Down in the Willow Garden

"Down in the Willow Garden"
also known as "Rose Connelly"
Written by Unknown
Original artist G. B. Grayson and Henry Whitter
Recorded by Wade Mainer and Zeke Morris, Charlie Monroe, Art Garfunkel, The Everly Brothers, Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds, Kristin Hersh.

"Down in the Willow Garden", also known as "Rose Connelly"[1][2] is a traditional Appalachian murder ballad about a man facing the gallows for the murder of his lover: he gave her poisoned wine, stabbed her, and threw her in a river.[2][3] It originated in the 19th century, probably in Ireland, before becoming established in the United States.[4][5] The lyrics greatly vary between versions, but professional recordings have stabilized the song in a cut-down form.[5] First professionally recorded in 1927, it was made popular by Charlie Monroe's 1947 version, and it has been recorded dozens of times since then.

Contents

Origins

The song may have derived from Irish sources from the early 19th century. Edward Bunting noted a song by the name "Rose Connolly" in 1811 in Coleraine.[5][6][7] A version with slightly different lyrics is known from Galway in 1929.[5] There are lyrical similarities to W. B. Yeats' 1899 poem "Down by the Salley Gardens", which itself probably derives from the Irish ballad, "The Rambling Boys of Pleasure".[5] The first versions of "Rose Connoley" probably derive from the Irish ballads "The Wexford Girl" and "The Rambling Boys of Pleasure", or similar songs.[5] "The Wexford Girl" gave rise to "The Knoxville Girl", a very similar murder ballad to "Down in the Willow Garden".[3] Unlike other Irish ballads, "Down in the Willow Garden" was initially restricted to the Appalachian region of the United States, and D.K. Wigley mused that "It is as if an Irish local song never popularized on broadsides was spread by a single Irish peddler on his travels through Appalachia."[5]

It is first noted in the United States in 1915, when it was referred to as popular in 1895 in Wetzel County, West Virginia.[4][5] Cecil Sharp came across the song in 1918 in Virginia and North Carolina.[5]

Lyrics and music

The lyrics are sung in the first person by the murderer.[8] According to Wigley, the song follows "the 'murdered sweetheart' pattern in which a girl stated or assumed to be pregnant is murdered by her lover, who is usually brought to justice in one manner or another".[5] He describes the tale that "Rose Connoley and her lover meet in a willow garden. He poisons her, stabs her, and throws her body into a river. The murderer's father had promised him to buy his freedom, but now the father must watch his son's execution. The son laments his death."[5] His motivations might have been to avoid marriage, gain money, or feeling compelled into the crime by his father, but now that he is facing the scaffold he is overcome by the realization that he has killed the girl and caused pain to his family.[8] Teresa Goddu noted that the "ritual misogyny" familiar from the "Banks of the Ohio" and the "Knoxville Girl" is "especially gruesome" in this song.[3] Murder ballads often feature a stabbing or beating followed by burying the body or disposing of it in a river; this song is unusual in featuring both poisoning and stabbing the victim before she is thrown into the river.[5]

The song is known in many versions: Wilgus noted 71 in 1979.[5] The earliest versions are divided into 10 stanzas, though not all versions include all the stanzas: the now-standardized professional recordings are pared down versions that lack that first "come-all-ye" stanza and the naming of the murderer, leaving stanzas 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, and 10.[5] The most common lyric is the second stanza:

Down in a willow garden,

My true love and I did meet,
And we were a-sitting discoursing,

My true love dropped off to sleep.

Most traditional versions name the victim as Rose Connelly, or a similar surname.[5] Many versions have the murderer name himself; the name varies but tends towards the pattern "Patrick McR...".[5] One early version referred to an "Hozier tree"; Osier is a type of willow tree.[9] The lyrics refer to a poisoned wine, usually as "burglar's wine" or "Burgundy wine", sometimes as "Berkeley", "burdelin", "buglers",[5] and earlier as "merkley wine"; this may refer to drugged wine, or possibly to "burgaloo wine", burgaloo being a type of pear (from the French, virgalieu).[10] "Burgundy" is almost certainly a "correction" of the text.[5] The weapon used to stab Rose is almost always a "sabre" or a "dagger".[5]

It is usually sung to a tune known as "Rosin the Beau",[5] in 3/4 time.[11]

Recordings

Early recordings

The song was recorded as "Rose Conley" by G. B. Grayson and Henry Whitter on either 18 November 1927[2] or 9 October 1928, for Victor Recording Company (Victor 21625).[5] Wade Mainer and Zeke Morris recorded another version on 2 August 1937 in Charlotte, North Carolina (Bluebird B-7298),[5] giving it the name "Down in the Willow Garden".[2] Charlie Monroe and His Kentucky Pardners recorded another version for RCA Victor on 24 March 1947 (RCA Victor 20-2416, A-side "Bringin' in the Georgia Mail"[12] and RCA Victor 48-0222);[2][5] this version established the song as a "standard".[13]

Later versions

The Osborne Brothers and Red Allen recorded it as "Down in the Willow Garden" in 1956.[5] The Everly Brothers recorded a version under the same title for their 1958 album Songs Our Daddy Taught Us,[14] as did Art Garfunkel for his 1973 album Angel Clare.[15]

