Tanka people


Tanka people
Tanka people
Total population
4,569,000 [1]
Regions with significant populations
China China Guangdong
Guangxi
Fujian
Hainan
Zhejiang
Languages

Tanka dialect of Yue Chinese,
Fuzhou dialect of Min Dong Chinese (Fuzhou Tanka), other varieties of Chinese

Religion

Predominantly Mahayana Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Traditional Chinese religion.

Traditional Tanka people clothes in a Hong Kong museum
Tanka people
Chinese 1. 蜑家/疍家
2. 艇家
3. 水上人
4. 曲蹄
5. 蜑民
6. 曲蹄囝
Literal meaning 1. Dàn (egg/vermin/..., used only as proper noun in Modern Chinese) families
2. boat households
3. people on water
4. crooked hoof, bowlegged
5. Dàn people
6. crooked hoof children; bowlegged children

The Tankas (家/家, pinyin: Dànjiā, jyutpin: Daan6gaa1) or Boat people is a special group of people in Southern China[1] that has traditionally lived on junks in coastal parts of Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian, Hainan, and Zhejiang provinces, as well as Hong Kong and Macau. Though many now live onshore, some members of the older generations still live on their narrow boats and pursue their traditional livelihood of fishing.

A small number of Tankas also live in parts of Vietnam. There they are called Dan (Đản, Đàn?) and classified as a subgroup of the Ngái ethnicity.

Contents

Note on the term

The term Tanka is now considered derogatory and no longer in common use. These boat-dwelling people are now referred to in Chinese as 水上人家, in Mandarin as :(pinyin: shui shang ren)(Wade Giles: Shui shang Jen)[2]; (in Cantonese, Shui Sheung Yan) literally, "people on water"), or "Nam Hoi Yan",[3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10] No standardized English translation of this term exists, and "Boat People" is a commonly used translation, although it may be confused with the similar term that applies to Vietnamese refugees in Hong Kong. The term "Boat Dwellers" was proposed by Dr. Lee Ho Yin of The University of Hong Kong in 1999, and it has been adopted by the Hong Kong Museum of History for its permanent exhibition.[11]

The name Tanka itself is a derogatory term, used by Cantonese against the Tanka. Both the Tanka and the Cantonese speak the Cantonese language.[12][13]

"Boat people" was a general category for both the Tanka and the Hoklo (teochew), who made their living on boats. They spoke different dialects, and the Hoklo originated from Fujian. The Hoklo used the term Hoklo to refer to themselves, while the name Tanka was used only by Cantonese to describe the Tanka.

There were two distinct categories of people based on their way of life, and they were further divided into different groups. The Hakka and Cantonese lived on land, the Tanka and Hoklo lived on boats and were both classified as boat people.[14]

The differences between the sea dwelling Tanka and land dwellers were not just based on merely their way of life, Cantonese and Hakka who lived on land fished sometimes for a living, but these land fishermen never mixed or married with the Tanka fishermen, barring the Tanka from celebrations.[15]

British reports on Hong Kong described the Tanka and Hoklo living in Hong Kong "since time unknown".[16][17][18][19] The encyclopedia Americana described Hoklo and Tanka as living in Hong Kong "since prehistoric times".[20][21][22]

History

Mythical Origins

Some mythical Chinese stories claim that animals were the anctors of the Barbarians, including the Tanka people.[23][24][25] Some ancient Chinese sources claimed that water snakes were the ancestors of the Tanka, saying that they could last for 3 days without breathing air in the water.[26]

Baiyue connection and Native to Southern China

The Tanka are considered by some scholars to be related to other minority peoples of southern China such as the the Lu and Lai people (Miao).[27] The Amoy University anthropologist Ling Hui-hsiang wrote on his theory of the Fujian Tanka being descendants of the Bai Yue. He claimed that Guangdong and Fujian Tanka are definitely descended from the old Pai Yue peoples, and that they may have been ancestors of the Malay race.[28] The Tanka inherited their lifestyle and culture from the original Yue peoples who inhabited Hong Kong during the Neolithic era.[29] After the First Emperor of China conquered Hong Kong, groups from northern and central China moved into the general area of Guangdong, including Hong Kong.[30]

The majority of western academics suscribe to the theory that the ancient Yue inhabitants of southern China are the ancestors of the modern Tanka boat people, using Chinese historical sources, the ancient Chinese used the term "Yue" to refer to all southern barbarians.[31][32] The Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd Edition, states that the ancestors of the Tanka were native people.[33]

During the British colonial era in Hong Kong, the Tanka were considered a separate ethnic group from the Punti, Hakka, and Hoklo.[34] Punti is another name for Cantonese people, who are Han chinese, the Hakka and hoklo are also Han chinese.

The Tanka are compared to the She people by some historians, practicing Han Chinese culture, while being an ethnic minority descended from natives of Southern China.[35]

Yao connections

Chinese scholars and gazettes described the Tanka as a "Yao" Tribe, with some other sources noting that "Tan" people lived at Lantau, and other sources saying "Yao" people lived there. They refused to obey the salt monopoly of the Song dynasty Chinese government as a result. The county gazetteer of Sun On in 1729 described the Tanka as "Yao barbarians", and the Tanka were viewed as animals.[36]

Wolfram Eberhard suggested that he thought that the Yueh are related to the Tanka, and Chinese admixture in the Tanka is due to the Tanka prostitutes serving Chinese, with the Tanka replacing their own culture with Chinese culture, such as the Chinese language.[37]

Currently, in the present day, the Tanka deny that they are not Chinese, claiming they are ordinary Chinese who just happen to fish for a living, and the local dialect is used as their language.[38]

Historic views

Some southern Chinese historic views of the Tanka were that they were a separate aboriginal ethnic group, "not Han Chinese at all".[39] Chinese Imperial records also claim that the Tanka were descendants of aboriginals.[40] Tanka were also accused of being "sea gypsies" since their skin was dark.[41]

The Tanka were regarded as Yueh and not Chinese, they were divided into three classifications, "the fish-Tan, the oyster-Tan, and the wood-Tan" the 1100s, based on what they did for a living.. [42][43]

The three groups of Punti, Hakka, and Hoklo, all of whom spoke different Chinese dialects, despised and fought each otherduring the late Qing dynasty. However, they were all united in their overwhelming hatred for the Tanka, since the aboriginals of southern china were the ancestors of the Tanka.[44] The Cantonese Punti had displaced the Tanka aboriginals, after they began conquering southern China.[45]

The Chinese poet Su Tung-pʻo wrote a poem in which mentioned the Tanka.[46]

The Nankai University of Tianjin published the Nankai social and economic quarterly, Volume 9 in 1936, and it referred to the Tanka as aboriginal descendants before Chinese assimilation.[47] The scholar Jacques Gernet also wrote that the Tanka were aboriginals, who were known for being pirates, which hindered Qing dynasty attempts to assert control in Guangdong.[48]

Scholar's Opinions on Baiyue Connection

The theory that the Tanka are the descendants of the native Yue inhabitants of Guangdong before the Han Cantonese moved in.[49] The theory stated that originally the Yueh peoples inhabited the region, when the Chinese conquest began, the Chinese either absorbed or expelled the Yue to southern reigions. The Tanka, according to this theory, are descended from Yue who preserved their separate culture.[50]

A minority of scholars who challenged this theory, deny that the Tanka are descended from natives, instead claiming they are basically the same as other Han Cantonese who dwell on land, claiming that neither the land dwelling Han Cantonese nor the water dwelling Tanka have more aboriginal blood than the other, with the Tanka boat people being as Chinese and as Han as ordinary Cantonese.[51]

Eugene Newton Anderson claimed that there was no evidence for any of the conjectures put forward by scholars on the Tanka's origins, citing Chen, who stated that "to what tribe or race they once belonged or were once akin to is still unknown".[52]

Some researchers say the the origin of the Tanka is multifaceted, with a portion of them having native Yueh ancestors and others originating from other sources.[53]

Chinese colonization and Sinicization

The Song dynasty engaged in extensive colonization of the reigion with Chinese people.[54]

Due to the extensive sinicization of the Tanka, they now identify as Chinese, despite their non Chinese ancestry from the natives of Southern China.[55]

The Cantonese exploited the Tanka, using their own customs against them to acquire fish to sell from the Tanka.[56]

Qing dynasty

Tanka. Tankia (tan'ka, tan'kyä), n. [Chinese, literally, 'the Tan family or tribe'; < Tan, an aboriginal tribe who formerly occupied the region lying to the south and west of the Meiing (mountains) in southern China, + kia (pronounced ka in Canton), family, people.] The boat population of Canton in southern China, the descendants of an aboriginal tribe named Tan, who were driven by the advance of Chinese civilization to live in boats upon the river, and who have for centuries been forbidden to live on the land. "Since 1730 they have been permitted to settle in villages in the immediate neighbourhood of the river, but are still excluded from competition for official honours, and are forbidden by custom from intermarrying with the rest of the people. (Q&es, Glossary of Reference.)[57][58][59][60]

The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia: Dictionary in 1906

Originally the Tankas includes many refugees to the sea and were considered a non-Chinese aboriginal ethnic group and were classified by the Qing government as "mean".[61][62] The Yongzheng Emperor freed them and several other "mean" groups from this status in a series of edicts from 1723 to 1731.[63] They mostly worked as fishermen and tended to gather at some bays. Some built markets or villages on the shore, while others continued to live on their junks or boats. They claimed to be Han Chinese.[64]

The Qing edict said "Cantonese people regard the Dan households as being of the mean class (beijian zhi) and do not allow them to settle on shore. The Dan households, for their part, dare not struggle with the common people", this edict was issued in 1729.[65]

As Hong Kong developed, some of the fishing grounds in Hong Kong became badly polluted or were reclaimed, and so became land. Those Tankas who only own small boats and cannot fish far out to sea are forced to stay inshore in bays, gathering together like floating villages.[citation needed]

In 1937, Walter Schofield, then a Cadet Officer in the Hong Kong Civil Service, wrote that at that time the Tankas were "boat-people [who sometimes lived] in boats hauled ashore, or in more or less boat-shaped huts, as at Shau Kei Wan and Tai O". Their chief centres were reported to be harbours: Cheung Chau, Aberdeen, Tai O, Po Toi, Kau Sai Chau and Yau Ma Tei.[66]

Lifestyle and Culture

Always there is plenty to see, as the Tanka. the people who live in the boats, are full of life. They are an aboriginal tribe, speaking an altogether different language from the Chinese. On the land they are like fish out of water. They are said never to intermarry with landlubbers, but somehow or other their tongue has crept into many villages in the Chiklung section. The Chinese say the Tanka speech sounds like that of the Americans. It seems to have no tones. A hardy race, the Tanka are untouched by the epidemics that visit our coast, perhaps because they live so much off land. Each famjh has a boat, its own little kingdom, and, there being plenty of fish, all look better fed than most of our land neighbors. Christianity is, with a few rare exceptions, unknown to them. The only window of our Chiklung house gives the missioner a full view of the village life of some of the boat tribe. The window at present is just the absence of the south wall of the little loft to the shop. Wooden bars can be inserted in holes against robbers.[67]

Catholic Foreign Mission Society of America in 1921

Before leaving the market, by special invitation we had a swim from off one of the sampans (a term used around Canton: here "baby boat" is the name). The water was almost hot and the current surprisingly swift. Nevertheless the Tanka men and boys go in several times a day, and wash jacket and trousers, undressing and dressing in the water. They seem to let the clothes dry on them. Women and girls also jump in daily.[68]

Catholic Foreign Mission Society of America in 1921

Canton (Guangzhou)

The Tanka also formed a class of prostitutes in Canton operating the boats in Canton's Pearl River which functioned as brothels, they did not practice foot binding and their dialect was unique. They were forbidden to marry Chinese or live on land. Their ancestors were the natives of Southern China before the Chinese expelled them to their current home on the water.[69]

Under British rule in Hong Kong

Elizabeth Wheeler Andrew (1845–1917) and Katharine Caroline Bushnell (February 5, 1856 January 26, 1946), who wrote extensively on the position of women in the British Empire, wrote about the Tanka inhabitants of Hong Kong and their position in the prostitution industry, catering towards foreign sailors. The Tanka did not marry with the Chinese, being descendants of the natives, they were restricted to the waterways. They supplied their women as prostitutes to British sailors and assisted the British in their military actions around Hong Kong[70] The Tanka in Hong Kong were considered "outcasts" categorized low class.[71]

Ordinary Chinese prostitutes were afraid of serving Westerners since they looked strange to them, while the Tanka prostitutes freely mingled with western men.[72] The Tanka assisted the Europeans with supplies and providing them with prostitutes.[73][74] Low class European men in Hong Kong easily formed relations with the Tanka prostitutes.[75] The profession of prostitution among the Tanka women led to them being hated by the Chinese both because they had sex with westerners and them being racially Tanka.[76]

The Tanka prostitutes were considered to be "low class", greedy for money, arrogant, and treating clients with a bad attitude, they were known for punching their clients or mocking them by calling them names. [77] Though the Tanka prostitutes were considered low class, their brothels were still remarkably well kept and tidy.[78] A famous fictional story which was written in the 1800s depicted western items decorating the rooms of Tanka prostitutes.[79]

The stereotype among most Chinese in Canton that all Tanka women were prostitutes was common, leading the government during the Republican era to accidentally inflate the number of prostitutes when counting, due to all Tanka women being included.[80][81] The Tanka women were viewed as such that their prostitution activities were considered part of the normal bustle of a commercial trading city.[82] Sometimes the lowly regarded Tanka prostitutes managed to elevate themselves into higher forms of prostitution.[83][84]

Tanka women were ostracized from the Cantonese community, and were nicknamed "salt water girls " (ham shui mui in Cantonese) for their servicesas prostitutes to foreigners in Hong Kong.[85][86]

Tanka women who worked as prostitutes for foreigners also commonly kept a "nursery" Tanka girls specifically for exporting them for prostitution work to overseas Chinese communities such as in Australia or America, or to serve as a Chinese or foreigner's concubine.[87]

A report called "Correspondence respecting the alleged existence of Chinese slavery in Hong Kong: presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of Her Majesty" was presented to the English Parliament in 1882 concerning the existene of slavery in Hong Kong, of which many were Tanka girls serving as prostitutes or mistresses to westerners.

