Descendants of Henry IV of France
Henry IV of France was the first Bourbon king of France. Formerly known as Henri of Navarre, he succeeded to the French throne with the extinction of House of Valois, at the death of Henry III of France. In 1584, Prince François, the youngest brother and heir presumptive of King Henry III, died. Following Salic law, Henry became the heir presumptive to the French throne, as the First Prince of the Blood (Prince du Sang in French). He was then the closest relative of the king in the legitimate male line, and as such the next senior-most representative of the House of Capet after the king himself. When Henry III died in 1589 without children, Henry succeeded him as king.
His descendants are varied and numerous. Some of his descendants are Juan Carlos of Spain, Franz, Duke of Bavaria, actress Brooke Shields. He had six children with his wife Marie de' Medici and also had many illegitimate children through his many mistresses. This article deals with each of his children and their respective descendants.
Life, background and pedigree
Life and claim to the French Throne
Henri de Bourbon was born in Pau, the capital of the French province of Béarn. Although baptised as a Roman Catholic, Henry was raised as a Protestant by his mother Jeanne d’Albret. On 9 June 1572, upon Jeanne's death, he became King Henry III of Navarre.
When Henry was a boy, it seemed highly unlikely that he would ever inherit the throne of France, since Henry II had produced four surviving sons. However, the "prince of Navarre" pedigree gave him a special place of honour in the French nobility, since all sons of the Bourbon line were acknowledged as the princes of the blood. As the senior male representative of that line, Henry was officially the First Prince of the Blood.
However, Henry of Navarre became the legal heir to the French throne upon the death in 1584 of François, Duke of Alençon, brother and heir to the Catholic King Henry III. Because of Henry's status as the 'Price du Sang', Henry III had no choice but to recognise him as the legitimate successor. The Salic law disinherited the king's sisters and all others who could claim descent by the distaff line. Catherine de Medici, the King's mother, had attempted to unite Valois and Bourbon interests. In 1572, by which time only two of her sons remained alive, she brokered a marriage between her daughter Marguerite of Valois and Henry.
On the death of Henry III on 2 August 1589, Henri of Navarre nominally became the king of France. But the powerful Catholic League, strengthened by support from Spain, forced him to the south and he had to set about winning his kingdom by military conquest, aided by money and troops bestowed by Protestant England. This set off the War of the Three Henries phase of the French Wars of Religion. The League proclaimed Henry's Catholic uncle Charles, the Cardinal de Bourbon, King as Charles X, but the Cardinal himself was Henry's prisoner. Henry was victorious at Ivry and Arques, but failed to take Paris.
With the old Cardinal's death in 1590, the League was undecided on a new candidate and quarrelled amongst each other. While some supported various Guise candidates, the strongest candidate was probably Infanta Isabella, the daughter of Philip II of Spain and eldest granddaughter of Henry II of France. This was injurious to the League's reputation, which became suspect as agents of the Spanish, but nevertheless Henry remained unable to take control of Paris.
With the encouragement of the great love of his life, Gabrielle d'Estrées, on 25 July 1593 Henry declared that Paris vaut bien une messe ("Paris is well worth a mass") and permanently renounced Protestantism, thus earning him the allegiance of the vast majority of his subjects and the resentment of his former allies. He was crowned King of France at the Cathedral of Chartres on 27 February 1594. In 1598, he declared the Edict of Nantes, which gave circumscribed toleration to the Huguenots. However, this action of his angered a fraction of Catholics, who wanted Protestantism rooted out for good, and could see that Henry had no intention to do so. Therefore in 1610, in the peak of his reign, Henry was assassinated by a fanatical Catholic, François Ravaillac.
Henry was nicknamed Henry the Great (Henri le Grand), and in France is also called le bon roi Henri ("the good king Henry") or le Vert galant ("the Green gallant"), a reference to both his dashing character and his attractiveness to women. In English he is most often referred to as Henry of Navarre. The reign of Henry IV had a lasting impact on the French people for generations afterwards. A statue of him was built in his honor at the Pont Neuf in 1614, only four years after his death. Although this statue - as well as those of all the other French kings - was torn down during the French Revolution, it was the first to be rebuilt, in 1818, and it still stands today on the Pont Neuf.
