Descendants of Henry IV of France

King Henry IV of France

Henry IV of France was the first Bourbon king of France. Formerly known as Henri of Navarre, he succeeded to the French throne with the extinction of House of Valois, at the death of Henry III of France. In 1584, Prince François, the youngest brother and heir presumptive of King Henry III, died. Following Salic law, Henry became the heir presumptive to the French throne, as the First Prince of the Blood (Prince du Sang in French). He was then the closest relative of the king in the legitimate male line, and as such the next senior-most representative of the House of Capet after the king himself. When Henry III died in 1589 without children, Henry succeeded him as king.

His descendants are varied and numerous. Some of his descendants are Juan Carlos of Spain, Franz, Duke of Bavaria, actress Brooke Shields. He had six children with his wife Marie de' Medici and also had many illegitimate children through his many mistresses. This article deals with each of his children and their respective descendants.

Contents

Life, background and pedigree

Life and claim to the French Throne

Extracted miniature from a book of prayers of Catherine de' Medici, representing Henry and Margaret as King and Queen of Navarre.

Henri de Bourbon was born in Pau, the capital of the French province of Béarn.[1] Although baptised as a Roman Catholic, Henry was raised as a Protestant by his mother Jeanne d’Albret. On 9 June 1572, upon Jeanne's death, he became King Henry III of Navarre.[2]

When Henry was a boy, it seemed highly unlikely that he would ever inherit the throne of France, since Henry II had produced four surviving sons. However, the "prince of Navarre" pedigree gave him a special place of honour in the French nobility, since all sons of the Bourbon line were acknowledged as the princes of the blood. As the senior male representative of that line, Henry was officially the First Prince of the Blood.

The coronation of Henry of Navarre as Henry IV of France.

However, Henry of Navarre became the legal heir to the French throne upon the death in 1584 of François, Duke of Alençon, brother and heir to the Catholic King Henry III. Because of Henry's status as the 'Price du Sang', Henry III had no choice but to recognise him as the legitimate successor. The Salic law disinherited the king's sisters and all others who could claim descent by the distaff line. Catherine de Medici, the King's mother, had attempted to unite Valois and Bourbon interests. In 1572, by which time only two of her sons remained alive, she brokered a marriage between her daughter Marguerite of Valois and Henry.

On the death of Henry III on 2 August 1589, Henri of Navarre nominally became the king of France. But the powerful Catholic League, strengthened by support from Spain, forced him to the south and he had to set about winning his kingdom by military conquest, aided by money and troops bestowed by Protestant England. This set off the War of the Three Henries phase of the French Wars of Religion. The League proclaimed Henry's Catholic uncle Charles, the Cardinal de Bourbon, King as Charles X, but the Cardinal himself was Henry's prisoner. Henry was victorious at Ivry and Arques, but failed to take Paris.

Statue of Henry at the château de Pau.

With the old Cardinal's death in 1590, the League was undecided on a new candidate and quarrelled amongst each other. While some supported various Guise candidates, the strongest candidate was probably Infanta Isabella, the daughter of Philip II of Spain and eldest granddaughter of Henry II of France. This was injurious to the League's reputation, which became suspect as agents of the Spanish, but nevertheless Henry remained unable to take control of Paris.

Equestrian statue of Henry in Pont Neuf.

With the encouragement of the great love of his life, Gabrielle d'Estrées, on 25 July 1593 Henry declared that Paris vaut bien une messe ("Paris is well worth a mass") and permanently renounced Protestantism, thus earning him the allegiance of the vast majority of his subjects and the resentment of his former allies. He was crowned King of France at the Cathedral of Chartres on 27 February 1594. In 1598, he declared the Edict of Nantes, which gave circumscribed toleration to the Huguenots. However, this action of his angered a fraction of Catholics, who wanted Protestantism rooted out for good, and could see that Henry had no intention to do so. Therefore in 1610, in the peak of his reign, Henry was assassinated by a fanatical Catholic, François Ravaillac.[3]

Henry was nicknamed Henry the Great (Henri le Grand), and in France is also called le bon roi Henri ("the good king Henry") or le Vert galant ("the Green gallant"), a reference to both his dashing character and his attractiveness to women. In English he is most often referred to as Henry of Navarre. The reign of Henry IV had a lasting impact on the French people for generations afterwards. A statue of him was built in his honor at the Pont Neuf in 1614, only four years after his death. Although this statue - as well as those of all the other French kings - was torn down during the French Revolution, it was the first to be rebuilt, in 1818, and it still stands today on the Pont Neuf.

