- Ephesian Tale
The "Ephesian Tale of Anthia and Habrocomes" by
Xenophon of Ephesusis a novel written in the mid- 2nd centuryCE. TranslatorGraham Anderson sees the "Ephesiaca" as "a specimen of penny dreadfulliterature in antiquity." Moses Hadas, an earlier translator, takes a slightly different view: "If "An Ephesian Tale" is an absorbing tale of love and improbable adventure, it is also a tract to prove that Diana of the Ephesians (who was equated with Isis) cares for her loyal devotees."
Due to its shortness and other factors, some scholars maintain that the version we have is merely an
epitomeof a longer work. The " Suda," a 10th century Medieval Greekhistorical encyclopedia, describes the novel as having ten books when the version we have is divided into five. But Anderson suggests that "we may well find that our version is one of not two but a multiplicity of retellings of a familiar story, whose relationships to Xenophonare not easily identifiable." The story is very similar to the later story of " Apollonius of Tyre".
In the city of
Ephesus, Habrocomes, an attractive, cultured, and slightly arrogant young man of 16, and Anthia, an attractive and chaste young woman of 14, fall helplessly in love with each other after briefly meeting at the festival of Artemis. But because each is afraid to reveal this love to the other, they suffer miserably. Their families, in the hopes of curing them, consult the shrine of Apolloat Colophon. The soothsayer predicts that Habrocomes and Anthia will undergo travails involving pirates, tombs, fire, and flood, but their condition will improve. In an effort to avert such evils, the parents arrange that the lovers will quickly be married to each other and then sent to Egyptfor their safety.
En route to Egypt, Habrocomes and Anthia pledge that if they ever became separated they would remain faithful. When their ship stops at
Rhodes, it attracts the attention of a crew of Phoenician pirates, who plunder it, set it aflame, and take Habrocomes and Anthia captive. The pirates convey them to Tyre. Their captain, Corymbos, falls in love with Habrocomes, and his fellow pirate Euxinos falls in love with Anthia. Corymbos and Euxinos agree to each talk persuasively to the love object of the other, encouraging cooperation. Habrocomes and Anthia both say they need more time to think before deciding.
Afterwards, in private, Habrocomes and Anthia decide that their only acceptable recourse is to commit
suicidetogether. However, Apsyrtos, the chief of the pirate stronghold, is struck by the beauty of the young couple and concluded that they would bring an excellent price on the slave market. He takes them, along with their loyal slaves Leucon and Rhode, to his house in Tyre and puts them under the care of a trusted slave, then goes to Syriaon other business.
While Apsyrtos is absent, his daughter Manto falls in love with Habrocomes and writes him a note expressing her feelings. He spurns her advances. When Apsyrtos returns, bringing with him a young man named Moeris as a husband for his daughter, Manto takes revenge on Habrocomes by telling her father that Habrocomes had
raped her. Apsyrtos has Habrocomes whipped and tortured. He marries Manto to Moeris and gives them a wedding present of three slaves: Anthia, Leucon, and Rhode. Moeris, Manto, and the slaves go to live in Antioch. Manto separates Leucon and Rhode from Anthia by having them sold to an old man living far away in Lycia, and completes her revenge by having Anthia married to another slave of hers, a rural goatherdnamed Lampo.
Meanwhile, Apsyrtos discovers the love note his daughter had written to Habrocomes. He immediately frees Habrocomes and gives him employment as manager of the house.
Lampo honors his wife Anthia's wish to remain faithful to Habrocomes. But Moeris falls in love with Anthia and seeks Lampo's help in winning her heart. Instead, Lampo tells Manto of her husband's plan; Manto, seeing that Anthia is still her rival in love, becomes enraged. She orders Lampo to take Anthia into the
forestand kill her. Lampo promises to do so but takes pity on Anthia and sells her to Cilician merchants instead.
These merchants set sail for their country but are
shipwrecked en route. The survivors, including Anthia, reach shore only to be captured in the forest by a robber named Hippothoos and his band. During this time, Habrocomes learned that Lampo had sold Anthia to the Cilicians, so he secretly goes to Cilicia in search of her.
When the robber band is about to sacrifice Anthia to the god Ares, a body of troops led by Perilaos, the chief law enforcement official in Cilicia, suddenly appears. All the robbers are killed or captured save Hippothoos, who escapes; and Anthia is rescued. Perilaos takes Anthia and the captured robbers to Tarsus, falling in love with her on the way. Because he is so insistent in offering to marry Anthia, she finally relents, fearing a worse fate if she rejects him. But she makes him promise to wait thirty days before the wedding.
