Bishopric of Cammin

Bishopric of Cammin
Bistum Cammin or Kammin
State of the Holy Roman Empire
Wappen Pommern.svg
1140–1544 Wappen Pommern.svg

Coat of arms

Territory (violet) about 1250
Capital Wollin (Wolin) until ~1150, 
Usedom Abbey until 1175, 
then Cammin (Kammin, Kamień)
Government Theocracy
Historical era Middle Ages
 - Bishopric founded 1140
 - Joined Upper Saxon Circle 1512
 - lost Reichsfreiheit 1544
 - Secularized 1650

The Bishopric of Cammin (also Kammin, Kamień) was both a former Roman Catholic diocese in the Duchy of Pomerania from 1140 to 1544,[1] and a secular territory (Prince-Bishopric) in the Kolberg (Kołobrzeg) area from 1248 to 1650.

The diocese comprised the areas controlled by the House of Pomerania in the 12th century, thus differing from the later territory of the Duchy of Pomerania by the exclusion of the Principality of Rügen and inclusion of Circipania, Mecklenburg-Strelitz, and the northern Uckermark and Neumark. The diocese was rooted in the Conversion of Pomerania by Otto of Bamberg in 1124 and 1128, and was dissolved during the Protestant Reformation, when the Pomeranian nobility adapted Lutheranism in 1534 and the last pre-reformatory bishop died in 1544. The Catholic diocese was succeeded by the Pomeranian Evangelical Church.

The secular territory of the former diocese continued to exist as a prince-bishopric and principality within the Duchy of Pomerania, and was dissolved in 1650 when it fell to Brandenburg-Prussia. The area of the former principality was administered as Fürstenthum county within the Province of Pomerania until its division in 1872.

Contents

History

After Duke Bolesław III Wrymouth of Poland had conquered Pomerania until 1121/22, Saint Otto of Bamberg between 1124 and 1128 christianzed the area.[2] Otto's first mission in 1124 followed a failed mission by eremite Bernard in 1122, and was initiated by Boleslaw with the approval of both Lothair III, Holy Roman Emperor, and Pope Callixtus II.[3] Otto's second mission in 1128 was initiated by Lothair after a pagan reaction.[4] Wartislaw I, Duke of Pomerania supported and aided both missions.[5] Between the missions, he had expanded his duchy westward, up to Güstrow.[6] These former Lutician areas were not subject to Polish overlordship, but claimed by the Holy Roman Empire.[7][8] Otto during his lifetime did not succeed in founding a diocese, caused by a conflict of the archbishops of Magdeburg and Gniezno about hegemony in the area.[9][10][11][12] Otto died in 1139.[10]

Pope Innocent II founded the diocese by a papal bull of 14 October, 1140, and made the church of St. Adalbert at Julin (Wollin, Wolin) on the island of Wolin the see of the diocese.[10][13][14][15] In the bull, the new diocese was placed "under the protection of the see of the Holy Peter", thwarting ambitions of the archbishops of Magdeburg and Gniezno, who both wanted to incorporate the new diocese into their realms.[10][14] Adalbert, a former chaplain of Saint Otto who had participated in Otto's mission as an interpreter and assistant, was consecrated bishop at Rome.[14][16] Adalbert and Ratibor I founded Stolpe Abbey at the side of Wartislaw I's assassination by a pagan in 1153, the first monastery in Pomerania.

The Cathedral of St. John the Baptist in Kamień Pomorski, the former Kammin (Cammin)

The bishops held the title of Pomeranorum or Pomeranorum et Leuticorum episcopus, referring to the tribal territories of the Pomeranians and Luticians merged in the Duchy of Pomerania.[17]