Pedigree

Maternal ancestry

Jeanne D'Albret, Queen of Navarre, was the daughter of Henry II of Navarre and his French wife Marguerite of Angoulême.

  • Henry was the son of John III, King Consort of Navarre and his wife Catherine I, Queen of Navarre.

Paternal ancestry

Legitimate issue by Marie de' Medici

Children

Name Portrait Birth Death Marriages and issue
Louis XIII, King of France LouisparDumonstier.jpg 27 September 1601 14 May 1643 Married Anne of Austria in 1615
Had issue
Elizabeth, Queen of Spain IsabellavonBourbon2 face.jpg 22 November 1602 6 October 1644 Married Philip IV, King of Spain in 1615
Had issue
Christine Marie, Duchess of Savoy Christine de France.jpg 10 February 1606 27 December 1663 Married Victor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy in 1619
Had issue
Henrietta Maria, Queen of England Sir Peter Lely 001.jpg 25 November 1609 10 September 1669 Married Charles I, King of England in 1625
Had issue
Gaston d'Orléans 1608 Gaston.jpg 25 April 1608 2 February 1660 Married (1) Marie de Bourbon, Duchess of Montpensier in 1626
Married (2) Margaret of Lorraine in 1632
Had issue

Descendants of Louis XIII of France

Progeny of Louis XIV of France
Name of descendant Portrait Birth Marriages and issue Death Miscellaneous
Louis XIV of France Louis-xiv-lebrunl.jpg 5 September 1638, son of Louis XIII of France and Anne of Austria Maria Theresa of Spain
Françoise d'Aubigné, Marquise de Maintenon
1 child
1 September 1715 (aged 76)
Louis, Dauphin of France Portrait Louis de France.jpg 1 November 1661, son of Maria Theresa of Spain and Louis XIV of France Duchess Maria Anna Victoria of Bavaria
3 children
14 April 1711 (aged 49)
Louis, Duke of Burgundy Louis Duc de Bourgogne.jpg 16 August 1682, son of Louis, Dauphin of France and Maria Anna of Bavaria Marie Adélaïde of Savoy
3 children
18 February 1712 (aged 30)
Louis XV of France Louis15-1.jpg 15 February 1710, son of Louis, Duke of Burgundy and Marie-Adélaïde of Savoy Marie Leszczyńska
10 children
10 May 1774 (aged 64)
Louis XVI of France Louis XVI of France.jpg 23 August 1754, son of Louis, Dauphin of France and Marie-Josèphe of Saxony Marie Antoinette
4 children
21 January 1793
(aged 38)
Charles X of France Charles X of France.png 9 October 1757, son of Louis, Dauphin of France and Marie-Josèphe of Saxony Marie Thérèse of Savoy
3 children
6 November 1836
(aged 79)
Philip V of Spain Philipofespaneol.jpg 19 December 1683, son of Louis, le Grand Dauphin and Duchess Maria Anna Victoria of Bavaria Maria Luisa of Savoy
Elisabeth Farnese
9 children
9 July 1746 (aged 62)
Charles III of Spain Charles III of Spain.jpg 20 January 1716, son of Philip V and Elizabeth of Parma Maria Amalia of Saxony
13 children
14 December 1788 (aged 72)
Charles IV of Spain Charles IV of Spain.jpg 11 November 1748, son of Charles III of Spain and Maria Amalia of Saxony Maria Luisa of Parma
12 children
10 April 1904 (aged 73)
Ferdinand VII of Spain Goya - Fernando VII.jpg 14 October 1784, son of Charles IV of Spain and Maria Luisa of Parma Maria Antonia of Naples, Maria Isabel of Portugal, Maria Josepha of Saxony and Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies
2 children
29 September 1833 (aged 48)
Infante Carlos, Count of Molina Carlos María Isidro de Borbón.png 29 March 1788, son of Charles IV of Spain and Maria Luisa of Parma Maria Francisca of Portugal
Teresa, Princess of Beira
2 children
10 March 1855 (aged 66)
Louise-Françoise de Bourbon Madame la Duchesse de Bourbon, Nattier.jpg 1 June 1673, daughter of Louis XIV of France and Françoise-Athénaïs, marquise de Montespan Louis III, Prince of Condé
9 children
16 June 1743 (aged 70) Her grandson Louis François de Bourbon and her great-grandson Louis Henri, Prince of Condé were the last Prince of Conti and the last Prince of Condé respectively. Her granddaughter, the Duchess of Orléans was the grandmother of Louis-Philippe of France, the King of the French.
Françoise-Marie de Bourbon Francoise Marie de Bourbon par Caminade Alexandre-François.jpg 25 May 1677, daughter of Madame de Montespan and Louis XIV of France Philippe d'Orléans
8 children
1 February 1749 (aged 71)