To understand the social bearings of domestic servitude as it obtains in Hong Kong, it must be observed that although the Chinese residents of Hong Kong are under British rule and live in close proximity to English social life, there has always been an impassable gulf between respectable English and Chinese society in Hong Kong. The two forms of social life have exercised a certain influence upon each other, but the result now visible is, that while Chinese social life has remained exactly what it is on the mainland of China, the social life of many foreigners in Hong Kong has comparatively degenerated, and not on'y accommodated itself in certain respects to habits peculiar to the system of •patriarchalism, but caused a certain disrespectable but small class of Chinese to enter into a social alliance with foreigners, which, while detaching them from the restraining influence of the custom and public opinion of Chinese society, left them uninfluenced by the moral powers of foreign civilization.[88]

This exceptional class of Chinese residents here in Hong Kong consists principally of the women known in Hong Kong by the popular nickname "ham-shui-mui" {lit. salt water girls), applied to these members of the so-called Tan-ka or boat population, the Pariahs of Cantonese society. These Tan-ka people of the Canton river are the descendants of a tribe of aborigines pushed by advancing Chinese civilization to live on boats on the Canton river, being for centuries forbidden by law to live on shore. The Emperor Yung Ching (A.D. 1730) allowed them to settle in villages in the immediate proximity of the river, but they were left by him, and remain to the present day excluded from competition for official honours, whilst custom forbids them to intermarry with the rest of the people. These Tan-ka people were the secret but trusty allies of foreigners from the time of the East India Company to the present day. They furnished pilots and supplies of provisions to British men-of-war and troop ships when doing so was by the Chinese Government declared treason, unsparingly visited with capital punishment. They invaded Hong Kong the moment the Colony was opened, and have ever since maintained here a monopoly, so to say, of the supply of Chinese pilots and ships' crews, of the fish trade, the cattle trade, and especially of the trade in women for the supply of foreigners and of brothels patronized by foreigners. Almost every so-called "protected woman," i.e. kept mistress of foreigners here, belongs to this Tan-ka tribe, looked down upon and kept at a distance by all the other Chinese classes. It is among these Tan-ka women, and especially under the protection of those "protected T;in-ka women, that private prostitution and the sale of girls for purposes of concubinage flourishes, being looked upon by them as their legitimate profession. Consequently, almost every "protected woman keeps a nursery of purchased children or a few servant girls who are being reared with a view to their eventual disposal, according to their personal qualifications, cither among foreigners here as kept women, or among Chinese residents as their concubines, or to be sold for export to Singapore, San Francisco, or Australia. Those protected women, moreover, generally act as protectors each to a few other Tan-ka women who live by sly prostitution. The latter, again, used to be preyed upon—till quite recently His Excellency Governor Hcnnessy stopped this fiendish practice—by informers paid with Government money, who would first debauch such women and then turn round against them charging them before the magistrate as keepers of unlicensed brothels, in which case a heavy fine would be inflicted, to pay which these women used to sell their own children, or sell themselves into bondage worse than slavery, to the keepers of the brothels licensed hy Government. Whenever a sly brothel was broken up these keepers would crowd the shroffs office of the police court or the visiting room ot the Government Lock Hospital to drive their heartless bargains, which were invariably enforced with the weighty support of the Inspectors of brothels appointed by Government under the Contagious Diseases Ordinance. The more this Ordinance was enforced the more of this buying and selling of human flesh went on at the very doors of Government offices. It is amongst these outcasts of Chinese society that the worst abuses of the Chinese system of domestic servitude exist, because that system is here unrestraired by the powers of traditional custom or popular opinion. This class of people, mustering perhaps here in Hong Kong not more than 2,000 persons, are entirely beyond the argument of this essay. They form a class of their own, readily recognised at a glance. They are disowned by Chinese society, whilst they are but parasites on foreign society. The system of buying and selling female children and of domestic servitude with which they must be identified is so glaring an abuse of legitimate Chinese domestic servitude that it calls for corrective measures entirely apart from any considerations connected with the general body of Chinese society.[89]

Correspondence respecting the alleged existence of Chinese slavery in Hong Kong: presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of Her Majesty in 1882

Ernest John Eitel claimed that all "half caste" people in Hong Kong were descended exclusively from Europeans having relationship with Tanka women, and not Chinese women. The theory that most of the Eurasian mixed race Hong Kong people are descended only from Tanka women and European men, and not ordinary Cantonese women, is backed up by other researchers who pointed out that Tanka women freely consorted with foreigners due to the fact that they were not bound by the same Confucian traditions as the Cantonese, and having a relationship with European men was advantageous for Tanka women. The ordinary Cantonese women did not sleep with European men, the Eurasian population was formed only from Tanka and European admixture.[90][91][92][93]

The day labourers settled down in huts at Taipingshan, at Saiyingpun and at Tsimshatsui. But the largest proportion of the Chinese population were the so-called Tanka or boat people, the pariahs of Sonth-China, whose intimate connection with the social life of the foreign merchants in the Canton factories used to call forth au annual proclamation on the part of the Cantonese Authorities warning foreigners against the demoralising influences of these people. These Tan-ka people, forbidden by Chinese law (since A.D. 1730) to settle on shore or to compete at literary examinations, and prohibited by custom from intermarrying with the rest of the people, were from the earliest days of the East India Company always the trusty allies of foreigners. They furnished pilots and supplies of provisions to British men-of war, troopships and mercantile vessels, at times when doing so was declared by the Chinese Government to be rank treason, unsparingly visited with capital punishment. They were the hangers-on of the foreign factories of Canton and of the British shipping at Lintin, Kamsingmoon, Tungkn and Hongkong Bay. They invaded Hongkong the moment the settlement was started, living at first on boats in the harbonr with their numerons families, and gradually settling on shore. They have maintained ever since almost a monopoly of the supply of pilots and ships' crews, of the fish trade and the cattle trade, but unfortunately also of the trade in girls and women. Strange to say, when the settlement was first started, it was estimated that some 2,000 of these Tan-ka lieople had flocked to Hongkong, but at the present time they are abont the same number, a tendency having set in among them to settle on shore rather than on the water and to disavow their Tan-ka extraction in order to mix on equal terms with the mass of the Chinese community. The half-caste population in Hongkong were, from the earliest days of the settlement of the Colony and down to the present day, almost exclusively the off-spring of these Tan-ka people. But, like the Tan-ka people themselves, they are happily under the influence of a process of continuons re-absorption in the mass of the Chinese residents of the Colony.[94][95]

During British rule some special schools were created for the Tanka.[96]

In 1962 a typhoon struck the Tanka and Hoklo boats, with hundreds being destroyed.[97][98][99]

During the 1970s the number of Tanka was reported to be shrinking.[100][101][102]

Shanghai

Shanghai, with its many international concessions, contained prostitutes from various areas of China, including Guangdong province, this included the Tanka prostitutes, who were grouped separately from the Cantonese prostitutes. The Cantonese served customers in normal brothels while the Tanka served customers in boats. [103]

Surnames

The Fuzhou Tanka have different surnames than the Tanka of Guangdong.[104] Qing records indicate that "Weng, Ou, Chi, Pu, Jiang, and Hai" were surnames of the Fuzhou Tanka.[105] Qing records also stated that Tanka surnames in Guangdong consisted of "Mai, Pu, Wu, Su, and He", alternatively some people claimed Gu and Zeng as Tanka surnames.[106]

DNA tests and Disease

Tests on the DNA of the Tanka people found that the disease Cooley's anaemia was common among the Tanka, and it also stated that the ancestors of the Tanka were not Han chinese, but were native people.[107]

The Tanka suffer from Lung cancer more than the Cantonese and Teochew, the frequency among Tanka for the disease is higher. The rate among the Teochew is lower than that of the Cantonese.[108]

See also

  • Pang uk
  • Fuzhou Tanka
  • Aberdeen floating village in Hong Kong
  • Yau Ma Tei Boat People in Hong Kong

