Karunanidhi

M. Karunanidhi
மு. கருணாநிதி
M. Karunanidhi in Chief Minister's office
15th Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu
In office
May 13, 2006 – May 15, 2011
Preceded by J.Jayalalithaa
Succeeded by J.Jayalalithaa
Constituency Chepauk
12th Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu
In office
13 May 1996 – 13 May 2001
Preceded by J.Jayalalithaa
Succeeded by O. Panneerselvam
Constituency Chepauk
10th Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu
In office
27 January 1989 – 30 January 1991
Preceded by Janaki Ramachandran
Succeeded by J. Jayalalithaa
Constituency Harbour
4th Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu
In office
15 March 1971 – 31 January 1976
Preceded by President's rule
Succeeded by President's rule
Constituency Saidapet
3rd Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu
In office
10 February 1969 – 4 January 1971
Preceded by V.R. Nedunchezhiyan (acting)
Succeeded by President's rule
Constituency Saidapet
Personal details
Born Dakshinamurthi
June 3, 1924 (1924-06-03) (age 87)
Thirukkuvalai, Madras Presidency, British India
Political party Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam
Spouse(s) Padmavathi (deceased)
Dayalu
Rajathi
Children M. K. Muthu
M. K. Azhagiri
M. K. Stalin
M. K. Tamilarasu
M. K. Selvi
M. K. Kanimozhi
Residence Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
Religion Atheist[1]

Muthuvel Karunanidhi (Tamil: மு. கருணாநிதி)(Born Dakshinamurthi) (born June 3, 1924)[2] is an Indian politician and a former Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu. He is the head of Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK),[3] a Dravidian political party in the state of Tamil Nadu. He has been the leader of the DMK since the death of its founder, C. N. Annadurai, in 1969[4] and has served as chief minister five times (1969–71, 1971–76, 1989–91, 1996–2001 and 2006–2011). He holds the record of winning his seat in every election in which he has participated in a political career spanning more than 60 years.[5][6][7] In the 2004 Lok Sabha Elections, he led the DMK-led DPA (UPA and Left Parties) in Tamil Nadu and Puducherry to win all 40 Lok Sabha seats. In the following 2009 Lok Sabha Elections, he was able to increase the number of seats for the DMK from 16 to 18 seats, and led the UPA in Tamil Nadu and Puducherry, to win 28 seats, even with a significantly smaller coalition. He is also a playwright and screenwriter in Tamil cinema. He is called by his supporters as Kalaignar (Tamil: கலைஞர், "scholar of arts").[8]

Contents

Early life

Muthuvel Karunanidhi was born as Dakshinamurthy[9] in Thirukuvalai in Nagapattinam, British India,[10] on 3 June 1924 to Muthuvel and Anjugam.[2] He belongs to the Isai Vellalar community.[11]

Personal life

He is a non-vegetarian now turned vegetarian.[12] He has claimed that the secret of his energy and success lies in the daily practice of yoga.[13] He married three times; his wives are the late Padmavathy, Dayalu Ammal and Rajathiammal.[14][15][16]

His sons are M. K. Muthu, M. K. Alagiri, M. K. Stalin, and M. K. Tamilarasu. His daughters are Selvi and Kanimozhi. Kanimozhi is a Rajya Sabha MP. M. K. Muthu, his eldest son was born to Padmavathy, who died early. Azhagiri, Stalin, Selvi and Tamilarasu were born to Dayaluammal, while Kanimozhi is the only daughter from his third wife, Rajathiammal.[citation needed] He has donated his house, that is to be converted into a free hospital for the poor after his death.[17]

