2009 in paleontology

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Important taxa described (but not necessarily validly named) in 2009

Paleontology, palaeontology or palæontology (from Greek: paleo, "ancient"; ontos, "being"; and logos, "knowledge") is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils.[1] This includes the study of body fossils, tracks (ichnites), burrows, cast-off parts, fossilised faeces (coprolites), palynomorphs and chemical residues. Because mankind has encountered fossils for millennia, paleontology has a long history both before and after becoming formalized as a science. This article records significant discoveries and events related to paleontology that occurred in the year 2009.

Contents

Arthropods

Anomalocaridids

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Schinderhannes[2]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Kühl, Briggs, & Rust

Lower Devonian

Hunsrück Slate

 Germany

Schinderhannes bartelsi

Arachnids

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Palaeoperenethis[3]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Selden & Penney

Ypresian

Horsefly Lagerstätte, British Columbia

 Canada

Insects

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Agulla mineralensis[4]

sp nov

Valid

Engel

Late Barstovian

Stewart Valley Group

 USA

only described Neogene snakefly fossil

Allorapisma[5]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Makarkin & Archibald

Ypresian

Tom Thumb Tuff, Klondike Mountain Formation

 USA

Allorapisma chuorum
Apis (Cascapis) nearctica[6]

sp nov

Valid

Engel, Hinojosa-Diaz, & Rasnitsyn

Middle Miocene

 USA

The first fossil honey bee from the New World.

Aspidopleura[7]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Gibson

Eocene

Baltic amber

Aspidopleura baltica

Brevivulva[7]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Gibson

Eocene

Baltic amber

Brevivulva electroma

Cimbrophlebia brooksi[8]

sp nov

Valid

Archibald

Ypresian

Tom Thumb Tuff, Klondike Mountain Formation

 USA

Cimbrophlebia flabelliformis[8]

sp nov

Valid

Archibald

Ypresian

Kamloops Group, McAbee, British Columbia

 Canada

Cimbrophlebia leahyi[8]

sp nov

Valid

Archibald

Ypresian

Kamloops Group, McAbee, British Columbia

 Canada

Cimbrophlebia westae[8]

sp nov

Valid

Archibald

Ypresian

Tom Thumb Tuff, Klondike Mountain Formation

 USA

Denaeaspis[9]

gen et sp nov

valid

Chaboo & Engel

Lutetian

Parachute Member, Green River Formation

 USA

One of the oldest tortoise beetles

Eosacantha[9]

gen et sp nov

valid

Chaboo & Engel

Lutetian

Parachute Member, Green River Formation

 USA

One of the oldest tortoise beetles

Leptofoenus pittfieldae[10]

sp nov

Valid

Engel

Burdigalian

Dominican amber

 Dominican Republic

Leptofoenus pittfieldae

Metapelma archetypon[7]

sp nov

Valid

Gibson

Eocene

Baltic amber

Neanaperiallus[7]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Gibson

Eocene

Baltic amber

Nesagapostemon[11]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Engel

Burdigalian

Dominican amber

 Dominican Republic

Nymphes georgei[12]

sp nov

Valid

Archibald, Makarkin, & Ansorge

Ypresian

Tom Thumb Tuff, Klondike Mountain Formation

 USA

Oligochlora semirugosa[11]

sp nov

Valid

Engel

Burdigalian

Dominican amber

 Dominican Republic

Pronymphes hoffeinsorum[12]

Valid

Archibald, Makarkin, Ansorge

Priabonian

Yantarny [=Palmnicken], Kaliningradskaya Oblast’

 Russia

Termitaradus mitnicki[13]

sp nov

Valid

Engel

Burdigalian

Dominican amber

 Dominican Republic

Termitaradus mitnicki

Cephalopods

Three new species of extinct Octopoda discovered in 2009. The species - Keuppia hyperbolaris, Keuppia levante, and Styletoctopus annae - lived about 95 million years ago, and bear a strong resemblance to modern octopuses, suggesting that the Octopoda order has remained relatively unchanged for tens of millions of years. The fossils included evidence of arms, muscles, rows of suckers, ink, and internal gills. The discovery was made by a team led by Dirk Fuchs of the Freie University, which is located at Berlin, Germany.[14] The fossils were found at Hakel and Hadjoula, Lebanon.[15]

Name Novelty Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Keuppia[16]