In the late 12th century the territory of the Griffin dukes was raided several times by Saxon troops of Henry the Lion and Danish forces under King Valdemar I. The initial see of in Wollin was moved to Grobe Abbey on the island of Usedom after 1150.[18][19] At the same time Wollin economically decayed and was devastated by Danish expeditions, which contributed to the move to Grobe.[19] The see was again moved to Kammin (Cammin, now Kamien Pomorskie) in 1175,[18][19][20] where a chapter was founded for the Cathedral of St. John.[19][21] All this time, the question of subordinance of the Pomeranian diocese to an archdioces remained unsolved.[22] Since 1188, when the pope accepted the move of the see, the bishopric was referred to as "Roman Catholic Diocese of Kammin", while before it was addressed as Pomeranensis ecclesia,[17] Pomeranian diocese.[23] The pope furthermore placed the bishopric directly under the Holy See.[24][25][26] Since 1208, the bishops held the title Caminensis episcopus.[27]

The Duchy of Pomerania (yellow) in 1400, P.-Stettin and P.-Wolgast are indicated; purple: Secular area of the Cammin bishopric (BM. Cammin) and the Teutonic Order state; orange: Margraviate of Brandenburg; pink: duchies of Mecklenburg
Church provinces in 1500, Bishopric of Cammin shown in brown.

The area of the diocese resembled the area controlled by Wartislaw I and his brother and successor, Ratibor I.[20] The northern border was defined by the coastline and the border with the Principality of Rügen (Ryck river).[28] In the West, the diocese included Circipania up to Güstrow.[28] In the Southwest, the border of the diocese ran south to a line Güstrow-Ivenack-Altentreptow in a near straight West-East orientation, then took a sharp southward turn west of Ueckermünde to include Prenzlau.[28] The border then turned east to meet the Oder river south of Gartz and followed the Oder to the Warta confluence to include Zehden.[28] In the South, the diocese border ran immediately north of the Warthe to include Landsberg and Soldin.[28] The southeastern border left the Warthe area with a sharp turn running straight north to Dramburg, then turned eastward south of the town to include Tempelburg.[28] Then, after a southeast turn, it turned northeast towards Bütow.[28] The eastern border ran east of Bütow and west of Lauenburg in Pomerania to meet the seacost east of Revekol.[28]

When Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa deposed Henry the Lion in 1180 he granted Pomerania under Bogislaw I the status of an Imperial duchy, but from 1185 it was a Danish fief until the 1227 Battle of Bornhöved. In 1248, the Kammin bishops and the Pomeranian dukes had interchanged the terrae Stargard and Kolberg, leaving the bishops in charge of the latter.[29] In the following, the bishops extended their secular reign which soon comprised the Kolberg (now Kołobrzeg), Köslin (also Cöslin, now Koszalin) and Bublitz (now Bobolice) areas.[30] When in 1276 they became the sovereign of the town of Kolberg also, they moved their residence there.[29] Bishop Hermann von Gleichen founded the towns of Köslin (Koszalin) in 1266 and Massow (Maszewo) in 1278. The administration of the diocese was done from Köslin.[29]

The bishops at multiple occasions tried to exclude their secular reign from ducal overlordship by applying for Imperial immediacy (Reichsunmittelbarkeit).[30] The Pomeranian dukes successfully forestalled these ambitions,[30] and immediacy was granted only temporarily in 1345.[29] The addition of profane territory would be the basis for later turning the status of the diocese into a prince-bishopric.

The Protestant Reformation reached Pomerania in the early 16th century, and Lutheranism was made the Duchy of Pomerania's religion in 1534. The reformator Johannes Bugenhagen, appointed bishop by 1544, did not assume the office, the chapter elected Bartholomaeus Swawe, the former chancellor of Duke Barnim XI of Pomerania-Stettin, who promptly renounced Imperial immediacy. From 1556 on the Griffin dukes held also the office of a titular bishop of Kammin. In 1650 the last bishop Ernst Bogislaw von Croÿ resigned and the diocese was secularised. With Farther Pomerania it fell to Brandenburg-Prussia.