Screenwriting

Karunanidhi began his career as a screenwriter in the Tamil film industry.[18] Through his wit and oratorical skills he rapidly rose as a popular politician. He was famous for writing historical and social (reformist) stories which propagated the socialist and rationalist ideals of the Dravidian movement to which he belonged. He first began using Tamil cinema to propagate his political ideas through the movie Parasakthi.[19] Parasakthi was a turning point in Tamil cinema, as it espoused the ideologies of the Dravidian movement and also introduced two prominent actors of Tamil filmdom, Sivaji Ganesan and S. S. Rajendran.[20] The movie was initially banned but was eventually released in 1952.[20] It was a huge box office hit, but its release was marred with controversies. The movie was opposed by orthodox Hindus since it contained elements that criticized Brahmanism.[21] Two other movies written by Karunanidhi that contained such messages were Panam and Thangarathnam.[19] These movies contained themes such as widow remarriage, abolition of untouchability, self-respect marriages, abolition of zamindari and abolition of religious hypocrisy.[20] As his movies and plays with strong social messages became popular, they suffered from increased censorship; two of his plays in the 1950s were banned.[20]

Literature

Karunanidhi is known for his contributions to Tamil literature. His contributions cover a wide range: poems, letters, screenplays, novels, biographies, historic novels, stageplays, dialogues, songs, etc. He has written Kuraloviam for Thirukural, Tholkaappiya Poonga, Poombukar, as well as many poems, essays and books.

Apart from literature, Karunanidhi has also contributed to the Tamil language through art and architecture. Like the Kuraloviyam, in which Kalaignar wrote about Thirukkural, through the construction of Valluvar Kottam he gave an architectural presence to Thiruvalluvar, in Chennai, Tamil Nadu. At Kanniyakumari, Karunanidhi has constructed a 133-foot-high statue of Thiruvalluvar, which portrays his feelings about the scholar.

Books

Books Karunanidhi has written include: Romapuri Pandian, Thenpandi Singam, Vellikizhamai, Nenjukku Needhi, Iniyavai Irubathu, Sanga Thamizh, Kuraloviam, Ponnar Sankar, and Thirukkural Urai. His books of prose and poetry number more than 100.

Stageplays

Karunanidhi's plays include: Manimagudam, Ore Ratham, Palaniappan, Thooku Medai, Kagithapoo, Naane Arivali, Vellikizhamai, Udhayasooriyan and Silappathikaram.

Screenplays

At the age of 20, Karunanidhi went to work for Jupiter Pictures as a scriptwriter. His first film, Rajakumaari, gained him much popularity. It was here that his skills as a scriptwriter were honed. He wrote 75 screenplays including: Rajakumaari, Abimanyu, Manthiri Kumari, Marutha Naattu Ilavarasi, Manamagan, Devaki, Parasakthi, Panam, Thirumbipaar, Naam, Manohara, Ammaiappan, Malai Kallan, Rangoon Radha, Raja Rani, Puthaiyal, Pudhumai Pithan, Ellorum Innattu Mannar, Kuravanchi, Thayillapillai, Kanchi Thalaivan, Poompuhar, Poomalai, Mani Makudam, Marakka Mudiyuma?, Avan Pithana?, Pookkari, Needhikku Thandanai, Paalaivana Rojakkal, Pasa Paravaikal, Padadha Theneekkal, Niyaya Tharasu, Pasakiligal, Kannamma, Uliyin Osai, Pen Singam,Ilaignan and Ponnar Shankar

Politics

Photo of M. G. Ramachandran (center) with M. Karunanidhi (autographed by Karunanidhi)

Entry into politics

Karunanidhi entered politics at the age of 14, inspired by a speech by Alagiriswamii of the Justice Party, and participated in Anti-Hindi agitations. He founded an organisation for the local youth of his locality. He circulated a handwritten newspaper called Manavar Nesan to its members. Later he founded a student organisation called Tamil Nadu Tamil Manavar Mandram, which was the first student wing of the Dravidan Movement. Karunanidhi involved himself and the student community in social work with other members. Here he started a newspaper for its members, which grew into Murasoli, the DMK party's official newspaper.