Louis Alexandre de Bourbon, Count of Toulouse Louis-Alexandre de Bourbon-Toulouse.jpg 6 June 1678, son of Françoise-Athénaïs, marquise de Montespan and Louis XIV of France Marie Victoire de Noailles
1 child
1 December 1737 (aged 59)
Louis Jean Marie de Bourbon, Duke of Penthièvre Louis Jean Marie de Bourbon, duc de Penthièvre.jpg 16 November 1725, son of Louis-Alexandre de Bourbon, comte de Toulouse and Marie Victoire de Noailles Princess Maria Teresa Felicitas of Modena
7 children
4 March 1793 (aged 68)
Louise Marie Adélaïde de Bourbon Luisa Maria Adelaida de Borbon Penthievre22.jpg 13 March 1753, daughter of Louis Jean Marie de Bourbon, Duke of Penthièvre and Princess Maria Teresa Felicitas of Modena Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans
5 children
27 June 1821 (aged 68)
Louis-Philippe of France Louis-Philippe, roi des Français.jpg 6 October 1773, son of Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans and Louise Marie Adélaïde de Bourbon Maria Amalia of Naples and Sicily
10 children
26 August 1850 (aged 76)
Progeny of Christine of France
Name of descendant Portrait Birth Marriages and issue Death Miscellaneous
Charles Emmanuel II, Duke of Savoy Carlo Emanuele II di Savoia.jpg 20 June 1634, son of Victor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy and Christine Marie of France Françoise Madeleine d'Orléans
Marie Jeanne of Savoy
1 child
12 June 1675
Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia.jpg 14 May 1666, son of Charles Emmanuel II, Duke of Savoy and Marie Jeanne of Savoy Anne Marie d'Orléans
Anna Teresa Canalis di Cumiana
5 children
31 October 1732
Princess Henriette Adelaide of Savoy 1636 Adelheid.gif 6 November 1636, daughter of Victor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy and Christine Marie of France Ferdinand Maria, Elector of Bavaria
4 children
18 March 1676
Duchess Maria Anna Victoria of Bavaria Victoire de Bavière, dauphine de France apres Mignard.jpg 28 November 1660, daughter of Princess Henriette Adelaide of Savoy and Ferdinand Maria, Elector of Bavaria Louis, Dauphin of France
3 children
20 April 1690
Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria Giuseppe Volpini Kurfuerst Max Emanuel um 1720-1.jpg 11 July 1662, son of Princess Henriette Adelaide of Savoy and Ferdinand Maria, Elector of Bavaria Maria Antonia of Austria
Theresa Kunegunda Sobieska
5 children
26 February 1726
Progeny of Philippe
Name of descendant Portrait Birth Marriages and issue Death Miscellaneous
Philippe I, Duke of Orléans Philippe1erOrleans face.jpg 21 September 1640(1640-09-21), son of Louis XIII of France and Anne of Austria Henrietta Anne of England
Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate
4 children
9 June 1701 (aged 60)
Marie Louise d'Orléans Marie Louise Orleans Spain.jpg 26 March 1662, daughter of Philippe I, Duke of Orléans and Henrietta Anne of England Charles II of Spain
No issue
12 February 1689
Anne Marie d'Orléans Anne Marie d'Orléans, unknown Artist.jpg 27 August 1669, daughter of Philippe I, Duke of Orléans and Henrietta Anne of England Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia
3 children
26 August 1728
Princess Marie-Adélaïde of Savoy Marie-Adélaïde of Savoy.jpg 6 December 1685, daughter of Anne Marie d'Orléans and Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia Louis, Dauphin of France
1 child
12 February 1712
Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia Carlo Emanuele 3.jpg 27 April 1701, son of Anne Marie d'Orléans and Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia Anne Christine Louise of Bavaria
Polyxena Christina of Hesse-Rotenburg
Elisabeth Therese of Lorraine
4 children
20 February 1773
Philippe d'Orléans, Duke of Orléans Philippe d'Orleans, regent, et Marie Madeleine de la Vieuville, Comtesse de Parabere (Jean-Baptiste Santerre).jpg 2 August 1674, son of Philippe I, Duke of Orléans and Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate Françoise-Marie de Bourbon
7 children
2 December 1723
Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans, Mademoiselle de Chartres, Duchess of Lorraine in circa 1700 by Gobert.jpg 13 September 1676, daughter of Philippe I, Duke of Orléans and Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate Leopold, Duke of Lorraine
5 children
23 December 1744