Bishops of Kammin

Catholic bishops

  • Adalbert of Pomerania 1140–1162
  • Konrad I of Salzwedel 1163–1186
  • Siegfried I 1186–1202
  • Siegwin 1202–1219
  • Konrad II von Demmin 1219–1223
  • Konrad III von Gützkow 1223–1245

Prince-Bishops

  • Wilhelm 1245–1252
  • Hermann von Gleichen 1252–1288
  • Jaromar Prince of Rugia 1288–1298 (son of Prince Wizlaw II)
  • Peter 1298
  • Heinrich von Wachholz 1299–1317?
  • Konrad IV 1317?–1324
  • Wilhelm II 1324–1329
    • Otto 1324–1326 (counter-bishop)
    • Arnold von Eltz 1326–1329 (counter-bishop)
  • Friedrich von Eickstedt 1329–1343
  • John I of Saxe-Lauenburg 1344–1372
  • Philipp von Rehberg 1372–1385
  • John II Wilken von Kosselyn 1386–1394
    • Bogislaw VIII, Duke of Pomerania-Stargard 1377–1417 (administrator 1386–1392), † 1417
  • John III Kropidło, 1394–1398, † 1421
  • Nikolaus Bock 1398–1410
  • Magnus of Saxe-Lauenburg 1410–1424
  • Siegfried II. von Bock 1424–1449
  • Henning Iwen 1449–1469
  • Vacant
  • Henning Kessebogen 1471
  • Ludwig Graf von Eberstein-Naugard 1471–1479
  • Nicolaus von Tüngen 1479, 1467-1489 Prince-Bishop of Warmia (Ermland )
  • Marinus Freganus 1479–1482
  • Angelo Geraldini 1482–1485 (also Bishop of Sessa Aurunca 1462–1486)
  • Benedikt von Waldstein 1486–1498
    • Nikolaus Westphal 1486–1488 (Administrator)
  • Martin Karith 1499–1521
  • Erasmus von Manteuffel-Arnhausen 1521–1544

Post-Reformation Protestant Bishops

From 1558 Superintendents:

  • Bartholomäus Swawe 1544–1549
  • Martin Weiher von Leba 1549–1556 (Martin von Weiher in German)
  • Georg Venetus 1558–1567 (the title Bishop was held by the dukes)
  • Petrus Edeling 1568–1602
  • Adam Hamel 1605–1620
  • Immanuel König 1622–1645

Pomeranian Prince-Bishops

  • John Frederick, Duke of Pomerania 1556–1574, † 1600
  • Casimir IX, Duke of Pomerania-Wolgast 1574–1602, † 1605
  • Francis, Duke of Pomerania-Barth 1602–1618, † 1620
  • Ulrich, Duke of Pomerania-Barth 1618–1623
  • Bogislaw XIV, Duke of Pomerania 1623–1637
  • Ernst Bogislaw von Croy, Prince of Croy 1637–1650, † 1684