The first major protest that aided Karunanidhi in gaining ground in Tamil politics was his involvement in the Kallakudi agitation in Kallakudi. Original name of this industrial town was Kallakudi and it was changed to Dalmiapuram after a cement mogul from North India who built a cement plant there. DMK wanted to change the name back to Kallagudi.. In the protest Karunanidhi and his companions erased the name Dalmiapuram from the railway station and lay down on the tracks blocking the course of trains. Two people died in the protest and Karunanidhi was arrested.[22]

Rise to power

M. Karunanidhi with his party's founder C. N. Annadurai (middle) and member K. A. Mathiazhagan (right)

Karunanidhi was first elected to the Tamil Nadu assembly in 1957 from the Kulithalai assembly of Thiruchirapalli district. He became the DMK treasurer in 1961 and deputy leader of opposition in the state assembly in the year 1962 and when the DMK came to power in 1967, he became the minister for public works. When Annadurai expired in 1969, Karunanidhi became the Chief Minister of Tamilnadu. He has held various positions in the party and government during his long career in Tamil Nadu political arena.

He took over as chief Minister of Tamil Nadu on 13 May 2006 after his coalition defeated his main opponent J. Jayalalithaa in the May 2006 elections.[23] He currently represents the constituency of Tiruvarur in the Tamil Nadu state Legislative Assembly. He has been elected to the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly 12 times and once to the now abolished Tamil Nadu Legislative Council.[24]

Achievements / Schemes

Many Bridges were constructed throughout the state, including Anna Flyover, Chennai; Uppilipalayam Flyover, Coimbatore; Double Bridge at Tirunelveli; Eight Bridges across the River Vaigain in Madurai City; Two Bridges across the River Cauvery in Trichy City; More than Ten Bridges in Chennai City are the few. Also he gave importance to Road and Transport Development throughout the State.

Other social Schemes includes:

1. Free Eye Camp Scheme to eradicate Cataract (during 70s)
2. Marriage aid to poor girls to eliminate frustration
3. Uzhavar Santhai for Direct Selling of Agri Products by the Farmer without any agents interruption
4. Mini Bus Scheme to cater Transportation to Remote Villages where Government Buses are not plying
5. Anna Marumalarchi Scheme for rennovation of Villages on their Own
6. Abolition of Hand Rickshaws and replaced with Cycle Rickshaw for improving self esteem
7. Namakku Naame Scheme for Self Development by the Village schemes
8. Slum Clearance Board to replace huts with Concrete Apartment Houses
9. Industrial Complex in all the districts to develop Industrial Growth
10. Minor Ports throughout the State to improve Coastal People Life
11. Free Electricity to Huts and Agriculture to improve their life

These are the few schemes implemented by him.

Editor and publisher

He started Murasoli on 10 August 1942. He was the founding editor and publisher of Murasoli during his boyhood as a monthly, then a weekly, and now a daily. He used his talents as a journalist and cartoonist to bring issues relevant to his political ideology before the public. He writes daily letters addressed to his party workers by name; he has been writing these for over 50 years. In addition he has served as editor for Kudiyarasu and gave life to the journal Mutharam. He is the founder of State Governments News Reel, Arasu Studio and also the Government Journal Tamil Arasu, published in Tamil and English.

World Tamil Conference

He delivered the special address on the inaugural day of 3rd World Tamil Conference held in Paris in the year 1970, and also on the inaugural day of 6th World Tamil Conference held in Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia) in the year 1987.

He penned the song "Semmozhiyaana Tamizh Mozhiyaam", the official theme song for the Unofficial World Classical Tamil Conference 2010, that was set to tune by A. R. Rahman, at his own request.

Awards and titles

  • Annamalai University awarded him an honorary doctorate in 1971.[citation needed]
  • He was awarded "Raja Rajan Award" by Tamil University, Thanjavur for his book "Thenpandi Singam".[citation needed]
  • On 15 December 2006, the Governor of Tamil Nadu and the Chancellor of Madurai Kamaraj University, Surjit Singh Barnala conferred an honorary doctorate on the Chief Minister on the occasion of the 40th annual convocation.[25]
  • In June 2007,[26][27][28] the Tamil Nadu Muslim Makkal Katchi announced that it would confer the title 'Friend of the Muslim Community' ('Yaaran-E-Millath') upon M. Karunanidhi.