Gen et sp nov

Valid

Fuchs, Bracchi, & Weis

Upper Cenomanian

 Lebanon

Keuppia levante

Styletoctopus[16]

gen et sp nov

Valid

Fuchs, Bracchi, & Weis

Upper Cenomanian

 Lebanon

Amphibians

Newly named amphibians

Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Cratia[17]

Valid

  • Báez
  • Moura
  • Gómez

Lower Cretaceous

Crato Formation

 Brazil

Possible stem neobatrachian

Eurycephalella[17]

Valid

  • Báez
  • Moura
  • Gómez

Lower Cretaceous

Crato Formation

 Brazil

A hyloid

Nannaroter[18]

Valid

Early Permian

 USA

The smallest known ostodolepid microsaur

Nesovtriton[19]

Valid

  • Skutschas

Turonian

Bissekty Formation

 Uzbekistan

A cryptobranchoid salamander

Regalerpeton[20]

Valid

  • Zhang
  • Wang
  • Jones
  • Evans

Early Cretaceous

Huajiying Formation

 China

A cryptobranchoid salamander

Spinarerpeton[21]

Valid

  • Klembara

Early Permian

Boskovice Furrow

 Czech Republic

A discosauriscid seymouriamorph

Anapsids

Newly named anapsids

Name Status Authors Discovery year Age Unit Location Notes Images

Angolachelys[22]

Valid

Turonian (Late Cretaceous)

 Angola

Aurorachelys[23]

Valid

Late Cretaceous

Strand Fiord Formation

 Canada

Australothyris[24]

Valid

Middle Permian

Tapinocephalus Assemblage Zone

 South Africa

A basal parareptile

Basilochelys[25]

Valid

Late Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous

Phu Kradung Formation

 Thailand

Cedrobaena[26]

Valid

  • Lyson
  • Joyce

Paleocene

Fort Union Formation

 USA

New genus for "Plesiobaena" putorius Gaffney, 1972

Derrisemys[27]

Junior synonym

  • Hutchison

Early Paleocene

 USA

Junior synonym of Hutchemys.[28]

Eileanchelys[29]

Valid

Middle Jurassic

Kilmaluag Formation

 Scotland

Hutchemys[30]

Valid

  • Joyce
  • Revan
  • Lyson
  • Danilov

Paleocene

Fort Union Formation
Tullock Formation

 USA

A plastomenine softshell turtles

Kinkonychelys[31]

Valid

Late Cretaceous

Maevarano Formation

 Madagascar

Palatobaena cohen[32]

Valid

  • Lyson
  • Joyce

Maastrichtian

Hell Creek Formation

 USA

A baenid

Peckemys[26]

Valid

  • Lyson
  • Joyce

Late Cretaceous

Hell Creek Formation

 USA

A baenid

Plastomenoides[27]

Junior synonym

  • Hutchison

Early Paleocene

 USA

Junior synonym of Hutchemys.[28]

Procolina[33]

Valid

  • Borsuk−Białynicka
  • Lubka

early Late Olenekian

Czatkowice 1

 Poland

A procolophonine procolophonid

Bony fish

Newly named Tetrapodomoprhs
Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images
Heddleichthys[34]

Valid

  • Snitting

Famennian (Late Devonian)

Dura Den Formation

 Scotland

Langlieria[35]

Valid

  • Clément
  • Snitting
  • Ahlberg

Famennian (Late Devonian)

Evieux Formation

 Belgium

  • Shimada, K. and Everhart, M.J. 2009. First record of Anomoeodus (Osteichthyes: Pycnodontiformes) from the Upper Cretaceous Niobrara Chalk of western Kansas. Kansas Academy of Science, Transactions 112(1/2):98-102.

A new species of late Maastrichtian bony fish (Ichthyodectiformes: Saurocephalus) from Jordan, Saurocephalus longicorpus described by Kaddumi (2009)

A new species of late Maastrichtian bony fish (Aulopiformes: Enchodontidae) from Jordan, Enchodus harranaensis described by Kaddumi (2009)

Reference: Kaddumi, H. F. 2009. Fossils of the Harrana Fauna and the Adjacent Areas. Publications of the Etrnal Rive Museum of Natural History, Amman. 324 pp.