Legitimate issue by Marie de' Medici
Name Portrait Birth Death Marriages and issue Louis XIII, King of France 27 September 1601 14 May 1643 Married Anne of Austria in 1615
Elizabeth, Queen of Spain 22 November 1602 6 October 1644 Married Philip IV, King of Spain in 1615
Christine Marie, Duchess of Savoy 10 February 1606 27 December 1663 Married Victor Amadeus I, Duke of Savoy in 1619
Henrietta Maria, Queen of England 25 November 1609 10 September 1669 Married Charles I, King of England in 1625
Gaston d'Orléans 25 April 1608 2 February 1660 Married (1) Marie de Bourbon, Duchess of Montpensier in 1626
Married (2) Margaret of Lorraine in 1632
Descendants of Louis XIII of France
Progeny of Louis XIV of France
Name of descendant Portrait Birth Marriages and issue Death Miscellaneous Louis XIV of France 5 September 1638, son of Louis XIII of France and Anne of Austria Maria Theresa of Spain
Françoise d'Aubigné, Marquise de Maintenon
1 September 1715 (aged 76) Louis, Dauphin of France 1 November 1661, son of Maria Theresa of Spain and Louis XIV of France Duchess Maria Anna Victoria of Bavaria
14 April 1711 (aged 49) Louis, Duke of Burgundy 16 August 1682, son of Louis, Dauphin of France and Maria Anna of Bavaria Marie Adélaïde of Savoy
18 February 1712 (aged 30) Louis XV of France 15 February 1710, son of Louis, Duke of Burgundy and Marie-Adélaïde of Savoy Marie Leszczyńska
10 May 1774 (aged 64) Louis XVI of France 23 August 1754, son of Louis, Dauphin of France and Marie-Josèphe of Saxony Marie Antoinette
21 January 1793
Charles X of France 9 October 1757, son of Louis, Dauphin of France and Marie-Josèphe of Saxony Marie Thérèse of Savoy
6 November 1836
Philip V of Spain 19 December 1683, son of Louis, le Grand Dauphin and Duchess Maria Anna Victoria of Bavaria Maria Luisa of Savoy
9 July 1746 (aged 62) Charles III of Spain 20 January 1716, son of Philip V and Elizabeth of Parma Maria Amalia of Saxony
14 December 1788 (aged 72) Charles IV of Spain 11 November 1748, son of Charles III of Spain and Maria Amalia of Saxony Maria Luisa of Parma
10 April 1904 (aged 73) Ferdinand VII of Spain 14 October 1784, son of Charles IV of Spain and Maria Luisa of Parma Maria Antonia of Naples, Maria Isabel of Portugal, Maria Josepha of Saxony and Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies
29 September 1833 (aged 48) Infante Carlos, Count of Molina 29 March 1788, son of Charles IV of Spain and Maria Luisa of Parma Maria Francisca of Portugal
Teresa, Princess of Beira
10 March 1855 (aged 66) Louise-Françoise de Bourbon 1 June 1673, daughter of Louis XIV of France and Françoise-Athénaïs, marquise de Montespan Louis III, Prince of Condé
16 June 1743 (aged 70) Her grandson Louis François de Bourbon and her great-grandson Louis Henri, Prince of Condé were the last Prince of Conti and the last Prince of Condé respectively. Her granddaughter, the Duchess of Orléans was the grandmother of Louis-Philippe of France, the King of the French. Françoise-Marie de Bourbon 25 May 1677, daughter of Madame de Montespan and Louis XIV of France Philippe d'Orléans
1 February 1749 (aged 71) Louis Alexandre de Bourbon, Count of Toulouse 6 June 1678, son of Françoise-Athénaïs, marquise de Montespan and Louis XIV of France Marie Victoire de Noailles
1 December 1737 (aged 59) Louis Jean Marie de Bourbon, Duke of Penthièvre 16 November 1725, son of Louis-Alexandre de Bourbon, comte de Toulouse and Marie Victoire de Noailles Princess Maria Teresa Felicitas of Modena
4 March 1793 (aged 68) Louise Marie Adélaïde de Bourbon 13 March 1753, daughter of Louis Jean Marie de Bourbon, Duke of Penthièvre and Princess Maria Teresa Felicitas of Modena Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans
27 June 1821 (aged 68) Louis-Philippe of France 6 October 1773, son of Louis Philippe II, Duke of Orléans and Louise Marie Adélaïde de Bourbon Maria Amalia of Naples and Sicily
26 August 1850 (aged 76)
Progeny of Christine of France