Controversies

He has been indicted by the Sarkaria commission for corruption in allotting tenders for the Veeranam project.[29] Indra Gandhi dismissed the Karunanidhi government based on charges of possible secession and corruption.[30] In 2001 Karunanidhi, former chief secretary, K.A. Nambiar, and a host of others were arrested on charges of corruption in the construction of flyovers in Chennai.[31] He and his party members were also charged under Sections 120(b) (criminal conspiracy), 167 (public servant framing an incorrect document with intent to cause injury), 420 (cheating) and 409 (criminal breach of trust) of the IPC, and Section 13 (2) read with 13 (1)(d) of the Prevention of Corruption Act, but no prima facie evidence was found against him and his son M K Stalin.[32]

Ram Setu remarks

In response to Sethusamudram controversy, Karunanidhi questioned the existence of the Hindu God Rama. He asked:

Some say there was a person over 17 lakh years ago. His name was Rama. Do not touch the bridge (Ramar Sethu) constructed by him. Who is this Rama? From which engineering college did he graduate? Is there any proof for this?[33]

His remarks caused a firestorm of controversy. BJP leader Ravi Shankar Prasad accused Karunanidhi of religious discrimination when noting "We would like to know from Karunanidhi if he would make a similar statement against religious head of any other religion; chance are he may not."[34]

Nationalist Congress Party spokesman D. P. Tripathi said, "Where is the need of asking for evidence on the existence of Ram when lots of people have unreserved faith in him?"[35]

In response to these statements, Karunanidhi defiantly stated, "Anyway, neither Valmiki nor Ram is here now [to vouch for claims of Ram's existence]. There is only a group that thinks of people as fools. They will be proved wrong."[35]

Several days later, he commented:

I have not said anything more than Valmiki, who authored Ramayana. Valmiki had even stated that Rama was a drunkard. Have I said so? [36]

Connections with LTTE

The interim report of Justice Jain Commission, which oversaw the investigation into Rajiv Gandhi's assassination, indicted Karunanidhi for abetting the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE).[37] The interim report recommended that Tamil Nadu Chief Minister M. Karunanidhi and the DMK party be held responsible for abetting Rajiv Gandhi's murderers. The final report contained no such allegations.[38]

In April 2009,in an interview to NDTV, Karunanidhi made a controversial remark stating that "Prabhakaran is my good friend" and also said, "India could not forgive the LTTE for assassinating Rajiv Gandhi".[39]

Allegations of nepotism

Karunanidhi has been accused by opponents, by some members of his party, and by other political observers of trying to promote nepotism and start a political dynasty along the lines of the Nehru-Gandhi family. Vaiko, who quit the DMK, has been the most vocal. Political observers say that Vaiko was sidelined as he was seen as a threat to M.K. Stalin and other family members.

His nephew, the late Murasoli Maran, was a Union Minister; however, it has been pointed out that he was in politics long before Karunanidhi became the Chief Minister in 1969. He was arrested several times, including in the Anti-Hindi agitations in 1965. He was asked to contest the by-election for South Madras in 1967 and the nomination papers were signed by Rajaji, Annadurai and Mohammed Ismail (Quaid-e-Millath), demonstrating that his political career was not built entirely on his relation to Karunanidhi.[40]

Many political opponents and DMK party senior leaders have been critical of the rise of M. K. Stalin in the party. But some of the party men have pointed out that Stalin has come up on his own. He has faced a lot of hardship since 1975, when he was jailed under the Maintenance of Internal Security Act (MISA) and was beaten up in jail so brutally during the Emergency that a fellow DMK party prisoner died trying to save him.[41] Stalin was an MLA in 1989 and 1996 when his father Karunanidhi was the Chief Minister, but he was not inducted into the Cabinet. He became Chennai's 44th mayor and its first directly elected mayor in 1996. It was only in his fourth term as MLA that he was made a Minister in the Karunanidhi cabinet and then in 2009 was made the Deputy Chief Minister.