Archosauromorphs

Basal archosauromorphs

Newly named basal archosauromorphs
Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Czatkowiella[36]

Valid

  • Borsuk−Białynicka
  • Evans

earliest Late Olenekian

Czatkowice 1

 Poland

A long−necked archosauromorph

Aves

  • Anfinson, O.A., Lockley, M.G., Kim, S.H., Kim, K.S., and Kim, J.Y. 2009. First report of the small bird track Koreanaornis from the Cretaceous of North America: implications for avian ichnotaxonomy and paleoecology. Cretaceous Research. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2009.02.001.
  • Lockley, M., Chin, K., Houck, K., Matsukawa, M., and Kukihara, R. 2009. New interpretations of Ignotornis, the first-reported Mesozoic avian footprints: implications for the paleoecology and behavior of an enigmatic Cretaceous bird. Cretaceous Research. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2009.04.001.
  • Bell, A. and Everhart, M.J. 2009. A new specimen of Parahesperornis (Aves: Hesperornithiformes) from the Smoky Hill Chalk (Early Campanian) of western Kansas. Kansas Academy of Science, Transactions 112(1/2):7-14.
Newly named birds
Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Alamitornis[37]

Valid

  • Agnolin
  • Martinelli

Late Cretaceous

Los Alamitos Formation

 Argentina

Shanweiniao cooperorum

Elbretornis[38]

Valid

  • Walker
  • Dyke

Maastrichtian

Lecho Formation

 Argentina

An enantiornithine.

Jianchangornis[39]

Valid

  • Zhou
  • Zhang
  • Li

Lower Cretaceous (Albian)

Jiufotang Formation

 China

Basal ornithurine.

Martinavis minor[38]

Valid

  • Walker
  • Dyke

Maastrichtian

Lecho Formation

 Argentina

An enantiornithine.

M. saltariensis[38]

Valid

  • Walker
  • Dyke

Maastrichtian

Lecho Formation

 Argentina

An enantiornithine.

M. whetstonei[38]

Valid

  • Walker
  • Dyke

Maastrichtian

Lecho Formation

 Argentina

An enantiornithine.

Rapaxavis[40]

Valid

  • Morschhauser
  • Varricchio
  • et al.[CAL 5]

Lower Cretaceous

Jiufotang Formation

 China

A longipterygid enantiornithine.

Shanweiniao[41]

Valid

Lower Cretaceous

Yixian Formation

 China

A longipterygid enantiornithine.

Talpanas[42]

Valid

  • Olson
  • James

Holocene

 USA

A Hawaiian duck that probably lived a kiwi-like lifestyle.

Crurotarsans

  • Delfino, M., and Smith, T. 2009. A reassessment of the morphology and taxonomic status of 'Crocodylus' depressifrons Blainville, 1855 (Crocodylia, Crocodyloidea) based on the Early Eocene remains from Belgium. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 156(1):140-167. doi: 10.1111/j.1096-3642.2009.00478.x.
Newly named crurotarsans
Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images
Armadillosuchus[43]

Valid

  • Marinho
  • Carvalho

Late Cretaceous

Adamantina Formation

 Brazil

Notosuchian with heavy, armadillo-like body armor consisting of flexible bands and rigid shields

Armadillosuchus
Kaprosuchus
Laganosuchus
Yacarerani
Barcinosuchus[44]

Valid

  • Leardi
  • Pol

Aptian - Albian

Cerro Barcino Formation

 Argentina

A peirosaurid

Collilongus[45]

Valid

  • Borsuk−Białynicka
  • Sennikov

Early Olenekian

Czatkowice 1

 Poland

Possible rauisuchian

Coringasuchus[46]

Valid

Early Cenomanian

Alcântara Formation

 Brazil

Duerosuchus[47]

Valid

  • Santiago
  • Andrés

Middle Eocene

 Spain

Hypselorhachis[48]

Valid

Middle Triassic

Manda Beds

 Tanzania

Possible ctenosauriscid

Kaprosuchus[49]

Valid

Upper Cretaceous

Echkar Formation

 Niger

Unusual large mahajangasuchid with hypertrophied caniniform teeth and posteriorly projecting horns

Khoratosuchus[50]

Valid

Early Cretaceous

 Thailand

Youngest Mesozoic crocodyliform yet known from Thailand

Laganosuchus [49]

Valid

Cenomanian

Echkar Formation
Kem Kem Beds

 Niger
 Morocco

Miadanasuchus [51]

Valid

  • Simons
  • Buckley

Campanian

Maevarano Formation

 Madagascar

A new genus for "Trematochampsa" oblita (Buffetaut & Taquet, 1979)

Morrinhosuchus[52]

Valid

  • Iori
  • Carvalho

Late Cretaceous

Adamantina Formation

 Brazil

Notosuchian from Brazil

Penghusuchus[53]

Valid

Late Miocene

 Taiwan

A tomistomine crocodilian.