Meanwhile, Habrocomes reaches Cilicia and encounters Hippothoos. The two immediately become friendly and pledge to travel together.
Hippothoos leads Habrocomes away from Cilicia to the city of
Mazacosin Cappadocia. There, at an inn, Hippothoos narrates his life story, as follows:
He had been born to a distinguished family in
Perinthos, near Thrace. When he was a young man he became involved in a passionate love affair with another young man, Hyperanthes. But then a rich teacher, Aristomachos, visiting from Byzantium, also became smitten by Hyperanthes and convinced the boy’s father to let his son be taken to Byzantium on the pretext of improving his education. Hippothoos eventually went to Byzantium, sneaked into Aristomachos’ house, murdered the man in his sleep, and ran away with Hyperanthes. They were shipwrecked off Lesbos, and Hyperanthes drowned. So Hippothoos buried his lover’s body on the beach, then took up the life of a robber.
Hippothoos then tells Habrocomes of his capture of Anthia in Cilicia and how she was taken in the fight that destroyed his robber band. Habrocomes became excited. Appealing to the memory of Hyperanthes, he convinced Hippothoos to return with him to Cilicia to help find Anthia.
When the thirty days are nearly passed and the wedding is near, Anthia falls into despair. Believing that Habrocomes must be dead, and finding marriage to another man intolerable, she conspires with Eudoxos, an Ephesian physician, to give her a
poison. In return she will give him enough of Perilaos’ possessions to buy him passage back to Ephesus, and promise not to use the potion until he has left. Eudoxos agrees to the plan but gives her a hypnotic druginstead of a lethal one, knowing he will be long gone by the time Anthia awakens.
After her wedding, waiting in the bridal chamber, Anthia drinks the potion. Perilaos discovers her body and grieves for her, burying her with great ceremony in a funerary chamber. She awakens some time later, and decides to remain in the tomb and starve to death. But a group of robbers have heard of her rich burial and, after waiting for nightfall, break into her vault, take all the silver and gold, and take her as prisoner. They set sail for
Alexandria, planning to sell her into slavery.
Meanwhile, Habrocomes, with a new band of thieves led by Hippothoos, arrives near Tarsus and hears of how Anthia, after being rescued from robbers, had wed her rescuer, killed herself, been entombed, and then had her body stolen by tomb raiders who escaped to Alexandria. Habrocomes waits until Hippothoos and his band are
drunkand asleep before making his way to a ship bound for Alexandria, hoping to recover Anthia's body.
The robbers sell Anthia to merchants who sell her to Psammis, a prince of
India. Anthia plays on the Indian’s superstitions by pretending that she is consecrated to Isisuntil the proper time for her marriage, which is still a year off. Isis will punish any who make her break her vows. So Psammis agrees to wait a year before bringing her to his bed.
The ship bearing Habrocomes runs aground at
Paralionnear the mouth of the Nile. Shepherds nearby capture the crew, loot the ship, and take everyone across the desert to the Egyptian city of Pelusium. There the crew is sold into slavery. Habrocomes is sold to Araxos, a retired veteransoldier, whose annoying and ugly wife, named Bitch, becomes attracted to Habrocomes. Eventually Bitch murders Araxos in his sleep so she can marry Habrocomes. Habrocomes flees in horror, so Bitch announces that he murdered her husband. Habrocomes is quickly arrested and taken to Alexandria to be punished by the governor of Egypt.
Hippothoos, meanwhile, has enlarged his band to five hundred men and traversed Syria, Phoenicia, and Egypt to arrive at
Coptosnear Ethiopia, where they waylay travelers.
Habrocomes is placed on a
crossupon a cliffover looking the Nile and left to die. He prays for mercy, whereupon a big wind blows the cross into the river. He is carried downstream until he is recaptured and returned to the governor of Egypt. The governor orders Habrocomes to be burned alive. Habrocomes prays for mercy again and is saved, this time by waves from the Nile that douse the flames. The governor views this as a miracle, and has Habrocomes imprisoned but well cared for until he can tell his story. Eventually, Habrocomes tells his story and is released. The governor helps him sail to Italy(of all places) to continue his search, and has Bitch crucified in his place.