Progeny of Philippe
Name of descendant Portrait Birth Marriages and issue Death Miscellaneous Philippe I, Duke of Orléans 21 September 1640(1640-09-21), son of Louis XIII of France and Anne of Austria Henrietta Anne of England
Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate
9 June 1701 (aged 60) Marie Louise d'Orléans 26 March 1662, daughter of Philippe I, Duke of Orléans and Henrietta Anne of England Charles II of Spain
12 February 1689 Anne Marie d'Orléans 27 August 1669, daughter of Philippe I, Duke of Orléans and Henrietta Anne of England Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia
26 August 1728 Princess Marie-Adélaïde of Savoy 6 December 1685, daughter of Anne Marie d'Orléans and Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia Louis, Dauphin of France
12 February 1712 Charles Emmanuel III of Sardinia 27 April 1701, son of Anne Marie d'Orléans and Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia Anne Christine Louise of Bavaria
Polyxena Christina of Hesse-Rotenburg
Elisabeth Therese of Lorraine
20 February 1773 Philippe d'Orléans, Duke of Orléans 2 August 1674, son of Philippe I, Duke of Orléans and Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate Françoise-Marie de Bourbon
2 December 1723 Élisabeth Charlotte d'Orléans 13 September 1676, daughter of Philippe I, Duke of Orléans and Elizabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate Leopold, Duke of Lorraine
23 December 1744
Descendants of Elisabeth of France
Name of descendant Portrait Birth Marriages and issue Death Miscellaneous Balthasar Charles, Prince of Asturias 17 October 1629, son of Philip IV of Spain and Elisabeth of France Never Married 9 October 1646 (aged 16) Marie Thérèse, Queen of France 10 September 1638, daughter of Philip IV of Spain and Elisabeth of France Louis XIV of France
30 July 1683 (aged 44)
Descendants of Henrietta Maria of France
Progeny of Charles II of England
Name of descendant Portrait Birth and parents Marriages and issue Death Miscellaneous Charles II of England 29 May 1630, son of Charles I of England and Henrietta Maria of France Catherine of Braganza
8 illegitimate children
6 February 1685 (aged 54) He is an ancestor of, among others, Diana, Princess of Wales, Sarah, Duchess of York, Spencer Perceval, Princess Alice, Duchess of Gloucester, Anthony Eden, Eleanor Calvert (who married John Parke Custis, stepson of George Washington), Mitford sisters and Samantha Cameron (wife of Conservative Leader David Cameron) Mary of England 4 November 1631, daughter of Charles I of England and Henrietta Maria of France William II, Prince of Orange
24 December 1660 (aged 29) Her son became William III of England; She has no surviving descendants William III of England 14 November 1650, son of Mary of England and William II, Prince of Orange Mary II of England
8 March 1702 (aged 51) Deposed his uncle James II of England and was crowned King,
Married his cousin, Princess Mary, and jointly ruled with her; has no surviving descendants
James II of England 14 October 1633, son of Charles I of England and Henrietta Maria of France Anne Hyde
Mary of Modena
16 September 1701 (aged 67) Was deposed in the Glorious Revolution; replaced by his nephew and his daughter, William III and Mary II ; Has Descendants to this day, including Diana, Princess of Wales Mary II of England 30 April 1662, daughter of James II of England and Lady Anne Hyde William III of England
28 December 1694 (aged 32) Ruled jointly with her cousin and husband, William ; Has no descendants Anne of Great Britain 6 February 1665, daughter of James II of England and Lady Anne Hyde Prince George of Denmark
1 August 1714 (aged 49) Presided over the union of England and Scotland as Great Britain; Her only son to survive infanthood, Prince William, Duke of Gloucester, died young, hence she has no descendants James FitzJames, 1st Duke of Berwick 21 August 1670, son of James II of England and Arabella Churchill Honora de Burgh