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Diocese of Kammin, Germany
  2. ^ Norman Davies, God's Playground: A History of Poland : in Two Volumes (2005 edition), p. 69.
  3. ^ Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeit, 1999, pp.36-37, ISBN 839061848
  4. ^ Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeit, 1999, p.40, ISBN 839061848
  5. ^ Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeit, 1999, pp.38,40, ISBN 839061848
  6. ^ Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeit, 1999, p.41, ISBN 839061848
  7. ^ Kyra Inachim, Die Geschichte Pommerns, Hinstorff Rostock, 2008, p.17, ISBN 978-3-356-01044-2
  8. ^ Norbert Buske, Pommern, Helms Schwerin 1997, p.11, ISBN 3-931185-07-9
  9. ^ Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeit, 1999, p.47, ISBN 839061848: "...gelang es ihm nicht, ein pommersches Bistum ins Leben zu rufen - vermutlich eine Folge der Kompetenzstreitigkeiten zwischen den Erzbistümern Gnesen und Magdeburg."
  10. ^ a b c d Kyra Inachim, Die Geschichte Pommerns, Hinstorff Rostock, 2008, p.15, ISBN 978-3-356-01044-2: "Zunächst waren die kirchlichen Verhältnisse noch ungeordnet, da sowohl Gnesen als auch Magdeburg Ansprüche auf die neue Kirchenprovinz erhoben. Erst nach dem Tod des Pommernapostels Otto von Bamberg (1939) bestätigte Papst Innozenz II 1140 das pommersche Landesbistum und unterstellte die Pomeraniae ecclesia dem Schutz des Heiligen Petrus. Es entstand ein unabhängiges pommersches Bistum mit Sitz in Wollin (Jumne)."
  11. ^ Norbert Buske, Pommern, Helms Schwerin 1997, p.14, ISBN 3-931185-07-9: "...erhoben sowohl das Erzbistum Gnesen [...] als auch das Erzbistum Magdeburg [...] Ansprüche auf das pommersche Gebiet. Die pommersche Kirche blieb deshalb zunächst unter der unmittelbaren Aufsicht von Bamberg."
  12. ^ André Vauchez, Richard Barrie Dobson, Michael Lapidge, Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages, p. 1061., Routledge, 2000, ISBN 1-57958-282-6 [1]
  13. ^ PEK History (German) PEK History (Polish)
  14. ^ a b c Norbert Buske, Pommern, Helms Schwerin 1997, p.14, ISBN 3-931185-07-9
  15. ^ Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeit, 1999, p.47, ISBN 839061848
  16. ^ Werner Buchholz, Pommern, Siedler, 1999, p.29, ISBN 3-88680-272-8
  17. ^ a b Wolfgang Wilhelminus et al, Pommern. Geschichte, Kultur, Wissenschaft, University of Greifswald, 1990, p.57
  18. ^ a b Norbert Buske, Pommern, Helms Schwerin 1997, p.14-15, ISBN 3-931185-07-9
  19. ^ a b c d Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeit, 1999, p.48, ISBN 839061848
  20. ^ a b Kyra Inachim, Die Geschichte Pommerns, Hinstorff Rostock, 2008, p.16, ISBN 978-3-356-01044-2
  21. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia, article Pomerania
  22. ^ Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeit, 1999, p.48, ISBN 839061848: "Die Zugehörigkeit des pommerschen Bistums zu einer Erzdiozese blieb anscheinend weiter unentschieden."
  23. ^ Norbert Buske, Pommern, Helms Schwerin 1997, p.15, ISBN 3-931185-07-9
  24. ^ Jan M Piskorski, Pommern im Wandel der Zeit, 1999, p.49, ISBN 839061848: "Schließlich entschied der Pabst die Frage der Zugehörigkeit und unterstellte das Bistum Cammin - sicherlich mit Zustimmung des pommerschen Klerus - direkt Rom."
  25. ^ Kyra Inachim, Die Geschichte Pommerns, Hinstorff Rostock, 2008, p.16, ISBN 978-3-356-01044-2: "1188 wurde schließlich Pommern als exemptes Bistum unmittelbar der römischen Kirche unterstellt und genoß damit eine außergewöhnliche rechtliche Selbstständigkeit. Damit waren die konkurrierenden Ansprüche der Erzbistümer Gnesen und Magdeburg beseitigt.
  26. ^ Norbert Buske, Pommern, Helms Schwerin 1997, p.15, ISBN 3-931185-07-9: "Als 1188 die feierliche päpstliche Anerkennung der Verlegung des Bischofssitzes erfolgte, wurde die exempte Stellung des Bistums, die sich inzwischen herausgebildet hatte, bestätigt. Das in der Folgezeit als Bistum Kammin bezeichnete pommertsche Bistum war damit unmittelbar dem Papst unterstellt und unabhängig gegenüber den benachbarten Erzbistümern. Es war ihnen unter diesem Gesichtspunkt etwa gleichgestellt."
  27. ^ Heitz, Gerhard; Rischer, Henning (1995) (in German). Geschichte in Daten. Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Münster-Berlin: Koehler&Amelang. p. 163. ISBN 3733801954. 
  28. ^ a b c d e f g h Jan M Piskorski citing Hermann Hoogeweg, Pommern im Wandel der Zeit, 1999, p.98, ISBN 839061848
  29. ^ a b c d Gerhard Köbler, Historisches Lexikon der Deutschen Länder: die deutschen Territorien vom Mittelalter bis zur Gegenwart, 7th edition, C.H.Beck, 2007, p.113, ISBN 3-406-54986-1
  30. ^ a b c Norbert Buske, Pommern, Helms Schwerin 1997, p.16, ISBN 3-931185-07-9

External links

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainHerbermann, Charles, ed (1913). Catholic Encyclopedia. Robert Appleton Company. 


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