References

  •  This article incorporates text from The Middle kingdom: a survey of the ... Chinese empire and its inhabitants ..., by Samuel Wells Williams, a publication from 1848 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from Correspondence respecting the alleged existence of Chinese slavery in Hong Kong: presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of Her Majesty Volume 3185 of C (Series) (Great Britain. Parliament), by Great Britain. Parliament, a publication from 1882 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from The Century dictionary: an encyclopedic lexicon of the English language, Part 21, by William Dwight Whitney, a publication from 1891 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia: The Century dictionary ... prepared under the superintendence of William Dwight Whitney ... rev. & enl. under the superintendence of Benjamin E. Smith, by William Dwight Whitney, Benjamin Eli Smith, a publication from 1911 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia: Dictionary, by William Dwight Whitney, a publication from 1906 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from The Century dictionary and cyclopedia: a work of universal reference in all departments of knowledge, with a new atlas of the world, Volume 7, a publication from 1897 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from The Field afar, Volumes 15-16, by Catholic Foreign Mission Society of America, Catholic Foreign Mission Bureau of Boston, a publication from 1921 now in the public domain in the United States.
  •  This article incorporates text from Europe in China: the history of Hongkong from the beginning to the year 1882, by Ernest John Eitel, a publication from 1895 now in the public domain in the United States.
  1. ^ Maria Jaschok, Suzanne Miers, ed (1994). Women and Chinese patriarchy: submission, servitude, and escape (illustrated ed.). Zed Books. p. xvi. ISBN 1856491269. http://books.google.com/books?id=f5o_t7VxHYAC&pg=PA237&dq=tanka+prostitutes&hl=en&ei=qkKwTozYNuP50gGYoa3gAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDQQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=tanka%20marginalised%20boat%20people%20southern%20provinces&f=false. Retrieved 2011 November 1. "Tanka, a marginalised boat people w hich could be found in the Southern provinces of China." 
  2. ^ the University of MichiganCornelius Osgood (1975). The Chinese: a study of a Hong Kong community, Volume 3. University of Arizona Press. p. 1212. http://books.google.com/books?ei=TWe1TsqRO6fr0gG5m9jRBw&ct=result&id=D0IsAAAAMAAJ&dq=shii+leung+%28shu+lang%29+shii+miu+%28shu+miao%29+shui+fan+%28shui+fen%29+shui+kwa+%28shui+kua%29+shui+sheung+yan+%28shui+shang+jen%29+Shui+Sin+%28Shui+Hsien%29+shuk+in+%28shu+yen%29+ShunTe+Sian+Sin+Ku+%28Hsien+Ku%29+sin+t%27it+%28hsien+t%27ieh%29+Sin+Yan+%28Hsien+Jen%29+sing&q=yan+jen+hsien+shuk. Retrieved 2011 November 5. "shii leung (shu lang) shii miu (shu miao) shui fan (shui fen) shui kwa (shui kua) shui sheung yan (shui shang jen) Shui Sin (Shui Hsien) shuk in (shu yen) ShunTe Sian Sin Ku (Hsien Ku) sin t'it (hsien t'ieh) Sin Yan (Hsien Jen) sing" 
  3. ^ Hong Kong. Govt. Press. 1962. p. 37. http://books.google.com/books?ei=3V-1TuqkKOH30gGo0oTSBw&ct=result&id=-CYfAQAAMAAJ&dq=The+Tanka+are+boat+dwellers+who+very+seldom+settle+ashore.+They+themselves+do+not+much+use+this+name%2C+which+they+consider+derogatory%2C+but+usually+call+themselves+%27Nam+Hoi+Yari+%28people+of+the+southern+sea%29+or+%27Shui+Sheung+Yari&q=nam+hoi+shui+sheung. Retrieved 2011 November 5. "The Tanka are boat dwellers who very seldom settle ashore. They themselves do not much use this name, which they consider derogatory, but usually call themselves 'Nam Hoi Yan (people of the southern sea) or 'Shui Sheung Yan" 
  4. ^ the University of MichiganNational Physical Laboratory (Great Britain) (1962). Report for the year .... H.M.S.O.. p. 37. http://books.google.com/books?ei=wGC1TsGRDcnb0QHI46zRBw&ct=result&id=0iDjAAAAMAAJ&dq=The+Tanka+are+boat+dwellers+who+very+seldom+settle+ashore.+They+themselves+do+not+much+use+this+name%2C+which+they+consider+derogatory%2C+but+usually+call+themselves+%27Nam+Hoi+Yari+%28people+of+the+southern+sea%29+or+%27Shui+Sheung+Yari&q=nam+hoi+shui+sheung. Retrieved 2011 November 5. "The Tanka are boat dwellers who very seldom settle ashore. They themselves do not much use this name, which they consider derogatory, but usually call themselves 'Nam Hoi Yan (people of the southern sea) or 'Shui Sheung Yan" 
  5. ^ the University of Virginia Hong Kong: report for the year .... Government Press. 1961. p. 40. http://books.google.com/books?ei=B2G1To_pIsb50gGMwcC3BA&ct=result&id=i-FHAAAAYAAJ&dq=The+Tanka+are+boat+dwellers+who+very+seldom+settle+ashore.+They+themselves+do+not+much+use+this+name%2C+which+they+consider+derogatory%2C+but+usually+call+themselves+%27Nam+Hoi+Yari+%28people+of+the+southern+sea%29+or+%27Shui+Sheung+Yari&q=nam+hoi+shui+sheung. Retrieved 2011 November 5. "The Tanka are boat dwellers who very seldom settle ashore. They themselves do not much use this name, which they consider derogatory, but usually call themselves 'Nam Hoi Yan (people of the southern sea) or 'Shui Sheung Yan" 
  6. ^ Hong Kong annual report. H.M.S.O.. 1962. p. 37. http://books.google.com/books?ei=61-1TrqVLafZ0QHkq83RBw&ct=result&id=h2kUAAAAIAAJ&dq=The+Tanka+are+boat+dwellers+who+very+seldom+settle+ashore.+They+themselves+do+not+much+use+this+name%2C+which+they+consider+derogatory%2C+but+usually+call+themselves+%27Nam+Hoi+Yan%27+%28people+of+the+southern+sea%29+or+%27Shui+Sheung+Yan%27&q=nam+hoi+yan+shui+sheung+yan. Retrieved 2011 November 5. "The Tanka are boat dwellers who very seldom settle ashore. They themselves do not much use this name, which they consider derogatory, but usually call themselves 'Nam Hoi Yan' (people of the southern sea) or 'Shui Sheung Yan'" 
  7. ^ Hong Kong. Govt. Press. 1960. p. 40. http://books.google.com/books?ei=o2G1TqVkxffSAZ7-3NcE&ct=result&id=6ycfAQAAMAAJ&dq=The+Tanka+are+boat+dwellers+who+very+seldom+settle+ashore.+They+themselves+do+not+much+use+this+name%2C+which+they+consider+derogatory%2C+but+usually+call+themselves+%27Nam+Hoi+Yan%27+%28people+of+the+southern+sea%29+or+%27Shui+Sheung+Yan%27&q=nam+hoi+yan+shui+sheung+yan. Retrieved 2011 November 5. "The Tanka are boat dwellers who very seldom settle ashore. They themselves do not much use this name, which they consider derogatory, but usually call themselves 'Nam Hoi Yan' (people of the southern sea) or 'Shui Sheung Yan'" 
  8. ^ the University of MichiganMartin Hürlimann (1962). Hong Kong. Viking Press. p. 17. http://books.google.com/books?id=6IJwAAAAMAAJ&q=Shui+sheung+yan&dq=Shui+sheung+yan&hl=en&ei=oJe0TuW3B-Hj0QHT9MTRBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8&ved=0CFIQ6AEwBw. Retrieved 2011 November 5. "The Tanka are among the earliest of the region's inhabitants. They call themselves 'Shui Sheung Yan', signifying 'those born on the waters'; for they have been a popu/ lation afloat as far back as men can remember — their craft jostle each other most closely in the fishing port" 
  9. ^ Indiana UniversityValery M. Garrett (1987). Traditional Chinese clothing in Hong Kong and South China, 1840-1980 (illustrated, reprint ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 2. ISBN 0195841743. http://books.google.com/books?ei=oJe0TuW3B-Hj0QHT9MTRBw&ct=result&id=9MffAAAAMAAJ&dq=Shui+sheung+yan&q=physique+darker+skin. Retrieved 2011 November 5. "The Tanka dislike the name and prefer 'Shui sheung yan', which means 'people who live on the water'. Because of their different physique and darker skin, they were traditionally thought by those living on the land to be a race of sea gypsies and not Chinese at all" 
  10. ^ the University of Michigan Far Eastern economic review, Volume 24. Review Pub. Co. Ltd.. 1958. p. 280. http://books.google.com/books?ei=EsKxTrb8GqnZ0QG61MjoAQ&ct=result&id=afAnAAAAMAAJ&dq=which+they+consider+derc+using+instead+%22Nam+hoi+yan%22+or+%22Shui+sheung+yan%22.+dwellers+however+have+few+dealings+with+either+race+%D1%81+people+and+tend+to+call+them+both+%22Tanka%22.+%D0%A2%D0%AA%D0%B5+Pui+Tanka+dialects+both+belong+to+the+western+section+of&q=nam+hoi+yan+shui+sheung+yan. Retrieved 2011 November 1. "The name "Hoklo" is used by the Hoklo, but the Tanka will not use the name "Tanka" which they consider derogatory, using instead "Nam hoi yan" or "Shui sheung yan". Shore dwellers however have few dealings with either race of people and tend to call them both "Tanka". Тhe Pui Tanka dialects both belong to the western section of" 
  11. ^ Architectural Conservation Office, HKSAR Government. (2008). Heritage Impact Assessment Report of the Yau Ma Tei Theatre & Red Brick Building, p.5
  12. ^ the University of Michigan Anthropos, Volume 65. Zaunrith'sche Buch-, Kunst- und Steindruckerei. 1970. p. 249. http://books.google.com/books?id=GacfAQAAMAAJ&q=Far+better+known+are+the+Cantonese-speaking+boat+people.+These+are+the+groups+known+as+%22Tanka%22+(Mandarin+%22Tanchia%22)+in+most+of+the+literature,+but+%22Tanka%22+is+a+Cantonese+term+of+hatred+and+scorn,+of+uncertain+origin&dq=Far+better+known+are+the+Cantonese-speaking+boat+people.+These+are+the+groups+known+as+%22Tanka%22+(Mandarin+%22Tanchia%22)+in+most+of+the+literature,+but+%22Tanka%22+is+a+Cantonese+term+of+hatred+and+scorn,+of+uncertain+origin&hl=en&ei=Pgs2TpmwLM-DtgeG6O3yDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAQ. Retrieved 2011 October 31. "Far better known are the Cantonese-speaking boat people. These are the groups known as "Tanka" (Mandarin "Tanchia") in most of the literature, but "Tanka" is a Cantonese term of hatred and scorn, of uncertain origin" 
  13. ^ Indiana UniversityEugene Newton Anderson (1970). The floating world of Castle Peak Bay. Volume 4 of Anthropological studies. American Anthropological Association. p. 13. http://books.google.com/books?ei=XA02TtC2IMuBtgft8ZD_DA&ct=result&id=N5qfAAAAMAAJ&dq=or+%22Tanka%22+-+a+term+of+hatred%29+and+Hoklou.+The+Hoklou+speak+a+distinctive+dialect+of+South+Fukienese+%28South+Min&q=term+hatred+tanchia. Retrieved 2011 October 31. "into two major groups: Cantonese ("Tanchia" or "Tanka" - a term of hatred) and Hoklou. The Hoklou speak a distinctive dialect of South Fukienese (South Min, Swatowese)" 
  14. ^ James Hayes (1996). Friends & teachers: Hong Kong and its people, 1953-87. Hong Kong University Press. p. 23. ISBN 9622093965. http://books.google.com/books?id=1FipFmG_WLUC&pg=PA23&dq=leaving+aside+the+settled+land+population+Hakka+and+Cantonese+villagers,+and+the+trickle+of+newcomers+into+the+district,+there+were+also+the+boat+people,+of+whom+the+Tanka+and+Hoklo+were+the+two+principal+groups.+They+were+numerous+and+to+be+found+everywhere+in+its+waters&hl=en&ei=Bm-1Tr60IMbj0QHoy6nSBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=leaving%20aside%20the%20settled%20land%20population%20Hakka%20and%20Cantonese%20villagers%2C%20and%20the%20trickle%20of%20newcomers%20into%20the%20district%2C%20there%20were%20also%20the%20boat%20people%2C%20of%20whom%20the%20Tanka%20and%20Hoklo%20were%20the%20two%20principal%20groups.%20They%20were%20numerous%20and%20to%20be%20found%20everywhere%20in%20its%20waters&f=false. Retrieved 2011 November 5. "Leaving aside the settled land population Hakka and Cantonese villagers, and the trickle of newcomers into the district, there were also the boat people, of whom the Tanka and Hoklo were the two principal groups. They were numerous and to be found everywhere in its waters" 
  15. ^ David Faure, Helen F. Siu, ed (1995). Down to earth: the territorial bond in South China (illustrated, revised ed.). Stanford University Press. p. 93. ISBN 0804724350. http://books.google.com/books?id=I8AWyYywMn8C&pg=PA93&dq=the+Hong+Kong+region,+the+existence+of+groups+of+sea+fishermen+other+than+Tanka+was+quite+common.+...+Perhaps+as+a+result+of+this+long-established+social+divide,+the+Tanka+boat+people+of+Cheung+Chau+were+excluded+from+participation&hl=en&ei=q3a1TtuIEorG0AHyr4nSBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=the%20Hong%20Kong%20region%2C%20the%20existence%20of%20groups%20of%20sea%20fishermen%20other%20than%20Tanka%20was%20quite%20common.%20...%20Perhaps%20as%20a%20result%20of%20this%20long-established%20social%20divide%2C%20the%20Tanka%20boat%20people%20of%20Cheung%20Chau%20were%20excluded%20from%20participation&f=false. Retrieved 2011 November 5. "In the Hong Kong region, the existence of groups of sea fishermen other than Tanka was quite common. On nearby Peng Chau, both Cantonese and Hakka villagers undertook sea fishing..... However, in all such cases... occupational blurring did not mean... intermarriage between land based fishermen, who cllung to their own kind, and the Tanka. ... the Tanka boat people of Cheung Chau were excluded from participation in the ...jiao festival." 
  16. ^ Hong Kong. Govt. Press. 1970. p. 219. http://books.google.com/books?id=LCcfAQAAMAAJ&q=The+Hoklo+people,+like+the+Tanka,+have+been+in+the+area+since+time+unknown.+They+too+are+boat-dwellers+but+are+less+numerous+than+the+Tanka+and+are+mostly+found+in+eastern+waters.+In+some+places,+they+have+lived+ashore+for+several&dq=The+Hoklo+people,+like+the+Tanka,+have+been+in+the+area+since+time+unknown.+They+too+are+boat-dwellers+but+are+less+numerous+than+the+Tanka+and+are+mostly+found+in+eastern+waters.+In+some+places,+they+have+lived+ashore+for+several&hl=en&ei=uZC1Tpm6EaHL0QGMt9TFBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA. Retrieved 2011 November 5. "The Hoklo people, like the Tanka, have been in the area since time unknown. They too are boat-dwellers but are less numerous than the Tanka and are mostly found in eastern waters. In some places, they have lived ashore for several" 
  17. ^ the University of Virginia Hong Kong: report for the year .... Government Press. 1970. p. 219. http://books.google.com/books?id=I-JHAAAAYAAJ&q=The+Hoklo+people,+like+the+Tanka,+have+been+in+the+area+since+time+unknown.+They+too+are+boat-dwellers+but+are+less+numerous+than+the+Tanka+and+are+mostly+found+in+eastern+waters.+In+some+places,+they+have+lived+ashore+for+several&dq=The+Hoklo+people,+like+the+Tanka,+have+been+in+the+area+since+time+unknown.+They+too+are+boat-dwellers+but+are+less+numerous+than+the+Tanka+and+are+mostly+found+in+eastern+waters.+In+some+places,+they+have+lived+ashore+for+several&hl=en&ei=DZW1TvHsJcnd0QG45YTHBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAQ. Retrieved 2011 November 5. "The Hoklo people, like the Tanka, have been in the area since time unknown. They too are boat-dwellers but are less numerous than the Tanka and are mostly found in eastern waters. In some places, they have lived ashore for several" 
  18. ^ the University of Michigan Report for the year. H.M.S.O.. 1970. p. 215. http://books.google.com/books?ei=RJW1TsGuDqPd0QHloNzRBw&ct=result&id=OiTjAAAAMAAJ&dq=The+Hoklo+people%2C+like+the+Tanka%2C+have+been+in+the+area+since+time+unknown.+They+too+are+boat-dwellers+but+are+less+numerous+than+the+Tanka+and+are+mostly+found+in+eastern+waters.+In+some+places%2C+they+have+lived+ashore+for+several&q=tanka+area++unknown. Retrieved 2011 November 5. "The Hoklo people, like the Tanka, have been in the area since time unknown. They too are boat-dwellers but are less numerous than the Tanka and are mostly found in eastern waters. In some places, they have lived ashore for several" 
  19. ^ Hong Kong annual report. H.M.S.O.. 1970. p. 219. http://books.google.com/books?id=8uMzAQAAIAAJ&q=The+Hoklo+people,+like+the+Tanka,+have+been+in+the+area+since+time+unknown.+They+too+are+boat-dwellers+but+are+less+numerous+than+the+Tanka+and+are+mostly+found+in+eastern+waters.+In+some+places,+they+have+lived+ashore+for+several&dq=The+Hoklo+people,+like+the+Tanka,+have+been+in+the+area+since+time+unknown.+They+too+are+boat-dwellers+but+are+less+numerous+than+the+Tanka+and+are+mostly+found+in+eastern+waters.+In+some+places,+they+have+lived+ashore+for+several&hl=en&ei=zJW1Tte5IoXe0QG09ODRBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDsQ6AEwAw. Retrieved 2011 November 5. "The Hoklo people, like the Tanka, have been in the area since time unknown. They too are boat-dwellers but are less numerous than the Tanka and are mostly found in eastern waters. In some places, they have lived ashore for several" 
  20. ^ Pennsylvania State UniversityGrolier Incorporated (1999). The encyclopedia Americana, Volume 14. Grolier Incorporated. p. 474. ISBN 0717201317. http://books.google.com/books?ei=eJS1Tre2HsrW0QH6--zRBw&ct=result&id=lAxZAAAAYAAJ&dq=In+Hong+Kong%2C+the+Tanka+and+Hoklo+peoples+have+dwelt+in+houseboats+since+prehistoric+times.+These+houseboaters+seldom+marry+shore+dwellers.+The+Hong+Kong+government+estimated+that+in+December+1962+there+were+46459+people+living+on&q=tanka+prehistoric. Retrieved 2011 November 5. "In Hong Kong, the Tanka and Hoklo peoples have dwelt in houseboats since prehistoric times. These houseboaters seldom marry shore dwellers. The Hong Kong government estimated that in December 1962 there were 46459 people living on houseboats there, although a typhoon had wrecked hundreds of boats a few months earlier." 