Before bringing M K Stalin into the Limelight of the Politics, all the prominent leaders worked hard for the party were given due importance. This includes Mr. J Anbazhagan (Son of Pazhakkadai Jayaraman); Mr. Thangam Thennarasu (Son of Thangapandiyan); Mrs. Poongothai Aruna (Daughter of Aladi Aruna); Mr. Parithi Ilamvazhuthi (Son of Ilamparithi); Mr. Pazhanivel Rajan (Son of PTR); Mr. A.G Sampath (Son of A.Govindaswamy) etc. Thus all those work for the party were given proper position in the party and as well as in the Government. Finally M K Stalin was given a chance for MLA in 1996, after his service to party for more than 30 years. Hence the allegations of Nepotism in the party is an imaginary one.

Unlike other Political parties of Tamilnadu, Mr. Karunanidhi developed Second Level Leaders with ability to handle any situation in party and Government. This leaders includes Arcot Veeraswamy, Veerapandi Arumugam, Nehru, Thuraimurugan, Ponmudi, Mookkaiya, Karuppasaamy Pandiyan etc., We cannot see such Party Democracy in any other Political Parties in Tamilnadu.

Karunanidhi has been accused of helping Murasoli Maran's son Kalanidhi Maran, who runs Sun Network, India's second largest television network. According to Forbes, Kalanidhi is among India's richest 20, with $2.9 billion.[42] Again commentators say that he raised himself into the position on his own merit and even Karunanidhi's sons have achieved nothing compared to him which has been a cause of friction between them. His channels have been the mouth organ of the DMK party (until recent time) and balanced the Jaya TV of the AIADMK.

Another son of Maran's, Dayanidhi Maran, is a former Union Minister for Communications and IT portfolio, not broadcasting ministry, which is responsible for TV networks. Dayanidhi Maran was withdrawn from the IT and Communications portfolio at Center (he was a Union Minister for IT and Communications) because Dinakaran (a newspaper run by the Maran brothers) had shown the result of a public poll which read Dayanidhi Maran as the successor to Karunanidhi. This created a bloody violence in the Madurai branch of Dinakaran office, causing the death of three employees. This was again seen as a result of the dynasty controversy in Karunanidhi's family.

It has been pointed out that Karunanidhi has hesitated to take action against his erring family members, though he has expelled his other sons M.K. Muthu and M.K. Azhagiri when they were guilty of wrong doing[43] and similarly removed Dayanidhi Maran from the position of Union Minister (because of the reason stated in the previous paragraph).

Of late, he has been accused of not taking action against M.K. Azhagiri after his supporters attacked the newspaper office of Dinakaran, killing three people (as stated above). M.K. Azhagiri is the prime accused in the murder case of the former DMK Minister Kiruttinan. Karunanidhi is also accused of allowing Azhagiri to function as an extraconstitutional authority in Madurai.[44] The Dinakaran newspaper case was handed over to the CBI. But the District and Sessions court acquitted all the 17 accused in that case.[45] So far, the case has not been appealed in a higher court to identify and punish the perpetrators of the crime.

His daughter Kanimozhi has been nominated for a Rajya Sabha post.

Alleged involvement in 2G Scam

Karunanidhi has also been accused by Subramanian Swamy of involvement in the 2G spectrum scam.[46] One of his TV channel stations - Kalaignar TV was raided by Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) officers in connection with the 2G scam on 19 February 2011.[47] Karunanidhi's daughter MK Kanimozhi arrested and sent to Tihar jail on 20-05-2011 for alleged kickbacks in 2G Scam. She has been arrested for the illegal transfer of money to the DMK's official channel Kalaignar TV. DMK MP A Raja is the prime accused in 2 G scam and sent to Tihar Jail.