Polonosuchus[54]

Valid

Late Carnian

 Poland

A new genus for "Teratosaurus" silesiacus (Sulej, 2005)

Yacarerani [55]

Valid

Late Cretaceous

 Bolivia

Non-avian dinosaurs

Research

  • A new study on theropod furculae is published.[56]
  • A "detailed description of the skull and mandible of the Chinese cerapodan ornithischian dinosaur Jeholosaurus shangyuanensis" is published.[57]
  • Knoll, F., Padian, K., and de Ricqles, A. 2009. Ontogenetic change and adult body size of the early ornithischian dinosaur Lesothosaurus diagnosticus: Implications for basal ornithischian taxonomy. Gondwana Research. doi:10.1016/j.gr.2009.03.010.
  • Matthews, J. C., Brusatte, S. L., Williams, S. A., and Henderson, M. D., 2009, The first Triceratops bonebed and its implications for gregarious behavior: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 29, n. 1, p. 286-290.
  • Williamson, T. E., Carr, T. D., Williams, S. A., and Tremaine, K., 2009, Early ontogeny of pachycephalosaurine squamosals as revealed by juvenile specimens from the Hell Creek Formation, eastern Montana: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 29, n. 1, p. 291-294.
  • Bittencourt, J.S., and A.W.A. Kellner. 2009. The anatomy and phylogenetic position of the Triassic dinosaur Staurikosaurus pricei Colbert, 1970. Zootaxa 2079:1-56.
  • Chin, K., Hartman, J.H., and Roth, B. 2009. Opportunistic exploitation of dinosaur dung: fossil snails in coprolites from the Upper Cretaceous Two Medicine Formation of Montana. Lethaia 42(2):185-198. doi:10.1111/j.1502-3931.2008.00131.x.
  • Maidment, S.C.R., and Porro, L.B. 2009. Homology of the palpebral and origin of supraorbital ossifications in ornithischian dinosaurs. Lethaia. doi:10.1111/j.1502-3931.2009.00172.x.
  • Gates, T.A., and Farke, A.A. 2009. Biostratigraphic and biogeographic implications of a hadrosaurid (Ornithopoda: Dinosauria) from the Upper Cretaceous Almond Formation of Wyoming, USA. Cretaceous Research. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2009.05.001.
  • Moratalla, J.J., and Hernán, J. 2008. Los Cayos S y D: dos afloramientos con icnitas de saurópodos, terópodos y ornitópodos en el Cretácico Inferior del área de Los Cayos (Cornago, La Rioja, España). Estudios Geológicos 64(2):161-173. doi:10.3989/egeol.08642.043.
  • Taylor, M.P., Wedel, M.J., and Naish, D. 2009. Head and neck posture in sauropod dinosaurs inferred from extant animals. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica 54 (2): 213–220.

Hadrosaur chewing study

A study titled "Quantitative analysis of dental microwear in hadrosaurid dinosaurs, and the implications for hypotheses of jaw mechanics and feeding" is published by British paleontologists Mark Purnell, Paul Barrett and student Vince Williams. The paper examined the chewing methods and diet of hadrosaurid ("duck billed") dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous period. The scientists analyzed hundreds of microscopic scratches on the teeth of a fossilized Edmontosaurus jaw, and believe they determined exactly how a hadrosaur broke down and ate its food, which had previously eluded researchers.

The study found hadrosaurs had a unique way of eating unlike any creature living today. In contrast to a flexible lower jaw joint prevalent in today's mammals, hadrosaurs had a unique hinge between the upper jaws and the rest of its skull. The team found the dinosaur's upper jaws pushed outwards and sideways while chewing, as the lower jaw slid against the upper teeth.

The study also concluded that hadrosaurs likely grazed on horsetails and vegetation close to the ground, rather than browsing higher-growing leaves and twigs. However, Purnell said these conclusions were less secure than the more conclusive evidence regarding the motion of teeth while chewing. Previous studies found contradictory conclusions, and the issue remains a subject of debate.

The findings were published on June 30, 2009 in the journal, The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Purnell said no previous study had ever employed this method of analyzing microscopic teeth scratches, and that the method could be used to study other areas of scientific research.

New taxa

Data courtesy of George Olshevky's dinosaur genera list.[58] ~44 dinosaur genera were erected in 2009.