  21. ^ Pennsylvania State UniversityScholastic Library Publishing (2006). Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 1 (illustrated ed.). Scholastic Library Pub.. p. 474. ISBN 0717201392. http://books.google.com/books?ei=uJa1TrvIIITr0gHtu5zSBw&ct=result&id=igzYAAAAMAAJ&dq=In+Hong+Kong%2C+the+Tanka+and+Hoklo+peoples+have+dwelt+in+houseboats+since+prehistoric+times.+These+houseboaters+seldom+marry+shore+dwellers.+The+Hong+Kong+government+estimated+that+in+December+1962+there+were+46459+people+living+on&q=tanka+prehistoric. Retrieved 2011 November 5. "In Hong Kong, the Tanka and Hoklo peoples have dwelt in houseboats since prehistoric times. These houseboaters seldom marry shore dwellers. The Hong Kong government estimated that in December 1962 there were 46459 people living on houseboats there, although a typhoon had wrecked hundreds of boats a few months earlier." 
  22. ^ the University of Michigan The Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 14. Grolier. 1981. p. 474. ISBN 0717201120. http://books.google.com/books?ei=HZe1Tu_FGoTL0QGU_rzRBw&ct=result&id=DOUZAAAAMAAJ&dq=In+Hong+Kong%2C+the+Tanka+and+Hoklo+peoples+have+dwelt+in+houseboats+since+prehistoric+times.+These+houseboaters+seldom+marry+shore+dwellers.+The+Hong+Kong+government+estimated+that+in+December+1962+there+were+46459+people+living+on&q=tanka+prehistoric. Retrieved 2011 November 5. "In Hong Kong, the Tanka and Hoklo peoples have dwelt in houseboats since prehistoric times. These houseboaters seldom marry shore dwellers. The Hong Kong government estimated that in December 1962 there were 46459 people living on houseboats there, although a typhoon had wrecked hundreds of boats a few months earlier." 
  23. ^ Indiana UniversityEugene Newton Anderson (1970). The floating world of Castle Peak Bay. Volume 4 of Anthropological studies. American Anthropological Association. p. 13. http://books.google.com/books?id=N5qfAAAAMAAJ&q=Some+are+reasonable,+some+improbable+indeed.+ln+the+latter+category+fall+some+of+the+traditional+Chinese+legends,+such+as+the+story+of+the+descent+of+the+%22Tanka%22+(and+other+%22barbarians%22)+from+animals.+These+traditional+tales+are&dq=Some+are+reasonable,+some+improbable+indeed.+ln+the+latter+category+fall+some+of+the+traditional+Chinese+legends,+such+as+the+story+of+the+descent+of+the+%22Tanka%22+(and+other+%22barbarians%22)+from+animals.+These+traditional+tales+are&hl=en&ei=T3ytTquzI-Pm0QH22uDODw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA. Retrieved 2011 October 31. "Some are reasonable, some improbable indeed. ln the latter category fall some of the traditional Chinese legends, such as the story of the descent of the "Tanka" (and other "barbarians") from animals. These traditional tales are" 
  24. ^ the University of MichiganEugene Newton Anderson (1972). Essays on south China's boat people. Volume 29 of Asian folklore and social life monographs Dong fang wen cong. Orient Cultural Service. p. 2. http://books.google.com/books?id=I_ZwAAAAMAAJ&q=S'%5Eme+are+reasonable,+some+improbable.+In+the+latter+category+fall+some+traditional+Chinese+legends.+*uch+as+the+story+of+the+descent+of+the+%22Tanka%22+%7B+and+other+%22barbarians%22)+from+animals.+These+traditional+tales+are+recorded+by+Chen&dq=S'%5Eme+are+reasonable,+some+improbable.+In+the+latter+category+fall+some+traditional+Chinese+legends.+*uch+as+the+story+of+the+descent+of+the+%22Tanka%22+%7B+and+other+%22barbarians%22)+from+animals.+These+traditional+tales+are+recorded+by+Chen&hl=en&ei=bnytTt_1GcLe0QHvkt2jDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA. Retrieved 2011 October 31. "S'^me are reasonable, some improbable. In the latter category fall some traditional Chinese legends. *uch as the story of the descent of the "Tanka" { and other "barbarians") from animals. These traditional tales are recorded by Chen" 
  25. ^ the University of Michigan Anthropos, Volume 65. Zaunrith'sche Buch-, Kunst- und Steindruckerei. 1970. p. 249. http://books.google.com/books?id=GacfAQAAMAAJ&q=Some+are+reasonable,+some+improbable.+In+the+latter+category+fall+some+traditional+Chinese+legends,+such+as+the+story+of+the+descent+of+the+%22Tanka%22+(+and+other+%22barbarians%22)+from+animals.+These+traditional+tales+are+recorded+by+Chen&dq=Some+are+reasonable,+some+improbable.+In+the+latter+category+fall+some+traditional+Chinese+legends,+such+as+the+story+of+the+descent+of+the+%22Tanka%22+(+and+other+%22barbarians%22)+from+animals.+These+traditional+tales+are+recorded+by+Chen&hl=en&ei=9HutTobZFOXu0gHCmameDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA. Retrieved 2011 October 31. "Some are reasonable, some improbable. In the latter category fall some traditional Chinese legends, such as the story of the descent of the "Tanka" ( and other "barbarians") from animals. These traditional tales are recorded by Chen" 
  26. ^ the University of MichiganWolfram Eberhard (1982). China's minorities: yesterday and today. Wadsworth. p. 89. ISBN 0534010806. http://books.google.com/books?id=QhRHAAAAMAAJ&q=chinese+sources+assert+that+they+can+stay+under+water+for+three+days+and+that+they+are+descendants+of+water+snakes.+not+much+else+is+said+about+them+in+chinese+sources,+especially+nothing+about+their+language&dq=chinese+sources+assert+that+they+can+stay+under+water+for+three+days+and+that+they+are+descendants+of+water+snakes.+not+much+else+is+said+about+them+in+chinese+sources,+especially+nothing+about+their+language&hl=en&ei=VG6wTuf-L6jv0gGUhNDnAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAA. "Chinese sources assert that they can stay under water for three days and that they are descendants of water snakes. Not much else is said about them in Chinese sources, especially nothing about their language." 
  27. ^ Tê-chʻao Chêng (1948). Acculturation of the Chinese in the United States: a Philadelphia study. University of Pennsylvania.. p. 27. http://books.google.com/books?ei=fAs2TuOUJYKTtwfdg7nqDA&ct=result&id=7b41AAAAIAAJ&dq=Among+the+aboriginal+tribes%2C+the+%22lu%22+%28H%29+tribe+is+the+largest%2C+then+%22Lai%22+%285%C2%A3%29%2C+the+%22I%22%28%5E%7C%29or+more+commonly+called+the%22Miao%22+%28IS%29%2C+and+the+%22Tanka%22+%28%C2%AEiO-+The+mixture+of+these+peoples+with+the+%22Han%22+people+therefore+caused+all+Ihe&q=tanka+lai. Retrieved 2011 October 29. "Among the aboriginal tribes, the "lu" (H) tribe is the largest, then "Lai" (5£), the "I"(^" 
  28. ^ Murray A. Rubinstein (2007). Murray A. Rubinstein. ed. Taiwan: a new history (illustrated ed.). M.E. Sharpe. p. 34. ISBN 0765614944. http://books.google.com/books?id=FHqMJSM6dAYC&pg=PA34&dq=tanka+tribes+aboriginal&hl=en&ei=Jgs2TsX-N821twft-9GSDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CD8Q6AEwBTgU#v=onepage&q=tanka%20tribes%20aboriginal&f=false. Retrieved 2011 October 30. ""which modern poeple are the Pai Yueh"..,...So is it possible that there is a relationship between the Pai Yueh and the Malay race?...Today in riverine estuaries of Fukien and Kwangtung are another Yueh people, the Tanka ("boatpeople"). Might some of them have left the Yueh tribes and set out on the seas? (1936: 117)" 
  29. ^ Mike Ingham (2007). Hong Kong: a cultural history (illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 2. ISBN 0195314964. http://books.google.com/books?id=eIUL7Ab6tPwC&pg=PA2&dq=In+their+turn+the+modern-day+boat+people+of+Hong+Kong,+the+Tanka,+have+derived+their+maritime+and+fishing+cultural+traditions+from+this+long+lineage.+Little+is+known+about+the+Yue,+but+some+archaeological+evidence+gathered+from+Bronze&hl=en&ei=HXStTq3xLoP10gG2wKyKDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=In%20their%20turn%20the%20modern-day%20boat%20people%20of%20Hong%20Kong%2C%20the%20Tanka%2C%20have%20derived%20their%20maritime%20and%20fishing%20cultural%20traditions%20from%20this%20long%20lineage.%20Little%20is%20known%20about%20the%20Yue%2C%20but%20some%20archaeological%20evidence%20gathered%20from%20Bronze&f=false. Retrieved 2011 October 31. "In their turn the modern-day boat people of Hong Kong, the Tanka, have derived their maritime and fishing cultural traditions from this long lineage. Little is known about the Yue, but some archaeological evidence gathered from Bronze" 
  30. ^ Michael Ingham. Hong Kong: A Cultural History. Oxford University Press US. p. 2. ISBN 0199886245. http://books.google.com/books?id=CWQevk29DJsC&pg=PT25&dq=tanka+tribes+aboriginal&hl=en&ei=Jgs2TsX-N821twft-9GSDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CDoQ6AEwBDgU#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 2011 October 31. "of China following the Emperor Qin's conquests in the second century BC, Hong Kong, now integrated into the Donguan county of Guangdong province, started to be colonized or settled by non-indigenous peoples from further north" 
  31. ^ the University of MichiganEugene Newton Anderson (1972). Essays on south China's boat people. Volume 29 of Asian folklore and social life monographs Dong fang wen cong. Orient Cultural Service. p. 2. http://books.google.com/books?ei=YXatTqi_K8Xs0gHfiviZDw&ct=result&id=I_ZwAAAAMAAJ&dq=Most+scholars%2C+basing+themselves+on+traditional+Chinese+historians%27+work%2C+have+agreed+that+the+boat+people+.are+descendents+of+the+Yiieh+or+a+branch+thereof+%28+Eberhard+1942%2C+1968+%3B+Lo+1955%2C+1963+%3B+Ho+1965+%3B+and+others+influenced+by+them%2C&q=branch+thereof+. Retrieved 2011 October 31. "Most scholars, basing themselves on traditional Chinese historians' work, have agreed that the boat people .are descendents of the Yüeh or a branch thereof ( Eberhard 1942, 1968 ; Lo 1955, 1963 ; Ho 1965 ; and others influenced by them, such as Wiens 1954). "Yüeh" (the "Viet" of Vietnam) seems to have been a term rather loosely used in early Chinese writings to refer to the "barbarian" groups of the south coast" 
  32. ^ the University of Michigan Anthropos, Volume 65. Zaunrith'sche Buch-, Kunst- und Steindruckerei. 1970. p. 249. http://books.google.com/books?ei=JXqtTsTHCYHk0QGj5Jn_AQ&ct=result&id=GacfAQAAMAAJ&dq=Most+scholars%2C+basing+themselves+on+traditional+Chinese+historians%27+work%2C+have+agreed+that+the+boat+people+are+descendents+of+the+Yiieh+or+a+branch+thereof+%28+Eberhard+1942%2C+1968+%3B+Lo+1955%2C+1963+%3B+Ho+1965+%3B+and+others+influenced+by+them&q=branch+thereof. Retrieved 2011 October 31. "Most scholars, basing themselves on traditional Chinese historians' work, have agreed that the boat people .are descendents of the Yüeh or a branch thereof ( Eberhard 1942, 1968 ; Lo 1955, 1963 ; Ho 1965 ; and others influenced by them, such as Wiens 1954). "Yüeh" (the "Viet" of Vietnam) seems to have been a term rather loosely used in early Chinese writings to refer to the "barbarian" groups of the south coast" 
  33. ^ Phil Benson (2001). Ethnocentrism and the English dictionary. Volume 3 of Routledge studies in the history of linguistics (illustrated, reprint ed.). Psychology Press. p. 152. ISBN 0415220742. http://books.google.com/books?id=WeuW7oy7-58C&pg=PA152&dq=tanka+tribes+aboriginal&hl=en&ei=85E1TrTOEIvpgAfPuZXvDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CEYQ6AEwBQ#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 2011 October 31. "Tanka ... The boat-population of CAnton, who live entirely on the boats by which they earn their living: they are descendants of some aboriginal tribe of which Tan was apparently the name." 
  34. ^ Middle East and Africa. Taylor & Francis. 1996. p. 358. ISBN 1884964044. http://books.google.com/books?id=vWLRxJEU49EC&pg=PA358&dq=tanka+tribes+aboriginal&hl=en&ei=Jgs2TsX-N821twft-9GSDQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=9&ved=0CE8Q6AEwCDgU#v=onepage&q=tanka%20tribes%20aboriginal&f=false. Retrieved 2011 October 29. "When the British appropriated the territory in the nineteenth century, they found these three major ethnic groups — Punti, Hakka, and Tanka — and one minority, the Hoklo, who were sea-nomads from the northern shore of Guangdong and" 
  35. ^ Chinese Society in the Eighteenth Century (reprint, illustrated ed.). Yale University Press. 1989. p. 169. ISBN 0300046022. http://books.google.com/books?id=cpfgQNWXpyoC&pg=PA169&dq=The+Wuyi+mountains+were+the+home+of+the+She,+remnants+of+an+aboriginal+tribe+related+to+the+Yao+who+practiced+slash+and+burn+agriculture.+Tanka+boatmen+of+similar+origin+were+also+found+in+small+numbers+along+the+coast&hl=en&ei=oICtTszxIsnm0QHIiY20Dw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=The%20Wuyi%20mountains%20were%20the%20home%20of%20the%20She%2C%20remnants%20of%20an%20aboriginal%20tribe%20related%20to%20the%20Yao%20who%20practiced%20slash%20and%20burn%20agriculture.%20Tanka%20boatmen%20of%20similar%20origin%20were%20also%20found%20in%20small%20numbers%20along%20the%20coast&f=false. Retrieved 2011 October 31. "The Wuyi mountains were the home of the She, remnants of an aboriginal tribe related to the Yao who practiced slash and burn agriculture. Tanka boatmen of similar origin were also found in small numbers along the coast. Both the She and the Tanka were quite assimilated into Han Chinese culture." 
  36. ^ William Meacham (2008). The Archaeology of Hong Kong (illustrated ed.). Hong Kong University Press. p. 162. ISBN 9622099254. http://books.google.com/books?id=WZ-jF8sCV4YC&pg=PA162&dq=Later+sources+refer+to+the+Tanka+boat+people+as+%22Yao%22+or+%22barbarian,%22+and+for+centuries+they+were+shunned+and+not+allowed+to+settle+on+land.+Even+as+late+as+1729,+the+Sun+On+county+gazetteer+recorded+that+%22in+Guangdong+there+is+a+tribe&hl=en&ei=RImtTpPtG4HG0AH4m92PDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Later%20sources%20refer%20to%20the%20Tanka%20boat%20people%20as%20%22Yao%22%20or%20%22barbarian%2C%22%20and%20for%20centuries%20they%20were%20shunned%20and%20not%20allowed%20to%20settle%20on%20land.%20Even%20as%20late%20as%201729%2C%20the%20Sun%20On%20county%20gazetteer%20recorded%20that%20%22in%20Guangdong%20there%20is%20a%20tribe&f=false. Retrieved 2011 October 31. "Other sources mention "Yao" who also lived on Lantau. Chinese sources describe several efforts to bring these folk to heel and, finally, a campaign to annihilate them... Later sources refer to the Tanka boat people as "Yao" or "barbarian," and for centuries they were shunned and not allowed to settle on land. Even as late as 1729, the Sun On county gazetteer recorded that "in Guangdong there is a tribe of Yao barbarians called the Tanka, who have boats for homes and live by fishing." These presumed remnants of the Yueh and their traditional way of life were looked down upon by the Han Chinese through the centuries," 
  37. ^ the University of MichiganWolfram Eberhard (1982). China's minorities: yesterday and today. Wadsworth. p. 89. ISBN 0534010806. http://books.google.com/books?ei=OmewTouZAoj00gHM4I3nAQ&ct=result&id=QhRHAAAAMAAJ&dq=Several+styles+of+Chinese+music+come+from+Southern+non-Chinese.+I+would+be+inclined+to+assume+that+the+Tanka+are+close+relatives+of+the+Yueh.+There+is+%22+Chinese+blood%22+in+them+as+a+result+of+sexual+contacts+through+prostitution%3A+Tanka&q=relatives+yueh+sexual. "Several styles of Chinese music come from Southern non-Chinese. I would be inclined to assume that the Tanka are close relatives of the Yueh. There is "Chinese blood" in them as a result of sexual contacts through prostitution: Tanka operated so-called pleasure boats around Hong Kong and Canton. As a consequence of this intermingling, they lost their own language" 
  38. ^ the University of MichiganWolfram Eberhard (1982). China's minorities: yesterday and today. Wadsworth. p. 89. ISBN 0534010806. http://books.google.com/books?ei=nW2wTv66IvDG0AGBiLSdAQ&ct=result&id=QhRHAAAAMAAJ&dq=Not+much+else+is+said+about+them+in+Chinese+sources%2C+especially+nothing+about+their+language.+Today%2C+Tanka+in+the+Canton+area+speak+the+local+Chinese+dialect+and+maintain+that+they+are+Chinese+whose+profession+is+fishery.&q=tanka+dialect. "Not much else is said about them in Chinese sources, especially nothing about their language. Today, Tanka in the Canton area speak the local Chinese dialect and maintain that they are Chinese whose profession is fishery." 
  39. ^ the University of MichiganLeo J. Moser (1985). The Chinese mosaic: the peoples and provinces of China (illustrated ed.). Westview Press. p. 219. ISBN 0865310858. http://books.google.com/books?ei=aqO0TvD2Bsre0QHh9fG-BA&ct=result&id=VwZxAAAAMAAJ&dq=traditional+response+among+the+other+peoples+of+the+south+China+coastal+region+was+to+assert+that+the+boat+people+were+not+Han+Chinese+at+all%2C+but+rather+a+distinct+minority+race%2C+the+Tanka+%28PY%3A+Danjia+%22dan+people%22%29%2C+a+people+who+had+taken+to+the+life+on+the+water+long+ago&q=tanka+short+legs. Retrieved 2011 November 4. "traditional response among the other peoples of the south China coastal region was to assert that the boat people were not Han Chinese at all, but rather a distinct minority race, the Tanka (PY: Danjia "dan people"), a people who had taken to the life on the water long ago. Often this view was embroidered with tales about how the Tanka had short legs, good only for shipboard life. Some stories alleged that they had six toes and even a tail. It was commonly asserted that they spoke their own aboriginal" 