Member of Legislative Assembly (MLA)

Year Elected/Reelected Place
1957 Elected Kulithalai
1962 Elected Thanjavur
1967 Elected Saidapet
1971 Reelected Saidapet
1977 Elected Anna Nagar
1980 Reelected Anna Nagar
1989 Elected Harbour
1991 Reelected Harbour
1996 Elected Chepauk
2001 Reelected Chepauk
2006 Reelected Chepauk
2011 Elected Thiruvarur

Posts in Legislature

From year To year Post
1962 1967 Deputy Leader of the Opposition
1967 1969 State Minister for Public Works
1977 1980 Leader of the Opposition
1980 1983 Leader of the Opposition
1984 1986 Elected to Legislative Council

Chief Minister

From Year To Year Election
1969 1971 Tamil Nadu state assembly election, 1967
1971 1976 Tamil Nadu state assembly election, 1971
1989 1991 Tamil Nadu state assembly election, 1989
1996 2001 Tamil Nadu state assembly election, 1996
2006 2011 Tamil Nadu state assembly election, 2006

See also

References

  1. ^ Karunanidhi shares dais with Sai Baba
  2. ^ a b "Karunanidhi's Kutumbam". The Indian Express.
  3. ^ DMK's Official Homepage-Chennai-Tamilnadu-India 800x600 screen resolution
  4. ^ "Biography in official party website". http://www.dmk.in/bio/beng.htm. 
  5. ^ "Karunanidhi wins for record 11th time" - Sify.com
  6. ^ [1]
  7. ^ [2]
  8. ^ Kalaignar survives 4 challenging years, THE ECONOMIC TIMES 14 May 2010 ET
  9. ^ With Them / Against Them: The DMK's bitter battles with the state BJP continue, so how long can they hang on at the Centre? Outlook India
  10. ^ "Karunanidhi’s been nice, but his village not blind to Amma option". The Indian Express.
  11. ^ http://www.outlookindia.com/article.aspx?234692
  12. ^ [3]
  13. ^ "Yoga keeps me going, says Karunanidhi". The Hindu (Chennai, India). October 1, 2005. http://www.hindu.com/2005/10/01/stories/2005100107980100.htm. 
  14. ^ In South India, more the merrier - The Times of India 2 May 2006
  15. ^ Rama, Ravana battle again in TN - Rediff
  16. ^ "In South India, more the merrier". The Times Of India. May 2, 2006. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/msid-1513322,prtpage-1.cms. 
  17. ^ "Karunanidhi Donates his House to Establish Free Hospital for Poor". Asian Tribune. June 3, 2010.
  18. ^ The Last Lear - The Long Profile of Karunanidhi in The Caravan The Caravan India
  19. ^ a b Guneratne, Anthony R.; Wimal Dissanayake, Sumita S. Chakravarty (2003). Rethinking Third Cinema. Routledge. pp. 216. ISBN 0415213541. http://books.google.com/books?id=2IFR0oHGHKUC. 
  20. ^ a b c d Hardgrave, Jr, Robert L (March 1973). "Politics and the Film in Tamilnadu: The Stars and the DMK". Asian Survey (JSTOR) 13 (3): 288–305. doi:10.1525/as.1973.13.3.01p0314o. 
  21. ^ A. Srivathsan (June 12, 2006). "Films and the politics of convenience". Chennai, India: idlebrain.com. http://www.hindu.com/2006/06/12/stories/2006061206151100.htm. Retrieved 2010-02-12. 
  22. ^ Ramaswamy, Sumathy (1997). Passions of the tongue: language devotion in Tamil India, 1891-1970. University of California Press. pp. 226. ISBN 0-520-20805-6 ISBN 978-0-520-20805-6. http://www.escholarship.org/editions/view?docId=ft5199n9v7&chunk.id=s2.2.10&toc.depth=1&toc.id=s1.2.8&brand=ucpress. 
  23. ^ rediff.com: asdadadaadav fsafsdfs fasfsf: The Sachin of TN politics
  24. ^ NDTV.com: Latest News, e-Bulletins, Stocks, Bollywood, Cricket, Video, Blogs, RSS from India
  25. ^ http://www.tn.gov.in/pressrelease/pr151206/pr151206d.htm