Name Status Authors Discovery year Age Unit Location Notes Images
Adeopapposaurus[59] Valid
  • Ricardo N. Martínez

Cañón del Colorado Formation

 Argentina

Adeopapposaurus
Anchiornis
Hesperonychus
Kol
Limusaurus
Miragaia
Panphagia
Qiaowanlong
Raptorex
Skorpiovenator
Spinophorosaurus
Tawa
Tethyshadros
Tianyulong
Wintonotitan
Zanabazar
Aerosteon[60] Valid

Rio Colorado Formation

 Argentina

Albalophosaurus [61]

Valid
  • Ohashi
  • Barrett

Kuwajima Formation

 Japan

Albertonykus[62] Valid

lower Maastrichtian

Horseshoe Canyon Formation

 Canada

Anchiornis[63] Valid

Tiaojishan Formation

 China

Angulomastacator[64]

Valid

  • J. R. Wagner
  • Lehman

Aguja Formation

 USA

Arenysaurus[65]

Valid

  • Xabier Pereda-Suberbiolaa
  • José Ignacio Canudob
  • et al.[CAL 15]

Australovenator[66]

Valid

Winton Formation

 Australia

Baotianmansaurus[67]

Valid

Gaogou Formation

 China

Barrosasaurus[68]

Valid
  • Salgado
  • Coria

Anacleto Formation

 Argentina

Ceratonykus[69]

Valid

  • Alifanov
  • Barsbold

Baruungoyot Formation

 Mongolia

Diamantinasaurus[70]

Valid

Winton Formation

 Australia

Elrhazosaurus[71]

Valid

  • Galton

Elrhaz Formation

 Niger

Helioceratops[72]

Valid

Quantou Formation

 China

Hesperonychus[73]

Valid

  • Longrich
  • Currie

Dinosaur Park Formation

 Canada

Smallest known dinosaur from North America.

Jintasaurus[74]

Valid

  • You
  • Li

Xinminpu Group

 China

Kemkemia[75]

Valid

  • Cau
  • Maganuco

Kem Kem Beds

 Morocco

Kinnareemimus[76]

Valid

  • Buffetaut
  • Suteethorn
  • Tong

Sao Khua Formation

 Thailand

Kol[77]

Valid

  • Turner
  • Nesbitt
  • Norell

Djadochta Formation

 Mongolia

Leshansaurus[78]

Valid

Shangshaximiao Formation

 China

Levnesovia[79] Valid
  • Sues
  • Averianov

Bissekty Formation

 Uzbekistan

The oldest Hadrosauroidean

Limusaurus[80] Valid
  • Xu

Shishugou Formation

 China

The first Asian ceratosaur to be discovered

Luoyanggia[81] Valid

Mangchuan Formation

 China

An oviraptorosaur

Malarguesaurus[82] Valid
  • González Riga
  • Previtera
  • Pirrone

Portezuelo Formation

 Argentina

Minotaurasaurus[83] Valid
  • Clifford A. Miles
  • Clark J. Mikes
Miragaia[84] Valid
  • Mateus
  • Maidment
  • Christiansen

Sobral Formation

 Portugal

Long necked stegosaur.

Owenodon[71]

Valid

  • Galton

Purbeck Limestone

 UK

Panphagia[85] Valid
  • Martinez
  • Alcober

Ischigualasto Formation

 Argentina

The most basal known sauropodomorph.[85]

Qiaowanlong[74]

Valid
  • You
  • Li

Xinminpu Group

 China

Raptorex[86]

Yixian Formation

 China

Tyrannosauroidea

Ruyangosaurus[87]

Valid

Mangchuan Formation

 China

Shaochilong[88]

Valid

Ulansuhai Formation

 China

Shidaisaurus[89]

Valid

Upper Lufeng Formation

 China

Sinotyrannus[90]

Valid

  • Ji
  • Ji
  • Zhang

Jiufotang Formation

 China

Skorpiovenator[91] Valid

Huincul Formation

 Argentina

Spinophorosaurus[92]

Irhazer Group

 Niger

Sauropoda

Tatankacephalus[93]

Valid

  • Parsons
  • Parsons

Cloverly Formation

 USA

Tawa[94]

Valid

Chinle Formation

 USA

Tethyshadros[95]

Valid

  • Dalla Vecchia

Liburnia Formation

 Italy

Tianyulong[96]

Valid

Tiaojishan Formation

 China

Wintonotitan[70]

Valid

Winton Formation

 Australia

Xianshanosaurus[81] Valid

Mangchuan Formation

 China

A sauropod

"Xinghesaurus"