  40. ^ the University of CaliforniaC. Fred Blake (1981). Ethnic groups and social change in a Chinese market town. University Press of Hawaii. p. 2. ISBN 0824807200. http://books.google.com/books?ei=oqO0TuvzCeje0QHxmM3RBw&ct=result&id=qtMDAQAAIAAJ&dq=are+therefore+despised+as+local+aborigines.+Land+people+commonly+call+boat+people+%22Tanka%22+%28%22egg+folk%22%29%2C+which+is+a+derogatory+reference+to+their+alleged+barbarism.+The+aboriginal+origin+of+boat+people+is+alleged+in+imperial+Chinese+edicts+%28see+chapter+2%2C+note+6%29+as+well+as+in&q=tanka+edicts. Retrieved 2011 November 4. "are therefore despised as local aborigines. Land people commonly call boat people "Tanka" ("egg folk"), which is a derogatory reference to their alleged barbarism. The aboriginal origin of boat people is alleged in imperial Chinese edicts (see chapter 2, note 6) as well as in" 
  41. ^ Indiana UniversityValery M. Garrett (1987). Traditional Chinese clothing in Hong Kong and South China, 1840-1980 (illustrated, reprint ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 2. ISBN 0195841743. http://books.google.com/books?ei=oJe0TuW3B-Hj0QHT9MTRBw&ct=result&id=9MffAAAAMAAJ&dq=Shui+sheung+yan&q=physique+darker+skin. Retrieved 2011 November 5. "The Tanka dislike the name and prefer 'Shui sheung yan', which means 'people who live on the water'. Because of their different physique and darker skin, they were traditionally thought by those living on the land to be a race of sea gypsies and not Chinese at all" 
  42. ^ R. A. Donkin (1998). Beyond price: pearls and pearl-fishing : origins to the Age of Discoveries. Volume 224 of Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society Held at Philadelphia for Promoting Useful Knowledge (illustrated ed.). American Philosophical Society. p. 200. ISBN 0871692244. http://books.google.com/books?id=bwYNAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA200&dq=he+Southern+Han+(tenth+century),+government+troops+were+sent+to+Ho-p'u+to+fish+for+pearls,121+it+appears+that+operations+were+normally+conducted,+not+by+Chinese,+but+by+one+or+other+of+the+aboriginal+(Yiieh)+groups,+notably+the+Tan.+The+Tan+(Tan-hu,+Tan-chia,+Tanka)+were+ancient+inhabitants+of+the+littoral+of+South+China&hl=en&ei=taG0TobaE6Xl0QHppcW4BA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=he%20Southern%20Han%20(tenth%20century)%2C%20government%20troops%20were%20sent%20to%20Ho-p'u%20to%20fish%20for%20pearls%2C121%20it%20appears%20that%20operations%20were%20normally%20conducted%2C%20not%20by%20Chinese%2C%20but%20by%20one%20or%20other%20of%20the%20aboriginal%20(Yiieh)%20groups%2C%20notably%20the%20Tan.%20The%20Tan%20(Tan-hu%2C%20Tan-chia%2C%20Tanka)%20were%20ancient%20inhabitants%20of%20the%20littoral%20of%20South%20China&f=false. Retrieved 2011 November 4. "the Southern Han (tenth century), government troops were sent to Ho-p'u to fish for pearls,121 it appears that operations were normally conducted, not by Chinese, but by one or other of the aboriginal (Yüeh) groups, notably the Tan. The Tan (Tan-hu, Tan-chia, Tanka) were ancient inhabitants of the littoral of South China. According to a twelfth-century source, those of Chin prefecture ( west of Lien) belonged to three groups, "the fish-Tan, the oyster-Tan, and the wood-Tan, excelling at the gathering of fish, oysters, and timber respectively."" 
  43. ^ the University of CaliforniaAmerican Oriental Society (1952). Journal of the American Oriental Society, Volume 72. Volume 40 of American oriental series. American Oriental Society.. p. 164. http://books.google.com/books?ei=h121TsqKAej20gHgmuHSBw&ct=result&id=2q04AAAAIAAJ&dq=oyster-Tan%2C+and+the+wood-Tan%2C+excelling+at+the+gathering+of+fish%2C+oysters+and+timber+respectively&q=oyster+wood++timber. "oyster-Tan, and the wood-Tan, excelling at the gathering of fish, oysters and timber respectively" 
  44. ^ Bob Dye (1997). Merchant prince of the Sandalwood Mountains: Afong and the Chinese in Hawaiʻi (illustrated ed.). University of Hawaii Press. p. 31. ISBN 0824817729. http://books.google.com/books?id=NETf7njQoocC&pg=PA31&dq=tanka+aboriginal&hl=en&ei=2Jm0TpqGIITd0QGk-qGoBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7&ved=0CE0Q6AEwBjgU#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 2011 November 4. "But it also increased social contact between the three largest dialect groups, and that caused trouble, Punti.... treated Hakka .... as if they were uncultured aborigines... Hakka and Hoklo battled each other...as they fought Punti... All of these groups despised the Tanka people, descendants of aborigines" 
  45. ^ Andrew Grzeskowiak. Passport Hong Kong: your pocket guide to Hong Kong business, customs & etiquette (illustrated ed.). World Trade Press. p. 25. ISBN 1885073313. http://books.google.com/books?id=njNQ_dojWaYC&pg=PA25&dq=The+earliest+written+records+date+from+before+the+eleventh+century+A.D.,+when+Han+people+(as+the+Chinese+first+called+themselves)+colonized+China's+southern+coast.+Early+settlers+on+the+hundreds+of+nearby+islands+called+themselves+Punti,+meaning+natives+(an+inaccurate+term,+since+the+Punti+supplanted+earlier+aboriginals).+The+aboriginals+may+have+formed+the+present+Tanka,+who&hl=en&ei=QJu0TrbpBoHr0gG03L28BA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=The%20earliest%20written%20records%20date%20from%20before%20the%20eleventh%20century%20A.D.%2C%20when%20Han%20people%20(as%20the%20Chinese%20first%20called%20themselves)%20colonized%20China's%20southern%20coast.%20Early%20settlers%20on%20the%20hundreds%20of%20nearby%20islands%20called%20themselves%20Punti%2C%20meaning%20natives%20(an%20inaccurate%20term%2C%20since%20the%20Punti%20supplanted%20earlier%20aboriginals).%20The%20aboriginals%20may%20have%20formed%20the%20present%20Tanka%2C%20who&f=false. 
  46. ^ the University of Virginia Selected poems of Su Tung-pʻo. Copper Canyon Press. 1994. p. 130. ISBN 1556590644. http://books.google.com/books?ei=uZi0TvvKIsXq0gHk-Zy_BA&ct=result&id=nvgQAAAAYAAJ&dq=tanka+aboriginal&q=aboriginal. Retrieved 2011 November 4. ""Tanka." Aboriginal people who lived on houseboats on the rivers around Canton. 103, line j." 
  47. ^ the University of Michigan Nankai social and economic quarterly, Volume 9. Nankai Institute of Economics, Nankai University.. 1936. p. 616. http://books.google.com/books?ei=0pi0TpOVGoHg0QGM2-nRBw&ct=result&id=MikVAQAAMAAJ&dq=%283%29+The+Tanka+represents+a+remnant+of+one+of+the+aboriginal+tribes+who+inhabited+this+part+of+China+and+who%2C+being+conquered+and+assimilated+by+the+invading+Chinese%2C+are+slowly+dying+out.+Besides+the+Tanka+there+are+other+small&q=remnant+aboriginal. Retrieved 2011 November 4. 
  48. ^ Jacques Gernet (1996). A history of Chinese civilization (2, illustrated, revised ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 471. ISBN 0521497817. http://books.google.com/books?id=jqb7L-pKCV8C&pg=PA471&dq=tanka+aboriginal&hl=en&ei=QJe0TrjJFaPb0QGytvmoBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CEsQ6AEwBTgK#v=onepage&q=tanka%20aboriginal&f=false. Retrieved 2011 November 4. "The Tanka were an aboriginal population of fishermen who lived permanently in their boats (hence the name ch'uan-min, 'boat people', sometimes given to them). They were famous pearl fishermen. Their piratical activities caused many difficulties to Shang K'o-hsi, the first military governor appointed to Kwangtung by the Ch'ing, and thus indirectly helped the Southern Ming resistance and attempts at secession." 
  49. ^ Indiana UniversityEugene Newton Anderson (1970). The floating world of Castle Peak Bay. Volume 4 of Anthropological studies. American Anthropological Association. p. 13. http://books.google.com/books?ei=fw02TrngHNCUtwfJzo3uDA&ct=result&id=N5qfAAAAMAAJ&dq=accepted+theory+of+the+origins+of+these+people+is+that+they+are+derived+from+the+aboriginal+tribes+of+the+area&q=aboriginal+origins. Retrieved 2011 October 31. "The most widely accepted theory of the origins of these people is that they are derived from the aboriginal tribes of the area. Most scholars (Eberhard, l942; Lo, l955, l963; Ho, l965; and others influenced by them) have agreed that the" 
  50. ^ Indiana UniversityEugene Newton Anderson (1970). The floating world of Castle Peak Bay. Volume 4 of Anthropological studies. American Anthropological Association. p. 14. http://books.google.com/books?ei=fw02TrngHNCUtwfJzo3uDA&ct=result&id=N5qfAAAAMAAJ&dq=accepted+theory+of+the+origins+of+these+people+is+that+they+are+derived+from+the+aboriginal+tribes+of+the+area&q=theory+tan+tribe. Retrieved 2011 October 31. "meant little more than "Barbarian." the Yueh seem to have included quite civilized peoples and also wild hill tribes. The Chinese drove them south or assimilated them. One group maintained its identity, according to the theory, and became the boat people. Ho concludes that the word Tan originally convered a specific tribe, then was extended like Man further north to cover various groups. At first it referred to the Patung Tan people, then to the Lingnan Tan, i.e." 
  51. ^ Indiana UniversityEugene Newton Anderson (1970). The floating world of Castle Peak Bay. Volume 4 of Anthropological studies. American Anthropological Association. p. 13. http://books.google.com/books?ei=fw02TrngHNCUtwfJzo3uDA&ct=result&id=N5qfAAAAMAAJ&dq=accepted+theory+of+the+origins+of+these+people+is+that+they+are+derived+from+the+aboriginal+tribes+of+the+area&q=aboriginal+origins. Retrieved 2011 October 31. "and boat people are such as one would expect between groups leading such different ways of life. in culture, the boat people are Chinese. Ward (1965) and McCoy (1965) pointe out that the land people are probably not free from aboriginal intermixture themselves, and conclude that the boat people are probably not more mixed. As Ward states, "(l)... the boat-peple's descent is probably neither more nor less 'non-Han' than that of most other Cantonese-speaking inhabitants of Kwangtung." 
  52. ^ Indiana UniversityEugene Newton Anderson (1970). The floating world of Castle Peak Bay. Volume 4 of Anthropological studies. American Anthropological Association. p. 15. http://books.google.com/books?ei=fw02TrngHNCUtwfJzo3uDA&ct=result&id=N5qfAAAAMAAJ&dq=accepted+theory+of+the+origins+of+these+people+is+that+they+are+derived+from+the+aboriginal+tribes+of+the+area&q=theory+chen+stand+conclusion. Retrieved 2011 October 31. "Neither theory for the origin of the boat people has much proof. Neither would stand up in court. Chen's conclusion is still valid today: "...to what tribe or race they once belonged or were once akin to is still unknown." (Chen, 1935:272)" 
  53. ^ the University of Michigan梁廣漢 (1980). Profile of historic relics in the early stage of Hong Kong. 學津書店. p. 57. http://books.google.com/books?id=iktGAAAAMAAJ&q=tanka+aboriginal&dq=tanka+aboriginal&hl=en&ei=-5-0To_MH4bt0gG2_qHSBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCwQ6AEwADgy. Retrieved 2011 November 4. "Tanka - They are boat-dwellers. Some of the Tanka are descendants of the Yueh ( jgi ), an aboriginal tribe in Southern China. Therefore, these Tanka can be regarded as the natives in the area. However, some Tanka came to the area in a" 
  54. ^ Indiana UniversityEugene Newton Anderson (1970). The floating world of Castle Peak Bay. Volume 4 of Anthropological studies. American Anthropological Association. p. 15. http://books.google.com/books?id=N5qfAAAAMAAJ&q=and+others,+pers.+comm.).+Certainly+the+Sung+court+did+do+so+(Ng,+l96l),+and+may+well+have+been+instrumental+in+the+settlement+of+the+region.+At+the+fall+of+the+Ming+Dynasty+almost+four+hundred+years+later,+in+l644+ad,+loyalists+are&dq=and+others,+pers.+comm.).+Certainly+the+Sung+court+did+do+so+(Ng,+l96l),+and+may+well+have+been+instrumental+in+the+settlement+of+the+region.+At+the+fall+of+the+Ming+Dynasty+almost+four+hundred+years+later,+in+l644+ad,+loyalists+are&hl=en&ei=3gavTrfDB6Pb0QGK64CcDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA. Retrieved 2011 October 31. "and others, pers. comm.). Certainly the Sung court did do so (Ng, l96l), and may well have been instrumental in the settlement of the region. At the fall of the Ming Dynasty almost four hundred years later, in l644 ad, loyalists are" 
  55. ^ the University of Michigan Far Eastern economic review, Volume 24. Review Pub. Co. Ltd.. 1958. p. 280. http://books.google.com/books?ei=4FWwTszsCIjj0QHds8npAQ&ct=result&id=afAnAAAAMAAJ&dq=Historically+there+can+be+little+doubt+that+the+boat-people+and+a+few+of+the+hill+villagers+are+of+non-Chinese+origin%2C+but+all+now+regard+themselves+as+Chinese+and+speak+Chinese+dialects%2C+the+only+traces+of+aboriginal+descent+%28apart&q=aboriginal. Retrieved 2011 November 1. "Historically there can be little doubt that the boat-people and a few of the hill villagers are of non-Chinese origin, but all now regard themselves as Chinese and speak Chinese dialects, the only traces of aboriginal descent (apart" 
  56. ^ the University of MichiganEdward Stokes (2005). Edward Stokes. ed. 逝影留踪・香港1946-47 (illustrated ed.). Hongkong Conservation Photography Foundation. p. 141. ISBN 9622097545. http://books.google.com/books?ei=_IS1ToKXHeb20gGo5tjRBw&ct=result&id=AZ8MAQAAMAAJ&dq=The+coastal+dwelling+Cantonese%2C+more+shrewd+than+the+boat+people%2C+lived+off+%E2%80%94+indeed+sometimes+battened+onto+%E2%80%94+the+needs+and+superstitions+of+the+Tanka+and+Hoklo.+The+Cantonese+marketed+the+boat+people%27s+fish%2C+supplied+their+wants&q=shrewd. Retrieved 2011 November 5. "The coastal dwelling Cantonese, more shrewd than the boat people, lived off — indeed sometimes battened onto — the needs and superstitions of the Tanka and Hoklo. The Cantonese marketed the boat people's fish, supplied their wants" 
  57. ^ Harvard UniversityWilliam Dwight Whitney, ed (1891). The Century dictionary: an encyclopedic lexicon of the English language, Part 21. The Century Dictionary: An Encyclopedic Lexicon of the English Language. The Century co.. p. 6180. http://books.google.com/books?id=4hEDAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA6180&dq=tanka+tribes+aboriginal&hl=en&ei=85E1TrTOEIvpgAfPuZXvDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=tanka%20tribes%20aboriginal&f=false. Retrieved 2011 October 31. "Tanka. Tankia (tan'ka, tan'kyii),)!. [Chinese, literally, 'the Tan family or tribe'; < Tan, an aboriginal tribe who formerly occupied the region lying to the south aud west of the Meiling (mountains) in southern China, + kia (pronounced ka in Canton), family, people.] The boat population of Canton in southern China, the descendants of an aboriginal tribe named Tan, who were driven by the advance of Chinese civilization to live in boats upon the river, and who have for centuries been forbidden to live on the land. "Since 1730 ihey have been permitted to settle in villages in the immediate neighbour* hood of the river, but are still excluded from competition for official honours, and are forbidden by custom from Intermarrying with the reBt of the people.' {Giles, Glossary of Reference.)" 
  58. ^ the University of Michigan The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia: The Century dictionary ... prepared under the superintendence of William Dwight Whitney ... rev. & enl. under the superintendence of Benjamin E. Smith. Volume 9 of The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia: With a New Atlas of the World; a Work of General Reference in All Departments of Knowledge. The Century co.. 1911. p. 6180. http://books.google.com/books?id=wUzpAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA6180&dq=tanka+tribes+aboriginal&hl=en&ei=85E1TrTOEIvpgAfPuZXvDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=tanka%20tribes%20aboriginal&f=false. Retrieved 2011 October 31. "Tanka, Tankia (tan'ka, tan'kyfi), ». [Chinese, literally, 'the Tan family or tribe'; < Tan, an aboriginal tribe who formerly occupied the region lying to the south and west of the Meiling (mountains) in southern China, + Ida (pronounced ka in Canton), family, people.] The boat population of Canton in southern China, the descendants of an aboriginal tribe named Tan, who were driven by the advance of Chinese civilization to live in boats upon the river, and who have for centuries been forbidden to live on the land. "Since 1730 they have been permitted to settle In villages In the immediate neighbourhood of the river, but are still excluded from competition for official honours, and are forbidden by custom from intermarrying with the rest of the people. (QUes, tilossary of Reference.)" 
  59. ^ the University of VirginiaWilliam Dwight Whitney, ed (1906). The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia: Dictionary. Volume 7 of The Century Dictionary and Cyclopedia: A Work of Universal Reference in All Departments of Knowledge, with a New Atlas of the World. The Century Co.. p. 6180. http://books.google.com/books?id=iPZOAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA6180&dq=tanka+tribes+aboriginal+c&hl=en&ei=eAs2TtyaOImutwe9yYDrDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&sqi=2&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=tanka%20tribes%20aboriginal%20c&f=false. Retrieved 2011 October 31. "Tanka. Tankia (tan'ka, tan'kyii), n. [Chinese, literally, 'the Tan family or tribe'; < Tan, an aboriginal tribe who formerly occupied the region lying to the south and west of the MeiUng (mountains) in southern China, + kia (pronounced ka in Canton), family, people.] The boat population of Canton in southern China, the descendants of an aboriginal tribe named Tan, who were driven by the advance of Chinese civilization to live in boats upon the river, and who have for centuries been forbidden to live on the land. "Since 1730 they have been permitted to settle in villages in the immediate neighbourhood of the river, but are still excluded from competition for official honours, and are forbidden by custom from intermarrying with the rest of the people. (Q&es, Glossary of Reference.)" 