  26. ^ United News of India (3 June 2007). "TMMK to confer Karunanidhi with 'Friend of the Community' title". newkerala.com. http://www.newkerala.com/news5.php?action=fullnews&id=35258. "Chennai, June 3: Tamil Nadu Chief Minister and DMK President M Karunanidhi, who turned 84 today, will be conferred with the 'Friend of the Muslim Community' title by the Tamil Nadu Muslim Makkal Katchi." 
  27. ^ United News of India (3 June 2007). "MK awarded 'Friend of the Community' title". oneindia.in. http://news.oneindia.in/2007/06-1/03/tmmk-to-confer-karunanidhi-with-friend-of-the-community-title-1180859680.html. 
  28. ^ United News of India (4 June 2007). "Karunanidhi turns 84". news.webindia123.com. http://news.webindia123.com/news/Articles/India/20070604/677337.html. "The Tamil Nadu Muslim Makkal Katchi has decided to confer 'Yaaraan-E-Millath (meaning friend of the Muslim community) title on Mr Karunanidhi to mark the occasion." 
  29. ^ The Hindu : What the Sarkaria Commission said
  30. ^ Rama Sethu & Karunanidhi
  31. ^ http://www.hinduonnet.com/fline/fl1815/18150280.htm
  32. ^ Karunanidhi held in pre-dawn swoop -- Jailed on corruption charges
  33. ^ Which engineering college did Rama study, asks Karuna, New India Press - September 18, 2007
  34. ^ Karuna earns BJP's wrath for comments on Lord Ram Rediff - September 17, 2007
  35. ^ a b DMK chief rubbishes Ram again The Pioneer - September 20, 2007
  36. ^ As per Valmiki, Rama was a drunkard: Karunanidhi AndhraNews.net
  37. ^ India Today Cover Story [Jain Commission Revelations: Damning the DMK]
  38. ^ "No adverse comments on DMK leaders in Jain report". The Hindu (Chennai, India). February 14, 2004. http://www.hindu.com/2004/02/14/stories/2004021405140100.htm. 
  39. ^ Karunanidhi flip flops, says can't forgive LTTE
  40. ^ Maran – the eyes and ears of DMK in Delhi
  41. ^ Politics: Special Series; M K Stalin
  42. ^ "The World's Billionaires Page 11 of 41". Forbes. March 10, 2010. http://www.forbes.com/lists/2010/10/billionaires-2010_The-Worlds-Billionaires_CountryOfCitizen_11.html. 
  43. ^ Tehelka - The People's Paper
  44. ^ "Charge sheet filed against Azhagiri in Kiruttinan case". The Hindu (Chennai, India). August 19, 2003. http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/2003/08/19/stories/2003081902600400.htm. 
  45. ^ The Hindu : All acquitted in Dinakaran case
  46. ^ The Times Of India. http://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics/nation/karunanidhi-will-be-jailed-soon-subramanian-swamy/articleshow/7461670.cms. 
  47. ^ The Times Of India. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/chennai/CBI-raids-Karunanidhi-familys-Kalaignar-TV-office/articleshow/7519946.cms. 

External links

Preceded by
C. N. Annadurai
Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu
First Term (1969-1971)
Second Term (1971-1976)

1969-1976
Succeeded by
M. G. Ramachandran
Preceded by
Janaki Ramachandran
Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu
Third Term

1989-1991
Succeeded by
J. Jayalalithaa
Preceded by
J. Jayalalithaa
Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu
Fourth Term

1996-2001
Succeeded by
J. Jayalalithaa
Preceded by
J. Jayalalithaa
Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu
Fifth Term

2006-2011
Succeeded by
J. Jayalalithaa


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