Nomen nudum

Name published without scientific description in Japanese guidebook "Dinosaur Expo 2009: The Miracle of Deserts"

Zanabazar[97]

Valid

Nemegt Formation

 Mongolia

Pterosaurs

  • Lü, J. 2009. A new non-pterodactyloid pterosaur from Qinglong County, Hebei Province of China. Acta Geologica Sinica (English Edition) 83(2):189-199. doi: 10.1111/j.1755-6724.2009.00062.x.
  • Vullo, R., and Neraudeau, D., 2009, Pterosaur remains from the Cenomanian (Late Cretaceous) Paralic Deposits of Charentes, Western France: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology, v. 29, n. 1, p. 277-282.
Newly named pterosaurs
Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Carniadactylus[98]

Valid

  • Dalla Vecchia

Late Triassic

 Italy

A campylognathoidid with a wingspan of about 70 cm.

Changchengopterus[99]

Valid

Middle Jurassic

Tiaojishan Formation

 China

A primitive long-tailed pterosaur related to Dorygnathus.

Ningchengopterus[100]

Valid

Early Cretaceous

Yixian Formation

 China

A pterodactyloid known from a juvenile specimen whose fossils preserved details of the flight membrane and fur.

Wukongopterus[101]

Valid

  • Wang
  • Kellner
  • Jiang
  • Meng

Late Jurassic

Daohugou Beds

 China

A primitive long tailed pterosaur. The type specimen shows evidence of the animal having broken its shin while alive.

Lepidosauromorphs

Basal lepidosauromorphs

Newly named basal lepidosauromorphs
Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Pamelina[102]

Valid

  • Evans

Early Olenekian

Czatkowice 1

 Poland

A basal kuehneosaurid

Sophineta[103]

Valid

  • Evans
  • Borsuk−Białynicka

earliest Late Olenekian

Czatkowice 1

 Poland

A basal lepidosauromorph

Plesiosaurs

  • In 2009, in Svalbard, Norway a new pliosaur was found by Jorn Hurum. It currently is codenamed as "Predator X."
  • O'Keefe, F. R., and Street, H. P., 2009. Osteology of the cryptocleidoid plesiosaur Tatenectes laramiensis, with comments on the taxonomic status of the Cimoliasauridae: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 29(1):48–57.
Newly named plesiosaurs
Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Gallardosaurus[104]

Valid

  • Gasparini

Late Jurassic (Oxfordian)

Jagua Formation

 Cuba

Nichollssaura[105]

Valid

  • Druckenmiller
  • Russell

Early Cretaceous (Albian)

Clearwater Formation

 Canada

Replacement name for Nichollsia Druckenmiller & Russell, 2008, preoccupied by a isopod genus Nichollsia Chopra & Tiwari, 1950

Squamates

Newly named squamates
Name Status Authors Notes Images
Titanoboa[106] Valid
  • Head
  • Bloch
  • Hastings
  • Bourque
  • Cadena
  • Herrera
  • Polly
  • Jaramillo

In February, the fossils of 28 individual T. cerrejonensis (Titanoboas) were announced to have been found in the coal mines of Cerrejón, La Guajira, Colombia.[107]

Scientists with the Titanoboa fossils.

Synapsids

Non-mammalian

Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Protuberum[108]

Valid

  • Reichel
  • Schultz
  • Soares

Middle Triassic (Ladinian)

Santa Maria Formation

 Brazil

Raranimus dasahankouensis

Raranimus[109]

Valid

  • Liu
  • Rubidge
  • Li

Middle Permian (Roadian)

Xidagou Formation

 China

Yuanotherium[110]

Valid

  • Hu
  • Meng
  • Clark

Late Jurassic (Oxfordian)

Shishugou Formation

 China

Mammals

  • A study by J. R. Foster is published estimating the body masses of mammals from the Late Jurassic Morrison Formation by using the ratio of dentary length to body mass of modern marsupials as a reference. Foster concludes that Docodon was the most massive mammal genus of the formation at 141g and Fruitafossor was the least massive at 6g. The average Morrison mammal had a mass of 48.5g. A graph of the body mass distribution of Morrison mammal genera produced a right-skewed curve, meaning that there were more low-mass genera.[111]
  • Fujiwara, S.-I. 2009. Olecranon orientation as an indicator of elbow joint angle in the stance phase, and estimation of forelimb posture in extinct quadruped animals. Journal of Morphology. doi: 10.1002/jmor.10748.
  • Fujiwara, S.-I., Kuwazuru, O., Inuzuka, N., and Yochikawa, N. 2009. Relationship between scapular position and structural strength of rib cage in quadruped animals. Journal of Morphology. doi: 10.1002/jmor.10744.
  • Mitchell, G., van Sittert, S.J., and Skinner, J.D. 2009. Sexual selection is not the origin of long necks in giraffes. Journal of Zoology. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7998.2009.00573.x.
Newly named mammals
Name Status Authors Age Unit Location Notes Images