  60. ^ the University of VirginiaWilliam Dwight Whitney, Benjamin Eli Smith, ed (1897). The Century dictionary and cyclopedia: a work of universal reference in all departments of knowledge, with a new atlas of the world, Volume 7. Century. p. 6180. http://books.google.com/books?id=Iu9OAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA6180&dq=tanka+aboriginal&hl=en&ei=2Jm0TpqGIITd0QGk-qGoBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=10&ved=0CF0Q6AEwCTgU#v=onepage&q=tanka%20aboriginal&f=false. "Tanka, Tankia (tan'ka, tan'kyii), «. [Chinese, literally, 'the Tan family or tribe'; < Tan, an aboriginal tribe who formerly occupied the region lying to the south and west of the Meiline (mountains) in southern China, + kia (pronounced ka in Canton), family, people.] The boat population of Canton in southern China, the descendants of an aboriginal tribe namf-d Tan, who were driven by the advance of Chinese civilization to live in boats upon the rivf r, and who have for centuries been forbidden to live on the land. "Since 1730 they have been permitted to settle in villages in the immediate neigMV«rhood of the river, but are still excluded from competitka i from iii for official honours, and are forbidden by c termarrying with the rest of the people.' (Giles, Glossary of Reference.)" 
  61. ^ 疍民研究进展及文化地理学研究的新视角
  62. ^ Samuel Wells Williams (1848). The Middle kingdom: a survey of the ... Chinese empire and its inhabitants ... (3 ed.). Wiley & Putnam. p. 321. http://books.google.com.au/books?id=Pk0UAAAAYAAJ&q=min+degraded++class#v=onepage&q=boat%20people%20at%20canton%20class&f=false. Retrieved 2011-5-08. 
  63. ^ Great Britain. Parliament (1882). Correspondence respecting the alleged existence of Chinese slavery in Hong Kong: presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of Her Majesty Volume 3185 of C (Series) (Great Britain. Parliament) (reprint ed.). Printed by G.E. Eyre and W. Spottiswoode for H.M.S.O.. p. 55. http://books.google.com/books?id=hswPjsESizYC&pg=PA55&dq=these+pariahs+boat+population+cantonese+society+canton+river+tribe+of+aborigines&hl=en&ei=7obZTZexCerq0gG6g_z8Aw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCoQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=these%20pariahs%20boat%20population%20cantonese%20society%20canton%20river%20tribe%20of%20aborigines&f=false. Retrieved February 19, 2011. 
  64. ^ (水上居民)不见“连体船”
  65. ^ Anders Hansson (1996). Chinese outcasts: discrimination and emancipation in late imperial China. Volume 37 of Sinica Leidensia. BRILL. p. 119. ISBN 9004105964. http://books.google.com/books?id=4Ibp1RTW0AoC&pg=PA119&dq=An+Imperial+decision+in+1729+stated+that+Cantonese+people+regard+the+Dan+households+as+being+of+the+mean+class+and+do+not+allow+them+to+settle+on+shore.+The+Dan+households,+for+their+part,+dare+not+struggle+with+the+common+people.&hl=en&ei=e0e0TqLSLdDSgQeto5ntAw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=An%20Imperial%20decision%20in%201729%20stated%20that%20Cantonese%20people%20regard%20the%20Dan%20households%20as%20being%20of%20the%20mean%20class%20and%20do%20not%20allow%20them%20to%20settle%20on%20shore.%20The%20Dan%20households%2C%20for%20their%20part%2C%20dare%20not%20struggle%20with%20the%20common%20people.&f=false. Retrieved 2011 November 4. "An imperial decision in 1729 stated that "Cantonese people regard the Dan households as being of the mean class (beijian zhi liu ^i§;£. Jft) and do not allow them to settle on shore. The Dan households, for their part, dare not struggle with the common people." 
  66. ^ W. Schofield: "The islands around Hong Kong (text of a talk given in 1937)", from Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society Hong Kong Branch, Vol. 23, 1983
  67. ^ the University of Wisconsin - Madison The Field afar, Volumes 15-16. Catholic Foreign Mission Bureau of Boston. 1921. p. 18. http://books.google.com/books?id=yGrOAAAAMAAJ&pg=RA1-PA18&dq=tanka+tribes+aboriginal&hl=en&ei=spI1Tq7EMZScgQeD-8jaCA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=10&ved=0CFYQ6AEwCTgK#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 2011 October 31. "The back door of our shop opens upon the river, making it handy for the dealer in ducks, who has his headquarters in the main room. We shall have no excuse for not enjoying a daily swim with the neighbors, and the stream gives an unlimited supply of not over-clean water for drinking and cooking. The fish and mussels, the latter unusually small, are being caught all day long right under our noses, for us and others. Nets, lines, and even bare hands are so busy that one wonders why the supply does nor fail. Frequently there is fishing V torchlight. Always there is plenty t ■ see, as the Tanka. the people who li\ in the boats, are full of life. They are an aboriginal tribe, speaking an altogether different languaz ■ from the Chinese. On the land the; are like fish out of water. They are said never to intermarry with lar.'ilubbers, but somehow or other their tongue has crept into many villages \r. the Chiklung section. The Chinese say the Tanka speech sounds like that of the Americans. It seems to ha.e no tones. A hardy race, the Ta>ii;i are untouched by the epidemics that visit our coast, perhaps because they live so much off land. Each famjh has a boat, its own little kingdom, and, there being plenty of fish, all look better fed than most of our land neighbors. Christianity is, with a few rare exceptions, unknown to them. The only window of our Chiklung house gives the missioner a full view of the village life of some of the boat tribe. The window at present is just the absence of the south wall of the little loft to the shop. Wooden bars can be inserted in holes against robbers." 
  68. ^ the University of Wisconsin - Madison The Field afar, Volumes 15-16. Catholic Foreign Mission Bureau of Boston. 1921. p. 19. http://books.google.com/books?id=yGrOAAAAMAAJ&pg=RA1-PA19&dq=Before+leaving+the+market,+by+special+invitation+we+had+a+swim+from+off+one+of+the+sampans+(a+term+used+around+Canton:+here+%22baby+boat%22+is+the+name).+The+water+was+almost+hot+and+the+current+surprisingly+swift.+Nevertheless+the+Tanka+men+and+boys+go+in+several+times+a+day,+and+wash+jacket+and+trousers,+undressing+and+dressing+in+the+water.+They+seem+to+let+the+clothes+dry+on+them.+Women+and+girls+also+jump+in+daily.&hl=en&ei=j_yuTvSnCeLj0QHGwtmiDw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Before%20leaving%20the%20market%2C%20by%20special%20invitation%20we%20had%20a%20swim%20from%20off%20one%20of%20the%20sampans%20(a%20term%20used%20around%20Canton%3A%20here%20%22baby%20boat%22%20is%20the%20name).%20The%20water%20was%20almost%20hot%20and%20the%20current%20surprisingly%20swift.%20Nevertheless%20the%20Tanka%20men%20and%20boys%20go%20in%20several%20times%20a%20day%2C%20and%20wash%20jacket%20and%20trousers%2C%20undressing%20and%20dressing%20in%20the%20water.%20They%20seem%20to%20let%20the%20clothes%20dry%20on%20them.%20Women%20and%20girls%20also%20jump%20in%20daily.&f=false. Retrieved 2011 October 31. "Before leaving the market, by special invitation we had a swim from off one of the sampans (a term used around Canton: here "baby boat" is the name). The water was almost hot and the current surprisingly swift. Nevertheless the Tanka men and boys go in several times a day, and wash jacket and trousers, undressing and dressing in the water. They seem to let the clothes dry on them. Women and girls also jump in daily." 
  69. ^ Robert Hans van Gulik (1974). Sexual life in ancient China: a preliminary survey of Chinese sex and society from ca. 1500 B.C. till 1644 A.D. (illustrated, reprint ed.). Brill Archive. p. 308. ISBN 9004039171. http://books.google.com/books?id=85M3AAAAIAAJ&pg=PA308&dq=The+prostitutes+and+courtezans+of+Canton+belonged+to+a+special+ethnic+group,+the+so-called+tanka+(tan-chia,+also+tan-hu),+descendants+of+South-+Chinese+aborigines+who+had+been+driven+to+the+coast+and+there+engaged+in+fishing&hl=en&ei=UGewTo_7NMmP0QGCn_ihAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDEQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=The%20prostitutes%20and%20courtezans%20of%20Canton%20belonged%20to%20a%20special%20ethnic%20group%2C%20the%20so-called%20tanka%20(tan-chia%2C%20also%20tan-hu)%2C%20descendants%20of%20South-%20Chinese%20aborigines%20who%20had%20been%20driven%20to%20the%20coast%20and%20there%20engaged%20in%20fishing&f=false. Retrieved 2011 November 1. "The prostitutes and courtezans of Canton belonged to a special ethnic group, the so-called tanka (tan-chia, also tan-hu), descendants of South- Chinese aborigines who had been driven to the coast and there engaged in fishing, especially pearl-fishing. They were subject to various disabilities, ia interdiction of marriage with Chinese, and of settling down on shore. They speak a peculiar dialect, and their women do not bind their feet. It was they who populated the thousands of floating brothels moored on the Pearl River at Canton." 
  70. ^ Heathen Slaves and Christian Rulers. Echo Library. 2006. p. 11. ISBN 1406804312. http://books.google.com/books?id=vv_qNljtPtUC&pg=PA11&dq=tanka+tribes+aboriginal&hl=en&ei=85E1TrTOEIvpgAfPuZXvDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDwQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 2011 October 31. 
  71. ^ John Mark Carroll (2007). A concise history of Hong Kong (illustrated ed.). Rowman & Littlefield. p. 36. ISBN 0742534227. http://books.google.com/books?id=D37ijXG-FykC&pg=PA36&dq=Most+of+the+Chinese+who+came+to+Hong+Kong+in+the+early+years+were+from+the+lower+classes,+such+as+laborers,+artisans,+Tanka+outcasts,+prostitutes,+wanderers,+and+smugglers.+That+these+people+violated+orders+from+authorities+in+Canton&hl=en&ei=q2awToSVG8Xa0QG51M3RAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Most%20of%20the%20Chinese%20who%20came%20to%20Hong%20Kong%20in%20the%20early%20years%20were%20from%20the%20lower%20classes%2C%20such%20as%20laborers%2C%20artisans%2C%20Tanka%20outcasts%2C%20prostitutes%2C%20wanderers%2C%20and%20smugglers.%20That%20these%20people%20violated%20orders%20from%20authorities%20in%20Canton&f=false. "Most of the Chinese who came to Hong Kong in the early years were from the lower classes, such as laborers, artisans, Tanka outcasts, prostitutes, wanderers, and smugglers. That these people violated orders from authorities in Canton" 
  72. ^ Maria Jaschok, Suzanne Miers, ed (1994). Women and Chinese patriarchy: submission, servitude, and escape (illustrated ed.). Zed Books. p. 237. ISBN 1856491269. http://books.google.com/books?id=f5o_t7VxHYAC&pg=PA237&dq=tanka+prostitutes&hl=en&ei=qkKwTozYNuP50gGYoa3gAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDQQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=tanka%20prostitutes&f=false. Retrieved 2011 November 1. "I am indebted to Dr Maria Jaschok for drawing my attention to Sun Guoqun's work on Chinese prostitution and for a reference to Tanka prostitutes who served Western clients. In this they were unlike typical prostitutes who were so unaccustomed to the appearance of western men that 'they were all afraid of them'." 
  73. ^ Henry J. Lethbridge (1978). Hong Kong, stability and change: a collection of essays. Oxford University Press. p. 75. http://books.google.com/books?ei=oFWwTpOfEoHg0QGBtYzjAQ&ct=result&id=hm4JAQAAIAAJ&dq=but+another+source+of+supply+was+the+daughters+of+the+tanka%2C+the+boat+population+of+kwangtung&q=tanka+daughters. Retrieved 2011 November 1. "but another source of supply was the daughters of the tanka, the boat population of kwangtung" 
  74. ^ Henry J. Lethbridge (1978). Hong Kong, stability and change: a collection of essays. Oxford University Press. p. 75. http://books.google.com/books?id=hm4JAQAAIAAJ&q=The+Tanka,+it+seems,+not+only+supplied+foreign+shipping+with+provisions+but+foreigners+with+mistresses.+They+also+supplied+brothels+with+some+of+their+inmates.+As+a+socially+disadvantaged+group,+they+found+prostitution+a+convenient&dq=The+Tanka,+it+seems,+not+only+supplied+foreign+shipping+with+provisions+but+foreigners+with+mistresses.+They+also+supplied+brothels+with+some+of+their+inmates.+As+a+socially+disadvantaged+group,+they+found+prostitution+a+convenient&hl=en&ei=00-wTvapAsX0-gaG6eW2Ag&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA. Retrieved 2011 November 1. "The Tanka, it seems, not only supplied foreign shipping with provisions but foreigners with mistresses. They also supplied brothels with some of their inmates. As a socially disadvantaged group, they found prostitution a convenient" 
  75. ^ Henry J. Lethbridge (1978). Hong Kong, stability and change: a collection of essays. Oxford University Press. p. 210. http://books.google.com/books?ei=_VKwTtylOcT50gGg9-mjAQ&ct=result&id=hm4JAQAAIAAJ&dq=In+the+early+days%2C+such+women+were+found+usually+among+the+Tanka+boat+population+%2C+a+pariah+group+that+infested+the+Pearl+River+delta+region.+A+few+of+these+women+achieved+the+status+of+%27protected%27+woman+%28a+kept+mistress%29+and+were&q=women+tanka+pariah. Retrieved 2011 November 1. "In the early days, such women were found usually among the Tanka boat population , a pariah group that infested the Pearl River delta region. A few of these women achieved the status of 'protected' woman (a kept mistress) and were" 
  76. ^ Fanny M. Cheung (1997). Fanny M. Cheung. ed. EnGendering Hong Kong society: a gender perspective of women's status (illustrated ed.). Chinese University Press. p. 348. ISBN 9622017363. http://books.google.com/books?id=E45DHTYdTmAC&pg=PA348&dq=twentieth+century,+in+women+doubly+marginalized:+as+members+of+a+despised+ethnic+group+of+Tanka+Boat+people,+and+as+prostitutes+engaged+in+%22contemptible%22+sexual+intercourse+with+Western+men.+In+the+empirical+work+done+by+CT+Smith+(1994)&hl=en&ei=iV-wTrqQMsHr0gHY5Py2AQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=twentieth%20century%2C%20in%20women%20doubly%20marginalized%3A%20as%20members%20of%20a%20despised%20ethnic%20group%20of%20Tanka%20Boat%20people%2C%20and%20as%20prostitutes%20engaged%20in%20%22contemptible%22%20sexual%20intercourse%20with%20Western%20men.%20In%20the%20empirical%20work%20done%20by%20CT%20Smith%20(1994)&f=false. Retrieved 2011 November 1. "twentieth century, in women doubly marginalized: as members of a despised ethnic group of Tanka Boat people, and as prostitutes engaged in "contemptible" sexual intercourse with Western men. In the empirical work done by CT Smith (1994" 
  77. ^ Virgil K. Y. Ho (2005). Understanding Canton: rethinking popular culture in the republican period (illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 256. ISBN 0199282714. http://books.google.com/books?id=g7E39FgLbhcC&pg=PA256&dq=tanka+prostitutes&hl=en&ei=qkKwTozYNuP50gGYoa3gAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDoQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=tanka%20prostitutes&f=false. Retrieved 2011 November 1. "A Cantonese song tells how even low-class Tanka prostitutes could be snobbish, money-oriented, and very impolite to customers. Niggardly or improperly behaved clients were always refused and scolded as ' doomed prisoners' (chien ting) or 'sick cats' ('Shui-chi chien ch'a', in Chi- hsien-hsiao-yin c.1926: 52), and sometimes even punched (Hua-ts'ung-feˆn-tieh 1934" 
  78. ^ Virgil K. Y. Ho (2005). Understanding Canton: rethinking popular culture in the republican period (illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 249. ISBN 0199282714. http://books.google.com/books?id=g7E39FgLbhcC&pg=PA249&dq=Even+the+tiny+floating+brothels+on+which+the+'water-chicken'+(low-class+Tanka+prostitutes)+worked+were+said+to+be+beautifully+decorated+and+impressively+clean+(Hu+P'o-an+et+al.+1923+ii.+13,+ch.+7).42+A+1926+Canton+guidebook+also&hl=en&ei=WU6wTt6BL8ne0QHkwuTIAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Even%20the%20tiny%20floating%20brothels%20on%20which%20the%20'water-chicken'%20(low-class%20Tanka%20prostitutes)%20worked%20were%20said%20to%20be%20beautifully%20decorated%20and%20impressively%20clean%20(Hu%20P'o-an%20et%20al.%201923%20ii.%2013%2C%20ch.%207).42%20A%201926%20Canton%20guidebook%20also&f=false. Retrieved 2011 November 1. "Even the tiny floating brothels on which the 'water-chicken' (low-class Tanka prostitutes) worked were said to be beautifully decorated and impressively clean (Hu P'o-an et al. 1923 ii. 13, ch. 7).42 A 1926 Canton guidebook also" 