Descendants of Elisabeth of France

Name of descendant Portrait Birth Marriages and issue Death Miscellaneous
Balthasar Charles, Prince of Asturias Diego Velázquez 070.jpg 17 October 1629, son of Philip IV of Spain and Elisabeth of France Never Married 9 October 1646 (aged 16)
Marie Thérèse, Queen of France La infanta María Teresa, by Diego Velázquez.jpg 10 September 1638, daughter of Philip IV of Spain and Elisabeth of France Louis XIV of France
5 children
30 July 1683 (aged 44)

Descendants of Henrietta Maria of France

Progeny of Charles II of England
Name of descendant Portrait Birth and parents Marriages and issue Death Miscellaneous
Charles II of England Charles II (1670s).jpg 29 May 1630, son of Charles I of England and Henrietta Maria of France Catherine of Braganza
No issue
8 illegitimate children
6 February 1685 (aged 54) He is an ancestor of, among others, Diana, Princess of Wales, Sarah, Duchess of York, Spencer Perceval, Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester, Anthony Eden, Eleanor Calvert (who married John Parke Custis, stepson of George Washington), Mitford sisters and Samantha Cameron (wife of Conservative Leader David Cameron)
Mary of England Prinses Henriette Maria Stuart.jpg 4 November 1631, daughter of Charles I of England and Henrietta Maria of France William II, Prince of Orange
1 son
24 December 1660 (aged 29) Her son became William III of England; She has no surviving descendants
William III of England Guillaume III.jpg 14 November 1650, son of Mary of England and William II, Prince of Orange Mary II of England
No issue
8 March 1702 (aged 51) Deposed his uncle James II of England and was crowned King,
Married his cousin, Princess Mary, and jointly ruled with her; has no surviving descendants
James II of England James II (Peter Lely).jpg 14 October 1633, son of Charles I of England and Henrietta Maria of France Anne Hyde
2 children
Mary of Modena
2 children
16 September 1701 (aged 67) Was deposed in the Glorious Revolution; replaced by his nephew and his daughter, William III and Mary II ; Has Descendants to this day, including Diana, Princess of Wales
Mary II of England Mary II after William Wissing.jpg 30 April 1662, daughter of James II of England and Lady Anne Hyde William III of England
No issue
28 December 1694 (aged 32) Ruled jointly with her cousin and husband, William ; Has no descendants
Anne of Great Britain Annavon GroßbritannienDahl.jpg 6 February 1665, daughter of James II of England and Lady Anne Hyde Prince George of Denmark
17 children
1 August 1714 (aged 49) Presided over the union of England and Scotland as Great Britain; Her only son to survive infanthood, Prince William, Duke of Gloucester, died young, hence she has no descendants
James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick James FitzStuart, Duke of Berwick.png 21 August 1670, son of James II of England and Arabella Churchill Honora de Burgh
1 children
Anne Bulkeley
10 children
12 June 1734 (aged 64) His descendants are the French and the Spanish lines of the Dukes of Berwick, which represent one of the many illegitimate male lines of the House of Stuart
James Francis Edward Stuart Portrait of James Francis Edward Stuart by Antonio David.jpg 10 June 1688, son of James II of England and Mary of Modena Maria Klementyna Sobieska
2 children
1 January 1766 (aged 77) The House of Stuart ended with the death of his second son, the Cardinal of York. It was earlier believed that his illegitimate granddaughter, Charlotte, Duchess of Albany, was not survived by any issue. However According to research conducted by Peter Pininski, Charlotte's younger daughter did indeed have issue, and her descendants include Peter Piniski himself.
Louisa Maria Teresa Stuart François de Troy, Portrait of Princess Louisa Maria Stuart (c. 1705).jpg 28 June 1692, daughter of James II of England and Mary of Modena Never married 18 April 1712 (aged 19) She was the last legitimate female scion of the House of Stuart, other than her elder half sister, Anne;
She was a possible match for Charles XII of Sweden, her first cousin, once removed Charles, Duke of Berry, and another cousin, the future George II of England;
Has no descendants
Henrietta Anne of England Henrietta Anne, Duchess of Orleans by Pierre Mignard.jpg 16 June (Old Style) or 26 June (New Style) 1644, daughter of Charles I of England and Henrietta Maria of France Philippe I, Duke of Orléans
2 children
30 June 1670 (aged 26) Her descendants include King Juan Carlos of Spain, Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg and Franz, Duke of Bavaria, Infanta Alicia of Spain and Prince Alexander of Saxe-Gessaphe, among many others. After the extinction of the House of Stuart with the death of Henry Benedict Stuart, the rights of succession to the British Throne and the title of heir-general to Charles I of England passed to her descendants