Anoiapithecus[112]

Valid

Middle Miocene

 Spain

Puijila

Arcantiodelphys[113]

Valid

Cenomanian

 France

Corriebaatar[114]

Valid

Aptian

Wonthaggi Formation

 Australia

First Australian multituberculate.

Darwinius[115]

Valid

early Geiseltalian

Messel Formation

 Germany

Duerotherium[116]

Valid

  • Cuesta
  • Badiola

Middle Eocene

An anoplotheriine artiodactyl

Eritherium[117]

Valid

  • Gheerbrant

Early Thanetian

Ouled Abdoun basin

 Morocco

The oldest, smallest and most primitive elephant relative.

Ganlea[118]

Valid

late Middle Eocene

Pondaung Formation

 Myanmar

Kahawamys[119]

Valid

Late Oligocene

Nsungwe Formation

 Tanzania

A thryonomyoid rodent

Maiacetus[120]

Valid

early Middle Eocene

Habib Rahi Formation

 Pakistan

Meiconodon[121]

Valid

Aptian/Albian

Fuxin Formation
Shahai Formation

 China

A alticonodontine triconodontid

Nalameryx[122]

Valid

  • Métais
  • Welcomme
  • Ducrocq

Middle Oligocene

Chitarwata Formation

 Pakistan

A lophiomerycid ruminant

Puijila[123]

Valid

  • Rybczynski
  • Dawson
  • Tedford

Early Miocene

 Canada

Extinct genus of pinniped.

Relevant research in other sciences

Evolutionary biology

  • A study is published that proposes that females from certain taxa use ornaments as a criterion for mate choice because other dimorphic structures, like biological "weaponry" could be used to coerce or force them to mate.[124]
  • A study concludes that biotic factors have more pronounced local and short term evolutionary impacts than abiotic factors, which in turn have a more pronounced effect through time and on biodiversity as a whole.[125]

Extinction

A study noting the effects of the KT mass extinction on Earth's modern biota is published.[126]

Geology

  • Zhang, H.; Wei, Z.-L.; Liu, X.-M.; Li, D. (2009). "Constraints on the age of the Tuchengzi Formation by LA-ICP-MS dating in northern Hebei-western Liaoning, China". Science in China D 52 (4): 461–470. doi:10.1007/s11430-009-0052-9. 

Ichnology

  • Bedatou, E., Melchor, R.N., and Genise, J.F. 2009. Complex palaeosol ichnofabrics from Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous volcaniclastic successions of central Patagonia, Argentina. Sedimentary Geology. doi:10.1016/j.sedgeo.2009.04.005

Paleobiogeography

  • Pereda-Suberbiola, X. 2009. Biogeographical affinities of Late Cretaceous

continental tetrapods of Europe: a review. Bulletin de la Société Géologique de France 180(1):57-71. doi:10.2113/gssgfbull.180.1.57.

Paleoecology

  • Nicolas, M., and Rubidge, B.S. 2009. Changes in Permo-Triassic terrestrial tetrapod ecological representation in the Beaufort Group (Karoo Supergroup) of South Africa. Lethaia. doi: 10.1111/j.1502-3931.2009.00171.x.

Footnotes

Complete author list

As science becomes more collaborative, papers with large numbers of authors are becoming more common. To prevent the deformation of the tables, these footnotes list the contributors to papers that erect new genera and have many authors.