  79. ^ the University of MichiganAustralian National University. Institute of Advanced Studies (1993). East Asian history, Volumes 5-6. Institute of Advanced Studies, Australian National University. p. 110. http://books.google.com/books?ei=TUuwTo3xKuXc0QGYgJ23AQ&ct=result&id=Bj9uAAAAMAAJ&dq=In+a+late+nineteenth-century+popular+novel%2C+the+bed-chamber+of+a+%27saltwater+girl+%27+%28low-class+Tanka+prostitute+who+served+foreigners%29%2C+is+described+as+nicely+decorated+with+a+number+of+Western+household+objects%2C+which+startles+the+young&q=tanka+foreigners+household. Retrieved 2011 November 1. "In a late nineteenth-century popular novel, the bed-chamber of a 'saltwater girl ' (low-class Tanka prostitute who served foreigners), is described as nicely decorated with a number of Western household objects, which startles the young observer who is crazy about things western" 
  80. ^ the University of MichiganAustralian National University. Institute of Advanced Studies (1993). East Asian history, Volumes 5-6. Institute of Advanced Studies, Australian National University. p. 102. http://books.google.com/books?ei=PEywTouINMTi0QHxy5itAQ&ct=result&id=3HYwAQAAIAAJ&dq=Ethnic+prejudice+towards+the+Tanka+%28boat-+people%29+women+persisted+throughout+the+Republican+period.+These+women+continued+to+be+mistaken+for+prostitutes%2C+probably+because+most+of+those+who+peddled+ferry+services+between+Canton+and&q=prejudice+tanka. Retrieved 2011 November 1. "Ethnic prejudice towards the Tanka (boat- people) women persisted throughout the Republican period. These women continued to be mistaken for prostitutes, probably because most of those who peddled ferry services between Canton and" 
  81. ^ Virgil K. Y. Ho (2005). Understanding Canton: rethinking popular culture in the republican period (illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 228. ISBN 0199282714. http://books.google.com/books?id=g7E39FgLbhcC&pg=PA228&dq=though+the+possibility+should+not+be+ruled+out+that+this+rather+alarming+estimate+was+based+on+the+popular+misconception+that+most+Tanka+women+(women+from+the+boat-people+community)+worked+as+prostitutes&hl=en&ei=jE2wTo6lDOL30gG7ofjiAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=though%20the%20possibility%20should%20not%20be%20ruled%20out%20that%20this%20rather%20alarming%20estimate%20was%20based%20on%20the%20popular%20misconception%20that%20most%20Tanka%20women%20(women%20from%20the%20boat-people%20community)%20worked%20as%20prostitutes&f=false. Retrieved 2011 November 1. "though the possibility should not be ruled out that this rather alarming estimate was based on the popular misconception that most Tanka women (women from the boat-people community) worked as prostitutes" 
  82. ^ Peter Hodge (1980). Peter Hodge. ed. Community problems and social work in Southeast Asia: the Hong Kong and Singapore experience. Hong Kong University Press. p. 196. ISBN 9622090222. http://books.google.com/books?id=-Qg5eR5xFYcC&pg=PA196&dq=tanka+prostitutes&hl=en&ei=qkKwTozYNuP50gGYoa3gAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5&ved=0CEgQ6AEwBA#v=onepage&q=tanka%20prostitutes&f=false. Retrieved 2011 November 1. "EJ Eitel, for example, selected the small group of Tanka people in particular as that section of the population among whom prostitution and the sale of girls for purposes of concubinage flourished. They were associated with the commerce and shipping of a busy and expanding entrepot," 
  83. ^ Ejeas, Volume 1. Brill. 2001. p. 112. http://books.google.com/books?ei=NX61TsfZNqHY0QHj2I3SBw&ct=result&id=z4UwAQAAIAAJ&dq=A+popular+contemporary+magazine+which+followed+closely+the+news+in+the+%27flower+business%27+%28huashi%29+so+recorded+at+least+one+case+of+such+career+advancement+that+occurred+to+a+Tanka+%28boat-people%29+prostitute+in+Canton.44+To+say+that+all&q=tanka+career. Retrieved 2011 November 5. "A popular contemporary magazine which followed closely the news in the 'flower business' (huashi) so recorded at least one case of such career advancement that occurred to a Tanka (boat-people) prostitute in Canton.44 To say that all" 
  84. ^ the University of MichiganBrill Academic Publishers (2001). European journal of East Asian studies, Volumes 1-2. Brill. p. 112. http://books.google.com/books?id=vG0MAQAAMAAJ&q=at+least+one+case+of+such+career+advancement+that+occurred+to+a+Tanka+(boat-people)+prostitute+in+Canton.44+To+say&dq=at+least+one+case+of+such+career+advancement+that+occurred+to+a+Tanka+(boat-people)+prostitute+in+Canton.44+To+say&hl=en&ei=GH61TuDmL6Lw0gH9oejRBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDgQ6AEwAQ. Retrieved 2011 November 5. "at least one case of such career advancement that occurred to a Tanka (boat-people) prostitute in Canton.44 To say" 
  85. ^ Henry J. Lethbridge (1978). Hong Kong, stability and change: a collection of essays. Oxford University Press. p. 75. http://books.google.com/books?ei=C1GwTpD3A82M-wbgw9mTAg&ct=result&id=hm4JAQAAIAAJ&dq=This+exceptional+class+of+Chinese+residents+here+in+Hong+Kong+consists+principally+of+the+women+known+in+Hong+Kong+by+the+popular+nickname+%22+ham-shui-+mui+%22+%7Blit.+salt+water+girls%29%2C+applied+to+these+members+of+the+so-called+Tan-ka+or+boat&q=ham+shui+mui. Retrieved 2011 November 1. "This exceptional class of Chinese residents here in Hong Kong consists principally of the women known in Hong Kong by the popular nickname " ham-shui- mui " {lit. salt water girls), applied to these members of the so-called Tan-ka or boat" 
  86. ^ the University of MichiganPeter Hodge (1980). Peter Hodge. ed. Community problems and social work in Southeast Asia: the Hong Kong and Singapore experience. Hong Kong University Press. p. 33. ISBN 9622090222. http://books.google.com/books?ei=C1GwTpD3A82M-wbgw9mTAg&ct=result&id=U7g6AAAAMAAJ&dq=This+exceptional+class+of+Chinese+residents+here+in+Hong+Kong+consists+principally+of+the+women+known+in+Hong+Kong+by+the+popular+nickname+%22+ham-shui-+mui+%22+%7Blit.+salt+water+girls%29%2C+applied+to+these+members+of+the+so-called+Tan-ka+or+boat&q=ham+shui+mui. Retrieved 2011 November 1. "exceptional class of Chinese residents here in Hong Kong consists principally of the women known in Hong Kong by the popular nickname " ham-shui- mui " {lit. salt water girls), applied to these members of the so-called Tan-ka or boat" 
  87. ^ Heathen Slaves and Christian Rulers. Echo Library. 2006. p. 13. ISBN 1406804312. http://books.google.com/books?id=vv_qNljtPtUC&pg=PA13&dq=It+is+among+these+Tanka+women,+and+especially+under+the+protection+of+these+'+protected'+Tanka+women,+that+private+prostitution+and+the+sale+of+girls+for+concubinage+flourishes,+being+looked+upon+as+a+legitimate+profession&hl=en&ei=k1-wTuHBKMbd0QGj39C8AQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=It%20is%20among%20these%20Tanka%20women%2C%20and%20especially%20under%20the%20protection%20of%20these%20'%20protected'%20Tanka%20women%2C%20that%20private%20prostitution%20and%20the%20sale%20of%20girls%20for%20concubinage%20flourishes%2C%20being%20looked%20upon%20as%20a%20legitimate%20profession&f=false. Retrieved 2011 October 31. "or among Chinese residents as their concubines, or to be sold for export to Singapore, San Francisco, or Australia." 
  88. ^ Great Britain. Parliament (March 1882). Correspondence respecting the alleged existence of Chinese slavery in Hong Kong: presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of Her Majesty. Volume 3185 of C (Series) (Great Britain. Parliament) (reprint ed.). LONDON: Printed by G.E. Eyre and W. Spottiswoode for H.M.S.O.. p. 54. http://books.google.com/books?id=hswPjsESizYC&pg=PA54&dq=To+understand+the+social+bearings+of+domestic+servitude+as+it+obtains+in+Hong+Kong,+it+%C2%BBmust+be+observed+that+although+the+Chinese+residents+of+Hong+Kong+are+under+British+rule+and+live+in+close+proximity+to+English+social+life,+there+has+always+been+an+impassable+gulf+between+respectable+English+and+Chinese+society+in+Hong+Kong.+The+two+forms+of+social+life+have+exercised+a+certain+influence+upon+each+other,+but+the+result+now+visible+is,+that+while+Chinese+social+life+has+remained+exactly+what+it+is+on+the+mainland+of+China,+the+social+life+of+many+foreigners+in+Hong+Kong+has+comparatively+degenerated,+and+not+on'y+accommodated+itself+in+certain+respects+to+habits+peculiar+to+the+system+of+%E2%80%A2patriarchalism,+but+caused+a+certain+disrespectable+but+small+class+of+Chinese+to+enter+into+a+social+alliance+with+foreigners,+which,+while+detaching+them+from+the+restraining+influence+of+the+custom+and+public+opinion+of+Chinese+society,+left+them+uninfluenced+by+the+moral+powers+of+foreign+civilization.&hl=en&ei=AFuwTpDmC4bw0gGG9Mm5AQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=To%20understand%20the%20social%20bearings%20of%20domestic%20servitude%20as%20it%20obtains%20in%20Hong%20Kong%2C%20it%20%C2%BBmust%20be%20observed%20that%20although%20the%20Chinese%20residents%20of%20Hong%20Kong%20are%20under%20British%20rule%20and%20live%20in%20close%20proximity%20to%20English%20social%20life%2C%20there%20has%20always%20been%20an%20impassable%20gulf%20between%20respectable%20English%20and%20Chinese%20society%20in%20Hong%20Kong.%20The%20two%20forms%20of%20social%20life%20have%20exercised%20a%20certain%20influence%20upon%20each%20other%2C%20but%20the%20result%20now%20visible%20is%2C%20that%20while%20Chinese%20social%20life%20has%20remained%20exactly%20what%20it%20is%20on%20the%20mainland%20of%20China%2C%20the%20social%20life%20of%20many%20foreigners%20in%20Hong%20Kong%20has%20comparatively%20degenerated%2C%20and%20not%20on'y%20accommodated%20itself%20in%20certain%20respects%20. Retrieved 2011 November 1. "To understand the social bearings of domestic servitude as it obtains in Hong Kong, it »must be observed that although the Chinese residents of Hong Kong are under British rule and live in close proximity to English social life, there has always been an impassable gulf between respectable English and Chinese society in Hong Kong. The two forms of social life have exercised a certain influence upon each other, but the result now visible is, that while Chinese social life has remained exactly what it is on the mainland of China, the social life of many foreigners in Hong Kong has comparatively degenerated, and not on'y accommodated itself in certain respects to habits peculiar to the system of •patriarchalism, but caused a certain disrespectable but small class of Chinese to enter into a social alliance with foreigners, which, while detaching them from the restraining influence of the custom and public opinion of Chinese society, left them uninfluenced by the moral powers of foreign civilization." 
  89. ^ Great Britain. Parliament (March 1882). Correspondence respecting the alleged existence of Chinese slavery in Hong Kong: presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of Her Majesty. Volume 3185 of C (Series) (Great Britain. Parliament) (reprint ed.). LONDON: Printed by G.E. Eyre and W. Spottiswoode for H.M.S.O.. p. 55. http://books.google.com/books?id=hswPjsESizYC&pg=PA55&dq=This+exceptional+class+of+Chinese+residents+here+in+Hong+Kong+consists+principally+of+the+women+known+in+Hong+Kong+by+the+popular+nickname+%22+ham-shui-+mui+%22+%7Blit.+salt+water+girls),+applied+to+these+members+of+the+so-called+Tan-ka+or+boat&hl=en&ei=C1GwTpD3A82M-wbgw9mTAg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=This%20exceptional%20class%20of%20Chinese%20residents%20here%20in%20Hong%20Kong%20consists%20principally%20of%20the%20women%20known%20in%20Hong%20Kong%20by%20the%20popular%20nickname%20%22%20ham-shui-%20mui%20%22%20%7Blit.%20salt%20water%20girls)%2C%20applied%20to%20these%20members%20of%20the%20so-called%20Tan-ka%20or%20boat&f=false. Retrieved 2011 November 1. "This exceptional class of Chinese residents here in Hong Kong consists principally of the women known in Hong Kong by the popular nickname "ham-shui-mui" {lit. salt water girls), applied to these members of the so-called Tan-ka or boat population, the Pariahs of Cantonese society. These Tan-ka people of the Canton river are the descendants of a tribe of aborigines pushed by advancing Chinese civilization to live on boats on the Canton river, being for centuries forbidden by law to live on shore. The Emperor Yung Ching (A.D. 1730) allowed them to settle in villages in the immediate proximity of the river, but they were left by him, and remain to the present day excluded from competition for official honours, whilst custom forbids them to intermarry with the rest of the people. These Tan-ka people were the secret but trusty allies of foreigners from the time of the East India Company to the present day. They furnished pilots and supplies of provisions to British men-of-war and troop ships when doing so was by the Chinese Government declared treason, unsparingly visited with capital punishment. They invaded Hong Kong the moment the Colony was opened, and have ever since maintained here a monopoly, so to say, of the supply of Chinese pilots and ships' crews, of the fish trade, the cattle trade, and especially of the trade in women for the supply of foreigners and of brothels patronized by foreigners. Almost every so-called "protected woman," i.e. kept mistress of foreigners here, belongs to this Tan-ka tribe, looked down upon and kept at a distance by all the other Chinese classes. It is among these Tan-ka women, and especially under the protection of those "protected T;in-ka women, that private prostitution and the sale of girls for purposes of concubinage flourishes, being looked upon by them as their legitimate profession. Consequently, almost every "protected woman keeps a nursery of purchased children or a few servant girls who are being reared with aj view to their eventual disposal, according to their personal qualifications, cither among foreigners here as kept women, or among Chinese residents as their concubines, or to be sold for export to Singapore, San Francisco, or Australia. Those protected women, moreover, generally act as protectors each to a few other Tan-ka women who live by sly prostitution. The latter, again, used to be preyed upon—till quite recently His Excellency Governor Hcnnessy stopped this fiendish practice—by informers paid with Government money, who would first debauch such women and then turn round against them charging them before the magistrate as keepers of unlicensed brothels, in which case a heavy fine would be inflicted, to pay which these women used to sell their own children, or sell themselves into bondage worse than slavery, to the keepers of the brothels licensed hy Government. Whenever a sly brothel was broken up these keepers would crowd the shroffs office of the police court or the visiting room ot the Government Lock Hospital to drive their heartless bargains, which were invariably enforced with the weighty support of the Inspectors of brothels appointed by Government under the Contagious Diseases Ordinance. The more this Ordinance was enforced the more of this buying and selling of human flesh went on at the very doors of Government offices. It is amongst these outcasts of Chinese society that the worst abuses of the Chinese system of domestic servitude exist, because that system is here unrestraired by the powers of traditional custom or popular opinion. This class of people, mustering perhaps here in Hong Kong not more than 2,000 persons, are entirely beyond the argument of this essay. They form a class of their own, readily recognised at a glance. They are disowned by Chinese society, whilst they are but parasites on foreign society. The system of buying and selling female children and of domestic servitude with which they must be identified is so glaring an abuse of legitimate Chinese domestic servitude that it calls for corrective measures entirely apart from any considerations connected with the general body of Chinese society." 
  90. ^ Meiqi Lee (2004). Being Eurasian: memories across racial divides (illustrated ed.). Hong Kong University Press. p. 262. ISBN 9622096719. http://books.google.com/books?id=mVGd71y1Y-0C&pg=PA262&dq=eitel+half+caste&hl=en&ei=cKqxTv2HM6fj0QHnmtzeAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDcQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q=eitel%20half%20caste&f=false. Retrieved 2011 November 2. "EJ Eitel, in the late 1890s, claims that the 'half-caste population in Hong Kong ' were from the earliest days of the settlement almost exclusively the offspring of liaisons between European men and women of outcaste ethnic groups such as Tanka (Europe in China, 169). Lethbridge refutes the theory saying it was based on a 'myth' propagated by xenophobic Cantonese to account for the establishment of the Hong Kong Eurasian community. Carl Smith's study in late 1960s on the protected women seems, to some degree, support Eitel's theory. Smith says that the Tankas experienced certain restrictions within the traditional Chinese social structure. Custom precluded their intermarriage with the Cantonese and Hakka-speaking populations. The Tanka women did not have bound feet. Their opportunities for settlement on shore were limited. They were hence not as closely tied to Confucian ethics as other Chinese ethnic groups. Being a group marginal to the traditional Chinese society of the Puntis (Cantonese), they did not have the same social pressure in dealing with Europeans (CT Smith, Chung Chi Bulletin, 27). 'Living under the protection of a foreigner,' says Smith, 'could be a ladder to financial security, if not respectability, for some of the Tanka boat girls' (13 )." 