12 June 1734 (aged 64) His descendants are the French and the Spanish lines of the Dukes of Berwick, which represent one of the many illegitimate male lines of the House of Stuart James Francis Edward Stuart 10 June 1688, son of James II of England and Mary of Modena Maria Klementyna Sobieska
1 January 1766 (aged 77) The House of Stuart ended with the death of his second son, the Cardinal of York. It was earlier believed that his illegitimate granddaughter, Charlotte, Duchess of Albany, was not survived by any issue. However According to research conducted by Peter Pininski, Charlotte's younger daughter did indeed have issue, and her descendants include Peter Piniski himself. Louisa Maria Teresa Stuart 28 June 1692, daughter of James II of England and Mary of Modena Never married 18 April 1712 (aged 19) She was the last legitimate female scion of the House of Stuart, other than her elder half sister, Anne;
She was a possible match for Charles XII of Sweden, her first cousin, once removed Charles, Duke of Berry, and another cousin, the future George II of England;
Has no descendants
Henrietta Anne of England 16 June (Old Style) or 26 June (New Style) 1644, daughter of Charles I of England and Henrietta Maria of France Philippe I, Duke of Orléans
30 June 1670 (aged 26) Her descendants include King Juan Carlos of Spain, Henri, Grand Duke of Luxembourg and Franz, Duke of Bavaria, Infanta Alicia of Spain and Prince Alexander of Saxe-Gessaphe, among many others. After the extinction of the House of Stuart with the death of Henry Benedict Stuart, the rights of succession to the British Throne and the title of heir-general to Charles I of England passed to her descendants
Descendants of Gaston d'Orléans
Name of descendant Portrait Birth and parents Marriages and issue Death Miscellaneous Anne Marie Louise d'Orléans 29 May 1627, daughter of Gaston de France, Duke of Orléans and Marie de Bourbon, Duchess of Montpensier Antoine Nompar de Caumont, Duke of Lauzun
5 April 1693 (aged 65) Marguerite Louise d'Orléans 28 July 1645, daughter of Gaston de France, Duke of Orléans and Marguerite of Lorraine Cosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany
17 September 1721 (aged 76) Ferdinando de' Medici, Grand Prince of Tuscany 9 August 1663, son of Marguerite Louise d'Orléans and Cosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany Duchess Violante Beatrice of Bavaria
31 October 1713 Anna Maria Luisa de' Medici 11 August 1667, daughter of Marguerite Louise d'Orléans and Cosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany Johann Wilhelm, Elector Palatine
18 February 1743 Gian Gastone de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany 24 May 1671, son of Marguerite Louise d'Orléans and Cosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany Anna Maria Franziska of Saxe-Lauenburg
9 July 1737 Élisabeth Marguerite d'Orléans 26 December 1646, daughter of Gaston de France, Duke of Orléans and Marguerite of Lorraine Louis Joseph, Duke of Guise
17 March 1696 (aged 49) Françoise Madeleine d'Orléans 13 October 1648, Daughter of Gaston de France, Duke of Orléans and Marguerite of Lorraine Charles Emmanuel II, Duke of Savoy
14 January 1664
- ^ de La Croix, 175.
- ^ Dupuy, Trevor N., Curt Johnson and David L. Bongard, The Harper Encyclopedia of Military Biography, (Castle Books, 1995), 326.
- ^ Baird, Henry M., The Huguenots and Henry of Navarre, Vol. 2, (Charles Scribner's Sons:New York, 1886), 486.
- ^ See genealogical table in Baumgartner, France in the Sixteenth Century.
- House of Bourbon
- House of Medici
- Marie de' Medici
- House of Stuart
- Descendants of Philip V of Spain
- Descendants of Charles III of Spain
- Rubens cycle of paintings apotheosizing Marie de Medici Definitive statements of Baroque art.
- Maritime Museum
- Drawing by Claes Cornelisz. Moeyaert the entrance of Maria de Medici in Amsterdam
- Festival Books
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