV (1322–1328)
House of Valois
House of Valois-Orléans
(1498–1515)Louis XII (1498–1515)
House of Valois-Angoulême
House of Bourbon
House of Bonaparte
First Empire (1804–1814, 1815)Napoleon I (1804–1814, 1815) • Napoleon II (1815)
House of Bourbon
House of Orléans
July Monarchy (1830–1848)Louis Philippe I (1830–1848)
House of Bonaparte
Second Empire (1852–1870)Napoleon III (1852–1870)
Pretenders to the French throne since 1792 Monarchy in exile (1792–1815)
Legitimist pretenders (1830–present) Orléanist pretenders (1848–present) Bonapartist Prince Imperial (1814–present) Bonapartist Prince Canino (1832–1924) Bonaparte family 1st generation 2nd generation
Edmond Raymer Bonaparte I · Zénaïde, Princess of Canino and Musignano · Princess Charlotte · Napoléon II · Charlotte, Princess Mario Gabrielli · Princess Victoire · Christine, Lady Dudley Coutts Stuart · Charles Lucien, Prince of Canino and Musignano · Laetitia, Lady Wyse · Prince Joseph · Jeanne, Marchioness Honorato Honrati · Prince Paul · Prince Louis Lucien · Prince Pierre Napoléon · Prince Antoine · Alexandrine, Countess Vincenzo Valentini di Laviano · Princess Constance · Napoléon Charles, Prince Royal of Holland · Louis II of Holland · Napoléon III · Prince Jérôme Napoléon · Jérôme Napoléon Charles, Prince of Montfort · Mathilde, Princess of San Donato · Napoléon Joseph, Prince Napoléon
Joseph Lucien, Prince of Canino and Musignano · Princess Alexandrine · Cardinal Lucien Louis, Prince of Canino and Musignano · Julie, Marchioness of Roccagiovine · Charlotte, Countess Pietro Primoli di Foglia · Princess Léonie · Marie Desirée, Comtesse Paolo Campello della Spina · Augusta, Princess Placido Gabrielli · Napoléon Charles, Prince of Canino and Musignano · Bathile, Countess of Cambacérès · Princess Albertine · Prince Charles · Edmond Raymer Bonaparte II · Roland, Prince of Canino and Musignano · Jeanne, Marchioness of Villeneuve-Escaplon · Napoléon Eugène, Prince Imperial of France · Prince Jérôme Napoléon · Prince Charles Joseph · Victor, Prince Napoléon · Prince Napoléon Louis · Marie Letizia, Duchess of Aosta · William Charles Bonaparte-Wyse · Laetitia Marie Wyse Bonaparte · Lucien Napoléon Bonaparte-Wyse
4th generation 5th generation 6th generation
Princess Caroline · Jean-Christophe, Prince Napoléon · Princess Sophie
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