Ramblin' Jack Elliot released it as "In the Willow Garden" on his 1959 album Ramblin' Jack Elliott in London,[16] Oscar Brand sang "The Willow Garden" on his 1962 live album Morality[17] and the bluegrass duo Lester Flatt and Earl Scruggs recorded it as "Rose Connelly" for their 1965 album The Versatile Flatt & Scruggs.[5]

Boyd Rice recorded it as "Down in the Willow Garden" in 1990 for his album Music Martinis and Misanthropy. Kristin Hersh recorded it for her 1998 album of traditional songs, Murder, Misery and Then Goodnight,[18] and Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds recorded a version titled "The Willow Garden" as a B-side to their murder ballad "Where the Wild Roses Grow".[19]

Holly Hunter sings the song as a lullaby in the 1987 film Raising Arizona,[20] and Willow Garden, a dramatised version of the tale, was made as a short film by Jim Haverkamp and Don Henderson Baker in 2008.[21]

References

  1. ^ Variously spelled Connoley, Conley, Connally, Condolee, Connilley, Condelee, Congalee, Cumberly, or Caudeley, see Wilgus, 1979.
  2. ^ a b c d e Erbsen, Wayne (2003). Rural roots of bluegrass: songs, stories & history. Mel Bay Publications. p. 71. ISBN 0786671378. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=Xwicw5kc3G0C&pg=PA71. 
  3. ^ a b c Goddu, Teresa (1998). "Bloody Daggers and Lonesome Graveyards". In Ceceila Tichi. Reading country music: steel guitars, opry stars, and honky-tonk bars. Duke University Press. p. 53. ISBN 0822321688. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=p_gYzRsNNbEC&pg=PA53. 
  4. ^ a b Cox, John Harrington (1998). Folk-Songs of the South: Collected Under the Auspices of the West Virginia Folk-Lore Society. Pelican Publishing. p. 314. ISBN 1565545923. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=8mUl8oDXyroC&pg=PA314. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y Wilgus, D.K. (Apr. - Jun., 1979). ""Rose Connoley": An Irish Ballad". The Journal of American Folklore (American Folklore Society) 92 (364): 172–195. JSTOR 539387. 
  6. ^ Erbsen, Wayne (2008). Backpocket Bluegrass Song Book. Native Ground Books & Music. p. 43. ISBN 096293271X. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=B08Nst2PZuoC&pg=PT43. 
  7. ^ O'Connor, Nuala (2001). Bringing it all back home: the influence of Irish music at home and overseas. Merlin. p. 20. ISBN 1903582032. 
  8. ^ a b Tunnell, Kenneth D. (1995). "A Cultural Approach to Crime and Punishment, Bluegrass Style". In Jeff Ferrell, Clinton Sanders. Cultural criminology. UPNE. pp. 87–88. ISBN 1555532365. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=NnQx2_586TAC&pg=PA87. 
  9. ^ Kuntz, Andrew. "Rose Connolly". The Fiddler's Companion. http://www.ibiblio.org/fiddlers/ROS_ROTT.htm#ROSE_CONNOLLY. Retrieved 12 September 2010. 
  10. ^ Lofgren, Lyle (May 2003). "Remembering The Old Songs: ROSE CONNOLEY (Laws F6)". Inside Bluegrass. http://www.lizlyle.lofgrens.org/RmOlSngs/RTOS-RoseConn.html. Retrieved 12 September 2010. 
  11. ^ Howard, Paul (2002). Guitar Roots: Bluegrass. Alfred Music Publishing. p. 15. ISBN 0739024655. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=NDr8sZLntoMC&pg=PA15. 
  12. ^ "Record Reviews". Billboard. 1 November 1947. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=YSAEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA116. Retrieved 24 September 2010. 
  13. ^ Wolfe, Charles K. (1996). Kentucky Country: Folk and Country Music of Kentucky. University Press of Kentucky. p. 104. ISBN 0813108799. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=3x4TUwtiCZgC&pg=PA104. 
  14. ^ Neely, Tim (2002). Goldmine Standard Catalog of American Records, 1950-1975. Krause Publications. p. 401. ISBN 0873494717. 
  15. ^ Alterman, Loraine (9 September 1973). "Garfunkel on His Own; Pop". New York Times. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F00B15F63A59137A93CBA91782D85F478785F9. Retrieved 12 September 2010. 
  16. ^ "Volume 37, Issue 2, p46". Gramophone. 1959. 
  17. ^ "Specialty LP's". Billboard. 1 December 1962. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=OhgEAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA20. Retrieved 24 September 2010. 
  18. ^ "Kristin Hersh - Murder, Misery And Then Goodnight". Discogs. http://www.discogs.com/Kristin-Hersh-Murder-Misery-And-Then-Goodnight/release/383738. Retrieved 24 September 2010. 
  19. ^ Lundy, Zeth (15 March 2005). "Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds - B-Sides and Rarities". PopMatters. http://www.popmatters.com/music/reviews/c/cavenick-bsides.shtml. Retrieved 12 September 2010. 
  20. ^ Rowell, Erica (2007). The brothers Grimm: The films of Ethan and Joel Coen. Scarecrow Press. p. 264. ISBN 0810858509. "In Raising Arizona Ed's choice of the murder ballad "Down in the Willow Garden" to soothe her son after a nightmare subtly —and riotously— impugns her maternal instincts." 
  21. ^ Westerfield, Gail (18 April 2008). "Murder Ballad". The Island Packet. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=lzIyAAAAIBAJ&sjid=va0FAAAAIBAJ&pg=4123,3242686. Retrieved 12 September 2010. 

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