Descendants of Gaston d'Orléans

Name of descendant Portrait Birth and parents Marriages and issue Death Miscellaneous
Anne Marie Louise d'Orléans AnneMarieLouiseMontpensier02.jpg 29 May 1627, daughter of Gaston de France, Duke of Orléans and Marie de Bourbon, Duchess of Montpensier Antoine Nompar de Caumont, Duke of Lauzun
No issue
5 April 1693 (aged 65)
Marguerite Louise d'Orléans Marguerite-Louise d'Orleans.jpg 28 July 1645, daughter of Gaston de France, Duke of Orléans and Marguerite of Lorraine Cosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany
3 children
17 September 1721 (aged 76)
Ferdinando de' Medici, Grand Prince of Tuscany Ferdinandomedici.jpg 9 August 1663, son of Marguerite Louise d'Orléans and Cosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany Duchess Violante Beatrice of Bavaria
No issue
31 October 1713
Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici Antonio Franchi 001.jpg 11 August 1667, daughter of Marguerite Louise d'Orléans and Cosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany Johann Wilhelm, Elector Palatine
No issue
18 February 1743
Gian Gastone de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany Gian-Gastone-face.jpg 24 May 1671, son of Marguerite Louise d'Orléans and Cosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany Anna Maria Franziska of Saxe-Lauenburg
No issue
9 July 1737
Élisabeth Marguerite d'Orléans Mme de Guise.jpg 26 December 1646, daughter of Gaston de France, Duke of Orléans and Marguerite of Lorraine Louis Joseph, Duke of Guise
1 child
17 March 1696 (aged 49)
Françoise Madeleine d'Orléans Françoise Madeleine d'Orléans (1648-1664) Duchess of Savoy by Louis Edouard Rioult.jpg 13 October 1648, Daughter of Gaston de France, Duke of Orléans and Marguerite of Lorraine Charles Emmanuel II, Duke of Savoy
No issue
14 January 1664

References

  1. ^ de La Croix, 175.
  2. ^ Dupuy, Trevor N., Curt Johnson and David L. Bongard, The Harper Encyclopedia of Military Biography, (Castle Books, 1995), 326.
  3. ^ Baird, Henry M., The Huguenots and Henry of Navarre, Vol. 2, (Charles Scribner's Sons:New York, 1886), 486.
  4. ^ See genealogical table in Baumgartner, France in the Sixteenth Century.

See also

External links


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