Meanwhile Anthia travels with Psammis and all his goods to Ethiopia. At Coptos, Hippothoos' band raids the caravan, kills Psammis and captures Anthia. Since Anthia and Hippothoos don't recognize each other, Anthia remains a prisoner. Another robber, Anchialos, lusts after Anthia and assaults her. In self-defense, she kills him with a sword. For this, Hippothoos casts her into a pit with two mastiffs and left under guard to die. But her guard, Amphinomos, takes pity upon her and keeps both Anthia and the
Habrocomes, blown off course, lands in Syracuse, Sicily and lodges with an elderly
fisherman, Aigialeus. Aigialeus tells his own story of how, in his native Sparta, his love for Thelxinoe had caused him to elopewith her before her father could have her married to another. The two settled in Sicily and lived out their lives. Thelxinoe recently died but Aigialeus mummified her body in the Egyptian manner and continued to eat, sleep, and talk with her. The steadfastness of this love is an inspiration to Habrocomes.
Hippothoos, assuming Anthia is dead, sets out to sack and conquer the Egyptian village of
Areia. Meanwhile, Amphinomos frees Anthia and takes her to Coptos. When the governor of Egypt learns of Hippothoos’ attack on Areia, he sends a large force under the command of Polyidos to destroy his band. The robbers are vanquished but Hippothoos escapes to Sicily. The captured robbers guide Polyidos and his force back to Coptos to root out any remaining members of the band. There he catches Amphinomos and Anthia.
Taking Anthia back to Alexandria, Polyidos falls in love with her. When Polyidos’ wife, Rhenaia, learns of this, she has her slave take Anthia far away and sell her to a
brothelkeeper in Tarentum, Italy. Hippothoos arrives in Taormina, Sicily, and Habrocomes sails to Italy.
As for Leucon and Rhode, their master in Xanthos had died, leaving them a considerable portion of his estate. So they sail for home, Ephesus, stopping at Rhodes along the way. There they learn that Habrocomes and Anthia had not returned home and that their parents had died of old age and despair. They to remain in Rhodes until they can learn more.
Meanwhile Anthia, in order to avoid working as a
prostitute, feigns a catalepticfit and later declares that she suffers from the “sacred disease.” Habrocomes takes up work as a stonecutter in Nuceria, Italy.
Hippothoos, out of
poverty, marries a rich old woman to inherit her fortune when she dies. After that, he acquires the love of a younger man, Clisthenes, and sails with him to Italy to purchase slaves and luxuries. In Tarentum he encounters Anthia, who he recognized as the woman he’d thrown in the pit with the dogs. He purchases her from the brothel keeper, then takes her home when he learns her story, including that she is the missing wife of Habrocomes.
When Habrocomes can no longer endure stonecutting, he made his way home to Ephesus, stopping at Syracuse to mourn the recent death of Aigialeus, then continuing on to Rhodes. There, in the
templeof the sun, he chances to meet Leucon and Rhode.
Meanwhile, Hippothoos decides to take Anthia home to Ephesus; he and Clisthenes will also move there. The group stops briefly at Rhodes. There, during the festival of the sun, Anthia encounters Leucon and Rhode at the temple of Isis. Eventually, Habrocomes finds them all. Everyone, including Hippothoos and Clisthenes, shares their stories. Habrocomes and Anthia confirm to each other that they had been faithful all during their travails. The next day they all set sail together for Ephesus. Habrocomes and Anthia make sacrifices to
Artemis, raise tombs for their deceased parents, and pass the remainder of their days in Ephesus with Leucon, Rhode, Hippothoos, and Clisthenes.
* Graham Anderson. "Xenophon of Ephesus: An Ephesian Tale" in "Collected Ancient Greek Novels", B. P. Reardon (ed.), University of California Press: Berkeley, Los Angeles, London. 1989. ISBN 0-520-04306-5
* Moses Hadas. "Three Greek Romances", The Liberal Arts Press, Inc., a division of The Bobbs Merrill Company, Inc.: Indianapolis, Indiana. 1953. ISBN 0-672-60442-6
* [http://www.romana-hamburg.de/XenophonEphesius.pdf Anthia and Habrocomes] A Latin translation from the original Greek made by Aloys. Emeric. Liber Baro Locella, Vienna, 1796, revised by Gerard Helzel, Hamburg, 2001.
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