The tie is a symbol in the shape of an arc similar to a large breve, used in Ancient Greek, phonetic alphabets, and Z notation. It can be used between two characters with spacing as punctuation, or non-spacing as a diacritic. It can be above or below, and reversed. Its forms are called tie, double breve, enotikon, ligature tie, papyrological hyphen, and undertie.
The enotikon ("uniter"), is used as a word non-divider, similar to hyphen, as opposed to the hypodiastole used as a word divider. The enotikon can be both spacing and non-spacing. On computers both characters U+203F ‿ undertie and U+035C ͜ combining double breve below can be used
Enotikon was also used in Ancient Greek music notation, as a slur under two notes. When a syllable was sung with three notes, this slur was used in combination with a double point and a diseme over the notes.
International Phonetic Alphabet
The International Phonetic Alphabet uses two type of ties : the ligature tie (IPA #433), above or below two symbols ; and the undertie (IPA #509) between two symbols.
The ligature tie, also called double inverted breve, is used to represent double articulation (e.g. [k͡p]), affricates (e.g. [t͡ʃ]) or prenasalized consonant (e.g. [m͡b]) in the IPA. It is mostly found above but can also be found below when more suitable (e.g. [k͜p]).
On computers, it is encoded with characters U+0361 ͡ combining double inverted breve and, as an alternative when raisers might be interfering with the bow, U+035C ͜ combining double breve below.
On computers, the character used is U+203F ‿ undertie, a spacing character, which is not to be confused with a͜b U+035C ͜ combining double breve below, a combining diacritic, used as an alternative to the ligature tie ab͡ U+0361 ͡ combining double inverted breve.
Uralic Phonetic Alphabet
- The triple inverted breve or triple breve below indicates a triphthong
- The double inverted breve, also known as the ligature tie, marks a diphthong
- The double inverted breve below indicates a syllable boundary between vowels
- The undertie is used for prosody
- The inverted undertie is used for prosody.
American Heritage Dictionary
The character tie is used for sequence concatenation in Z notation. It is encoded with U+2040 ⁀ character tie in Unicode. For example "s⁀t" represents the concatenation sequence of sequences called s and t; and the notation "⁀/q" is the distributed concatenation of the sequence of sequences called q.
The ligature tie is used in the logotypes of mobilkom Austria and its A1 brand.
name character HTML code Unicode Unicode name sample non-spacing double breve ͝ ͝ U+035D combining double breve o͝o ligature tie ͡ ͡ U+0361 combining double inverted breve /k͡p/ ligature tie below,
͜ ͜ U+035C combining double breve below /k͜p/ spacing undertie,
‿ ‿ U+203F undertie /vuz‿ave/ tie ⁀ ⁀ U+2040 character tie s⁀t inverted undertie ⁔ ⁔ U+2054 inverted undertie o⁔o
The diacritic signs triple inverted breve, triple breve, and double inverted breve have not yet been encoded for computers.
Unicode has characters similar to the tie :
- U+23DC ⏜ top parenthesis and U+23DD ⏝ bottom parenthesis
- U+2322 ⌢ frown and U+2323 ⌣ smile
- ^ Greek /h/, by Nick Nicholas.
- ^ Punctuation, by Nick Nicholas.
- ^ a b Ancient Greek music, Martin Litchfield West, 1994, p. 267.
- ^ SC2/WG2 N2594 - Proposal to encode combining double breve below
- ^ Uralic Phonetic Alphabet characters for the UCS, 2002-03-20.
- ^ Proposal to encode additional characters for the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet, Klaas Ruppel, Tero Aalto, Michael Everson, 2009-01-27.
- ^ Proposal for 3 Additional Double Diacritics, 2002-05-10.
- ^ Proposal to encode a combining diacritical mark for Low German dialect writing, Karl Pentzlin, 2008-10-25
- ^ The Z Notation: a reference manual, J. M. Spivey.
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