  91. ^ Maria Jaschok, Suzanne Miers, ed (1994). Women and Chinese patriarchy: submission, servitude, and escape (illustrated ed.). Zed Books. p. 223. ISBN 1856491269. http://books.google.com/books?id=f5o_t7VxHYAC&pg=PA223&dq=eitel+half+caste&hl=en&ei=N7OxTsPpMKjZ0QHu_KXVAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAjgK#v=onepage&q=eitel%20half%20caste&f=false. Retrieved 2011 November 1. "He states that they had a near- monopoly of the trade in girls and women, and that: The half-caste population in Hong Kong were, from the earliest days of the settlement of the Colony and down to the present day, almost exclusively the offspring of these Tan-ka people. But, like the Tan-ka people themselves, they are happily under the influence of a process of continuous re-absorption in the mass of Chinese residents of the Colony (1895 p. 169)" 
  92. ^ Helen F. Siu (2011). Helen F. Siu. ed. Merchants' Daughters: Women, Commerce, and Regional Culture in South China. Hong Kong University Press. p. 305. ISBN 9888083481. http://books.google.com/books?id=gM9cMIxjoVcC&pg=PA305&dq=eitel+half+caste&hl=en&ei=N7OxTsPpMKjZ0QHu_KXVAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7&ved=0CEoQ6AEwBjgK#v=onepage&q=eitel%20half%20caste&f=false. Retrieved 2011 November 2. "“The half-caste population of Hongkong were . . . almost exclusively the offspring of these Tan-ka women.” EJ Eitel, Europe in China, the History of Hongkong from the Beginning to the Year 1882 (Taipei: Chen-Wen Publishing Co., originally published in Hong Kong by Kelly and Walsh. 1895, 1968), 169." 
  93. ^ Henry J. Lethbridge (1978). Hong Kong, stability and change: a collection of essays. Oxford University Press. p. 75. http://books.google.com/books?ei=VbqxTpHrAarg0QGggaGoAQ&ct=result&id=hm4JAQAAIAAJ&dq=The+half-caste+population+in+Hong+Kong+were%2C+from+the+earliest+days+of+the+settlement+of+the+Colony+and+down+to+the+present+day+%5B1895%5D%2C+almost+exclusively+the+off-spring+of+these+Tan-ka&q=off+spring. Retrieved 2011 November 1. "The half-caste population in Hong Kong were, from the earliest days of the settlement of the Colony and down to the present day [1895], almost exclusively the off-spring of these Tan-ka people" 
  94. ^ the New York Public LibraryErnest John Eitel (1895). Europe in China: the history of Hongkong from the beginning to the year 1882. LONDON: Luzac & Co.. p. 169. http://books.google.com/books?id=20gQAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA169&dq=eitel+half+caste&hl=en&ei=cKqxTv2HM6fj0QHnmtzeAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CDIQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 2011 November 2. "The day labonrers settled down in huts at Taipingshan, at Saiyingpun and at Tsimshatsui. But the largest proportion of the Chinese population were the so-called Tanka or boat people, the I«riahs of Sonth-China, whose intimate connection with the social life of the foreign merchants in the Canton factories used to call forth au annual proclamation on the part of the Cantonese Authorities warning foreigners against the demoralising influences of these people. These Tan-ka people, forbidden by Chinese law (since A.D. 1730) to settle on shore or to compete at literary examinations, and prohibited by custom from intermarrying with the rest of the people, were from the earliest days of the East India Company always the trusty allies of foreigners. They furnished pilots and supplies of provisions to British men-ofwar, troopships and mercantile vessels, at times when doing so was declared by the Chinese Government to be rank treason, unsparingly visited with capital punishment. They were the hangers-on of the foreign factories of Canton and of the British shipping at Lintin, Kamsingmoon, Tungkn and Hongkong Bay. They invaded Hongkong the moment the settlement was started, living at first on boats in the harbonr with their numerons families, and gradually settling on shore. They have maintained ever since almost a monopoly of the supply of pilots and ships' crews, of the fish trade and the cattle trade, but unfortunately also of the trade in girls and women. Strange to say, when the settlement was first started, it was estimated that some 2,000 of these Tan-ka lieople had flocked to Hongkong, but at the present time they are abont the same number, a tendency having set in among them to settle on shore rather than on the water and to disavow their Tan-ka extraction in order to mix on equal terms with the mass of the Chinese community. The half-caste population in Hongkong were, from the earliest days of the settlement of the Colony and down to the present day, almost exclusively the off-spring of these Tan-ka people. But, like the Tan-ka people themselves, they are happily under the influence of a process of continuons re-absorption in the mass of the Chinese residents of the Colony." 
  95. ^ the New York Public LibraryErnest John Eitel (1895). Europe in China: the history of Hongkong from the beginning to the year 1882. LONDON: Luzac & Co.. p. 169. http://books.google.com/books?id=20gQAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA169&dq=women,+and+that:+The+half-caste+population+in++hong+kong+were+from+earliest+settlement&hl=en&ei=5LOxTvnLFsb20gHw843rCw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CDkQ6AEwAg#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 2011 November 2. "The day labonrers settled down in huts at Taipingshan, at Saiyingpun and at Tsimshatsui. But the largest proportion of the Chinese population were the so-called Tanka or boat people, the I«riahs of Sonth-China, whose intimate connection with the social life of the foreign merchants in the Canton factories used to call forth au annual proclamation on the part of the Cantonese Authorities warning foreigners against the demoralising influences of these people. These Tan-ka people, forbidden by Chinese law (since A.D. 1730) to settle on shore or to compete at literary examinations, and prohibited by custom from intermarrying with the rest of the people, were from the earliest days of the East India Company always the trusty allies of foreigners. They furnished pilots and supplies of provisions to British men-ofwar, troopships and mercantile vessels, at times when doing so was declared by the Chinese Government to be rank treason, unsparingly visited with capital punishment. They were the hangers-on of the foreign factories of Canton and of the British shipping at Lintin, Kamsingmoon, Tungkn and Hongkong Bay. They invaded Hongkong the moment the settlement was started, living at first on boats in the harbonr with their numerons families, and gradually settling on shore. They have maintained ever since almost a monopoly of the supply of pilots and ships' crews, of the fish trade and the cattle trade, but unfortunately also of the trade in girls and women. Strange to say, when the settlement was first started, it was estimated that some 2,000 of these Tan-ka lieople had flocked to Hongkong, but at the present time they are abont the same number, a tendency having set in among them to settle on shore rather than on the water and to disavow their Tan-ka extraction in order to mix on equal terms with the mass of the Chinese community. The half-caste population in Hongkong were, from the earliest days of the settlement of the Colony and down to the present day, almost exclusively the off-spring of these Tan-ka people. But, like the Tan-ka people themselves, they are happily under the influence of a process of continuons re-absorption in the mass of the Chinese residents of the Colony." 
  96. ^ Hong Kong Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (1980). Journal, Volumes 18-21. p. 121. http://books.google.com/books?id=dWU_AQAAIAAJ&q=Shui+sheung+yan&dq=Shui+sheung+yan&hl=en&ei=oJe0TuW3B-Hj0QHT9MTRBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=10&ved=0CFoQ6AEwCQ. Retrieved 2011 November 5. "How does it come about that this pleasing mixture of American Youth camp and English public-school sports day should come to represent" the emotional high point of the year for these fifteen schools which cater for the Shui-sheung-yan (water-folk), traditionally the lowest of all Hong Kong's social strata. Organised quite separately from the" 
  97. ^ Pennsylvania State UniversityGrolier Incorporated (1999). The encyclopedia Americana, Volume 14. Grolier Incorporated. p. 474. ISBN 0717201317. http://books.google.com/books?ei=eJS1Tre2HsrW0QH6--zRBw&ct=result&id=lAxZAAAAYAAJ&dq=In+Hong+Kong%2C+the+Tanka+and+Hoklo+peoples+have+dwelt+in+houseboats+since+prehistoric+times.+These+houseboaters+seldom+marry+shore+dwellers.+The+Hong+Kong+government+estimated+that+in+December+1962+there+were+46459+people+living+on&q=tanka+prehistoric. Retrieved 2011 November 5. "In Hong Kong, the Tanka and Hoklo peoples have dwelt in houseboats since prehistoric times. These houseboaters seldom marry shore dwellers. The Hong Kong government estimated that in December 1962 there were 46459 people living on houseboats there, although a typhoon had wrecked hundreds of boats a few months earlier." 
  98. ^ Pennsylvania State UniversityScholastic Library Publishing (2006). Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 1 (illustrated ed.). Scholastic Library Pub.. p. 474. ISBN 0717201392. http://books.google.com/books?ei=uJa1TrvIIITr0gHtu5zSBw&ct=result&id=igzYAAAAMAAJ&dq=In+Hong+Kong%2C+the+Tanka+and+Hoklo+peoples+have+dwelt+in+houseboats+since+prehistoric+times.+These+houseboaters+seldom+marry+shore+dwellers.+The+Hong+Kong+government+estimated+that+in+December+1962+there+were+46459+people+living+on&q=tanka+prehistoric. Retrieved 2011 November 5. "In Hong Kong, the Tanka and Hoklo peoples have dwelt in houseboats since prehistoric times. These houseboaters seldom marry shore dwellers. The Hong Kong government estimated that in December 1962 there were 46459 people living on houseboats there, although a typhoon had wrecked hundreds of boats a few months earlier." 
  99. ^ the University of Michigan The Encyclopedia Americana, Volume 14. Grolier. 1981. p. 474. ISBN 0717201120. http://books.google.com/books?ei=HZe1Tu_FGoTL0QGU_rzRBw&ct=result&id=DOUZAAAAMAAJ&dq=In+Hong+Kong%2C+the+Tanka+and+Hoklo+peoples+have+dwelt+in+houseboats+since+prehistoric+times.+These+houseboaters+seldom+marry+shore+dwellers.+The+Hong+Kong+government+estimated+that+in+December+1962+there+were+46459+people+living+on&q=tanka+prehistoric. Retrieved 2011 November 5. "In Hong Kong, the Tanka and Hoklo peoples have dwelt in houseboats since prehistoric times. These houseboaters seldom marry shore dwellers. The Hong Kong government estimated that in December 1962 there were 46459 people living on houseboats there, although a typhoon had wrecked hundreds of boats a few months earlier." 
  100. ^ the University of CaliforniaBill Cranfield (1984). All-Asia guide (13 ed.). Far Eastern Economic Review. p. 151. http://books.google.com/books?ei=9H61TumvJKHj0QGI9ZnSBw&ct=result&id=pZo6AAAAIAAJ&dq=The+rural+population+is+divided+into+two+main+communities%3A+Cantonese+and+Hakka.+There+is+also+a+floating+population+%E2%80%94+now+declining+%E2%80%94+of+about+50.000+boat-+people%2C+most+of+whom+are+known+as+Tanka.+In+mid-1970+Hongkong+seemed+once+again&q=tanka. Retrieved 2011 November 5. "The rural population is divided into two main communities: Cantonese and Hakka. There is also a floating population — now declining — of about 50.000 boat- people, most of whom are known as Tanka. In mid-1970 Hongkong seemed once again" 
  101. ^ the University of MichiganWilliam Knox (1974). William Knox. ed. All-Asia guide (8 ed.). Far Eastern Economic Review. p. 86. http://books.google.com/books?ei=-361ToCsOKrx0gHu_9jSBw&ct=result&id=IfI5AAAAMAAJ&dq=The+rural+population+is+divided+into+two+main+communities%3A+Cantonese+and+Hakka.+There+is+also+a+floating+population+-+now+declining+-+of+about+100000+boat-+people%2C+most+of+whom+are+known+as+Tanka.+In+mid-1970+Hongkong+seemed+once+again&q=tanka. Retrieved 2011 November 5. "The rural population is divided into two main communities: Cantonese and Hakka. There is also a floating population - now declining - of about 100000 boat- people, most of whom are known as Tanka. In mid-1970 Hongkong seemed once again" 
  102. ^ the University of California All-Asia guide (11 ed.). Far Eastern Economic Review. 1980. p. 135. http://books.google.com/books?ei=-361ToCsOKrx0gHu_9jSBw&ct=result&id=pJs6AAAAIAAJ&dq=The+rural+population+is+divided+into+two+main+communities%3A+Cantonese+and+Hakka.+There+is+also+a+floating+population+-+now+declining+-+of+about+100000+boat-+people%2C+most+of+whom+are+known+as+Tanka.+In+mid-1970+Hongkong+seemed+once+again&q=tanka. Retrieved 2011 November 5. "The rural population is divided into two main communities: Cantonese and Hakka. There is also a floating population - now declining - of about 100000 boat- people, most of whom are known as Tanka. In mid-1970 Hongkong seemed once again" 
  103. ^ Ailing Zhang, Eva Hung, ed (2005). The sing-song girls of Shanghai (revised, illustrated ed.). Columbia University Press. p. 538. ISBN 0231122683. http://books.google.com/books?id=bFwzO-JzDiAC&pg=RA1-PT509&dq=Prominent+among+the+regional+groups+were+two+grom+Guangdong+province:+the+Tanka+girls,+who+lived+and+worked+on+boats,+and+the+Cantonese+girls,+who+worked+in+Cantonese+brothels&hl=en&ei=dmSwTryVNcr10gHPjqGnAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false. "Prominent among the regional groups were two from Guangdong province: the Tanka girls, who lived and worked on boats, and the Cantonese girls, who worked in Cantonese brothels." 
  104. ^ Anders Hansson (1996). Chinese outcasts: discrimination and emancipation in late imperial China. Volume 37 of Sinica Leidensia. BRILL. p. 117. ISBN 9004105964. http://books.google.com/books?id=4Ibp1RTW0AoC&pg=PA117&dq=the+name+hoklo+is+used+by+the+hoklo,+but+the+tanka+will+not+used+the+name+tanka+which+they+consider+using+instead&hl=en&ei=-W6wTueyK6220AHyveW1AQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=10&ved=0CFYQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 2011 November 4. "Unless a change of surnames occurred for some unknown reason, or unless the ' water names' are not the real names of the Fujian boat people, it would seem that the Dan people lacked Chinese-style surnames at the time the Fujian branch" 
  105. ^ Anders Hansson (1996). Chinese outcasts: discrimination and emancipation in late imperial China. Volume 37 of Sinica Leidensia. BRILL. p. 116. ISBN 9004105964. http://books.google.com/books?id=4Ibp1RTW0AoC&pg=PA119&dq=An+Imperial+decision+in+1729+stated+that+Cantonese+people+regard+the+Dan+households+as+being+of+the+mean+class+and+do+not+allow+them+to+settle+on+shore.+The+Dan+households,+for+their+part,+dare+not+struggle+with+the+common+people.&hl=en&ei=e0e0TqLSLdDSgQeto5ntAw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=An%20Imperial%20decision%20in%201729%20stated%20that%20Cantonese%20people%20regard%20the%20Dan%20households%20as%20being%20of%20the%20mean%20class%20and%20do%20not%20allow%20them%20to%20settle%20on%20shore.%20The%20Dan%20households%2C%20for%20their%20part%2C%20dare%20not%20struggle%20with%20the%20common%20people.&f=false. Retrieved 2011 November 4. "In a late Qing dynasty work which has a section on boat people that mainly refers to those in Fujian, common surnames are said to be Weng 翁 ('old fisherman'), Ou 歐, Chi 池 (pond), Pu 浦 (river bank), Jiang 江 (river) and Hai 海 (sea). None of those surnames is a very common one in China and a few are very rare." 
  106. ^ Anders Hansson (1996). Chinese outcasts: discrimination and emancipation in late imperial China. Volume 37 of Sinica Leidensia. BRILL. p. 116. ISBN 9004105964. http://books.google.com/books?id=4Ibp1RTW0AoC&pg=PA116&dq=some+of+them+list+the+five+names+mai,+pu,+wu,+su+and+he+huizhou+gazetteer&hl=en&ei=9Eu0TtuNIoPbggexwqzjAw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC4Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=some%20of%20them%20list%20the%20five%20names%20mai%2C%20pu%2C%20wu%2C%20su%20and%20he%20huizhou%20gazetteer&f=false. Retrieved 2011 November 4. "Some of them list the five names Mai 麥, Pu 濮, Wu 吴, Su 蘇 and He 何 The Huizhou prefectural gazetteer even states that there are no other boat people surnames, while others also add Gu 顧 and Zeng 曾 to make seven" 
  107. ^ Cooley's anaemia among the tanka of South China, A.J.S. McFadzean, D. Todd
  108. ^ the University of Michigan Asiaweek, Volume 15. Asiaweek Ltd.. 1989. p. 90. http://books.google.com/books?ei=VHG1TrSpCKb10gGFi_HRBw&ct=result&id=dIIMAQAAMAAJ&dq=Koo+has+found+too+that+cancer+rates+differ+among+Hongkong%27s+Chinese+communities.+Lung+cancer+is+more+prevalent+among+the+tanka%2C+or+boat+people%2C+than+among+local+Cantonese.+But+they+in+turn+have+a+higher+incidence+than+Chiuchow+%28Teochew%29&q=tanka. Retrieved 2011 November 5. "Koo has found too that cancer rates differ among Hongkong's Chinese communities. Lung cancer is more prevalent among the tanka, or boat people, than among local Cantonese. But they in turn have a higher incidence than Chiuchow (Teochew)" 

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