  1. ^ Mateus, Jacobs, Polcyn, Schulp, Vineyard, Neto, Antunes.
  2. ^ Vandermark, Tarduno, Brinkman, Cottrell, Mason.
  3. ^ Tong, Claude, Naksri, Suteethorn, Buffetaut, Khansubba, Wongko, Yuandetkla.
  4. ^ Anquetin, Barrett, Jones, Moore-Fay, Evans.
  5. ^ Morschhauser, Varricchio, Gao, Liu, Wang, Cheng, Meng.
  6. ^ O'Connor, Wang, Chiappe, Gao, Meng, Cheng, and Liu.
  7. ^ Kellner, Pinheiro, Azevedo, Henriques, de Carvalho, Oliveira.
  8. ^ Butler, Barrett, Abel, Gower.
  9. ^ Lauprasert, Cuny, Thirakhupt, Suteethorn.
  10. ^ Shan, Wu, Cheng, Sato.
  11. ^ Brusatte, Butler, Sulej, Niedźwiedzki.
  12. ^ Novas, Pais, Pol, Carvalho, Mones, Scanferla, Riglos.
  13. ^ Sereno, R. N. Martinez, J. A. Wilson, Varricchio, Alcober.
  14. ^ Xu X., Zhao Q., Norell, C. Sullivan, Hone, Erickson, Wang X. L., Han F., Guo.
  15. ^ Xabier Pereda-Suberbiolaa, José Ignacio Canudob, Penélope Cruzado-Caballerob, José Luis Barcoc, Nieves López-Martínezd, Oriol Omse, José Ignacio Ruiz-Omeñaca.
  16. ^ a b c Hocknull, White, Tischler, Cook, Calleja, Sloan, Elliott.
  17. ^ Zhang, X., Lü, J., Xu, L., Li, J., Yang, L.K., Hu, W., Jia, S., Ji, Q. Zhang, C.
  18. ^ Jin, Chen, Zan, Godefroit.
  19. ^ Li, Peng, Jiang, Huang.
  20. ^ a b Lü, Xu, Jiang, Jia, Li, Yuan, Zhang, Ji.
  21. ^ Sereno, Brusatte, Kriegstein, Zhao, Cloward.
  22. ^ Lu, Xu, Jia, Zhang, Zhang, Yang, You, Ji.
  23. ^ Brusatte, Benson, Chure, Xu, Sullivan, Hone.
  24. ^ Wu, Currie, Dong, Pan, Tang.
  25. ^ Canale, Scanferla, Agnolin, Novas.
  26. ^ Remes, Ortega, Fierro, Joger, Kosma, Ferrer.
  27. ^ Nesbitt, Smith, Irmis, Turner, Downs, Norell.
  28. ^ Zheng, You, Xu, Dong.
  29. ^ Hasegawa, Carpenter, Lamanna, Xu.
  30. ^ Norell, Makovicky, Bever, Balanoff, Clark, Barsbold, Rowe.
  31. ^ Moyà-Solà, Alba, Almécija, Casanovas-Vilar, Köhler, De Esteban-Trivigno, Robles, Galindo, Fortuny.
  32. ^ Vullo, Gheerbrant, de Muizon, Néraudeau.
  33. ^ Rich, Vickers-Rich, Flannery, Kear, Cantrill, Komarower, Kool, Pickering, Trusler, Morton, van Klaveren, Fitzgerald.
  34. ^ Franzen, Gingerich, Habersetzer, Hurum, von Koenigswald, Smith.
  35. ^ Beard, Marivaux, Chaimanee, Jaeger, Marandat, Tafforeau, Soe, Tun, Kyaw.
  36. ^ Stevens, Holroyd, Roberts, O'connor, Gottfried.
  37. ^ Gingerich, ul-Haq, von Koenigswald, Sanders, Smith, Zalmout.
  38. ^ Kusuhashi, Hu, Wang, Hirasawa, Matsuoka.

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  20. ^ Zhang, Guilin; Wang, Yuan; Jones, Marc E.H.; Evans, Susan E. (2009). "A new Early Cretaceous salamander (Regalerpeton weichangensis gen. et sp. nov.) from the Huajiying Formation of northeastern China". Cretaceous Research 30 (3): 551–558. doi:10.1016/j.cretres.2008.10.004. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6WD3-4TSD9BD-1&_user=10&_coverDate=06%2F30%2F2009&_rdoc=1&_fmt=high&_orig=search&_sort=d&_docanchor=&view=c&_searchStrId=1431693494&_rerunOrigin=google&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=c731e40ef8c9a4d2d47ce42acbc861e7. 
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  29. ^ Anquetin, J.; Barrett, P.M.; Jones, M.E.H.; Moore-Fay, S. & Evans, S.E. (2009). "A new stem turtle from the Middle Jurassic of Scotland: new insights into the evolution and palaeoecology of basal turtles". Proccedings of the Royal Society B 276 (1658): 879–886. doi:10.1098/rspb.2008.1429. PMC 2664364. PMID 19019789. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2664364. .
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