Battle of Asal Uttar


Battle of Asal Uttar

Infobox Military Conflict


caption=Captured Pakistani tanks on display near Bhilwind, India
conflict=Battle of Asal Uttar
partof=Indo-Pakistani War of 1965
date=September 8September 10, 1965
place=Asal Uttar (Punjab, India)
result=India Repelled the Pakistani Attack. [ [http://www.pakdef.info/pakmilitary/army/tanks/patton.html M47 & M48 Patton in Pakistani Service] ] [http://books.google.com/books?id=FIIQhuAOGaIC&pg=PA189&dq=Asal+Uttar&lr=&as_brr=3&ie=ISO-8859-1&sig=jaeUF1jP0PBKGPFALNlCQFjdhJk#PPA190,M1 The State at War in South Asia] By Pradeep Barua]
combatant1=

combatant2=

commander1=Maj. Gen. Nasir Ahmed Khan
commander2=Maj. Gen. Gurbaksh Singh
Brigadier Thomas K. Theograj
strength1=300 M48 Pattons
strength2=45 Centurions,
45 Shermans,
45 AMX-13
casualties1=97 tanks abandoned or destroyed [http://www.ordersofbattle.darkscape.net/site/cimh/battles/XI%20Corps%20and%20Battle%20of%20Asal%20Uttar.pdf OrBat of Assal Uttar] at Orbat.com] [http://books.google.com/books?id=ZsdjJZWqtg4C&pg=PA35&lpg=PA35&dq=battle+of+asal+uttar&source=web&ots=BXpzCl0I9t&sig=TC2wrcpqTLmP3vJHCjdQlFSn9x4#PPA36,M1 The M47 and M48 Patton Tanks] By Steve Zaloga]
casualties2=32 tanks destroyed or damaged [ [The India-Pakistan Conflict: An Enduring Rivalry 2005 Cambridge Press] ] |

The Battle of Asal Uttar (Hindi: "Battle of Fitting Reply") was one of the most decisive battles fought during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965. It was fought from September 8 through September 10, 1965, when the Pakistan Army thrust its tanks and infantry into Indian territory. After three days of bitter fighting, the battle ended in a victory for the Indians near Asal Uttar, thanks to the conditions of the plains and a strategic stalemate in Khem Karan.

Battle

Pakistan's invading force, consisting of 1st Armoured Division and 11th Infantry Division, had managed to capture the Indian town of Khem Karan. After the seizure, the Indian Army regrouped and repelled further attacks made by the Pakistani troops and were able to destroy or capture several Pakistani tanks [ [http://books.google.com/books?id=9vDvpB_sqB0C&pg=PA274&dq=Battle+of+Asal+Uttar&lr=&ie=ISO-8859-1&sig=fD2nqjPyuYD2uykhgr_ZCWL8sf0#PPA277,M1 Debacle to Revival: Y.B. Chavan as Defence Minister, 1962-65] By R. D. Pradhan] while losing 32 of their own. Indian troops had flooded the area which bogged the Pakistani tanks down, making them sitting ducks. The Pakistanis then fell back to Khem Karan, and India seeing that it could not regain control of Khem Karan, decided to open another front and therefore attacked Sialkot; this attack was repelled, and it could not take city of Sialkot. When the 1st Armoured Division was given orders to redeploy to the Sialkot sector where it would fight the Battle of Chawinda, leaving the newly formed 11th Infantry Division to face the Indian counter-offensive.

Losses

India had taken in Pakistani tanks, but it could not take Khem Karan and neither it could take Sialkot. The 2nd Armoured Brigade was totally destroyed and they lost almost all of their tanks. Almost 97 Pattons were lost and all the rest were captured by victorious Indian Forces . [http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/LAND-FORCES/Army/Patton2.html Patton Nagar] - www.bharat-rakshak.com] Pakistani losses in Khem Karan sector for the whole war were 97 tanks. Roughly about fifty of them were captured by the Indian Army, mostly Sherman tanks. Only ten of these occurred during the battle.

Conclusion

As the day ended, the Pakistan's First Armoured Division could not take khem karan. Pakistan eventually lost the war.

Pervez Musharraf, later Army Chief of Staff and President of Pakistan, participated in this battle as a lieutenant of artillery in the 16 (SP) Field Regiment, 1st Armoured Division Artillery. The battle also witnessed the personal bravery of an Indian soldier Abdul Hamid being honoured with the Param Vir Chakra, India's highest military award, for having knocked out two enemy tanks with a recoilless gun. [ [http://indianarmy.nic.in/PVC/photo_6.htm The Param Vir Chakra Winners' home page for Company Quarter Master Havildar Abdul Hamid] ]

See also

* Indo-Pakistan Wars
* Operation Grand Slam

References

Resources

* 1965 Official War History, Ministry of Defence, Government of India
* Pakistan Military Consortium
* [http://orbat.com/site/history/historical/india/assaluttar.html The Battle of Assal Uttar: Pakistan and India 1965] - ORBAT

External links

* [http://www.bharat-rakshak.com/LAND-FORCES/Army/Patton2.html Pictures of the "Patton Nagar"]


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