Entropa is a sculpture created by Czech artist David Černý under commission for the Czech Republic to mark the occasion of its presidency of the Council of the European Union. The sculpture was supposed to have been created jointly by 27 artists and artist groups from all member countries of the EU; but in a hoax, Černý and his three assistants created the satirical and controversial work depicting pointed stereotypes of European nations and fake artist profiles complete with invented descriptions of their supposed contributions.
The piece was unveiled on 12 January 2009. Moving and multimedia components were activated on the formal "launch date" of 15 January 2009. It is on display in the Justus Lipsius building in Brussels; a copy of it may appear on the wall of the New Scene of the National Theatre in Prague. Regardless, since September 6th 2010 the Entropa has been a part of the Pilsner science center Techmania.
The Council of the EU has a rotary presidency system, whereby the governments of member countries exchange leadership every six months. It is customary for the presiding country to place an exhibit in the Justus Lipsius building, which are normally uncontroversial. France, which held the presidency before the Czech Republic, had simply erected a large balloon in the French national colours.
The sculpture is an ironic jab at the issue of European integration and the stereotypes associated with each country in the union. It is subtitled '"Stereotypes are barriers to be demolished", in accord with the Czech European Union Presidency's motto of "Europe without barriers". According to the artist David Černý, Entropa "lampoons the socially activist art that balances on the verge between would-be controversial attacks on national character and undisturbing decoration of an official space".
Entropa was installed during 5–11 January 2009 in the presence of David Černý, three assistants, four climbers, two technicians, two cameramen and a representative of the Czech Permanent Representation to the EU.
The work is made of glass-reinforced plastic (GRP), and the joints of steel. It covers approximately 256 square metres (2,760 sq ft), measuring 16.4 metres (54 ft) high and 16.5 metres (54 ft) wide). Three-quarters of the weight comes from the frame, making up a combined total of 8 tonnes.
It resembles an unassembled model kit containing pieces in the shapes of the 27 member states of the EU. Each piece has a distinctive theme that portrays stereotypes about the country. Some of these are portrayed in a particularly provocative manner. Among the pieces which have attracted the most attention are those of Bulgaria, Denmark, Germany, Poland and Slovakia.
In an interview for The Times Online, Černý stated that the sculpture was influenced by the Monty Python brand of humour. At the launch ceremony, he added Sacha Baron Cohen and Les Guignols de l'info's portrayal of Nicolas Sarkozy as other influences.
With no clear indication made by the artist nor by the official presentation, various interpretations of a single country can be drawn, and this list is by no means definite. Some of the physical pieces differ slightly from the form presented in the official booklet;
- Austria, a known opponent of atomic energy, is a green field dominated by nuclear power plant cooling towers; vapour comes out of them at intervals
- Belgium is presented as a half-full box of half-eaten Praline chocolates
- Bulgaria is depicted by a series of connected "Turkish" squat toilets; neon-like lights connect and illuminate them (later hidden with fabric)
- Cyprus is jigsawed (cut) in half
- The Czech Republic's own piece is an LED display, which flashes controversial quotations by Czech President Václav Klaus
- Denmark is built of Lego bricks, and some claim to see in the depiction a face reminiscent of the cartoon controversy, though any resemblance has been denied by the artist
- Estonia is presented with a hammer and sickle-styled power tools, the country has considered a ban on Communist symbols
- Finland is depicted as a wooden floor and a male with a rifle lying down, imagining an elephant, a hippo and a crocodile.
- France is draped in a "GRÈVE!" ("STRIKE!") banner
- Germany is a series of interlocking autobahns, described as "somewhat resembling a swastika", though that is not universally accepted; some Czech military historians also suggest that the autobahns resemble the number "18", which some Neonazi groups use as code for A.H. initials. Cars move along the roads.
- Greece is depicted as a forest that is entirely burned, possibly representing the 2007 Greek forest fires and the 2008 civil unrest in Greece.
- Hungary features an Atomium made of its common agricultural products watermelons and Hungarian sausages, based on a floor of peppers
- Ireland is depicted as a brown bog with bagpipes protruding from Northern Ireland; the bagpipes play music every five minutes
- Italy is depicted as a football pitch with several players who appear to be masturbating with the footballs they each hold.
- Latvia is shown as covered with mountains, in contrast to its actual flat landscape
- Lithuania a series of dressed Manneken Pis-style figures urinating; the streams of urine are presented by a yellow lighting glass fibers
- Luxembourg is displayed as a gold nugget with "For Sale" tag
- Malta is a tiny island with its prehistoric dwarf elephant as its only decoration; there's a magnifying glass in front of the elephant
- The Netherlands has disappeared under the sea with only several minarets still visible; the piece is supposed to emit the singing of muezzins
- Poland has a piece with priests erecting the rainbow flag of the Gay rights movement on a field of potatoes (Poland's main agricultural product), in the style of the U.S. Marines raising the Stars and Stripes at Iwo Jima.
- Portugal is shown as a wooden cutting board with three pieces of meat in the shape of its former colonies of Brazil, Angola, and Mozambique
- Romania is a Dracula-style theme park, which is set up to blink and emit ghostly sounds at intervals.
- Slovakia is depicted as a Hungarian sausage (or a human body wrapped in Hungarian tricolor)
- Slovenia is shown as a rock engraved with the words first tourists came here 1213
- Spain is covered entirely in concrete, with a concrete mixer situated in the northeast
- Sweden does not have an outline, but is represented as a large Ikea-style self-assembly furniture box, containing Gripen fighter planes (as supplied to the Czech Air Force)
- The United Kingdom, known for its Euroscepticism and relative isolation from the Continent, is "included" as a missing piece (an empty space) at the top-left of the work
Entropa has inspired debate in Europe since the day of its first unveiling, and in the Czech Republic several days before. Various commentators have noted that this is probably the first such exhibition in the history of art displays on behalf of the rotary Presidency of the EU Council, the usual intent being to go by unnoticed and avoid criticism and offence at all costs. The work drew what have been described by one reporter as "never-before-seen crowd[s]." It has been praised by some viewers for being "hilarious" and for inspiring discussion about art, and has angered and offended others.
In June 2009, David Černý himself said that he expected completely different reactions than those described below. In his opinion, Bulgaria doesn't even make it to the top three of the most provocative countries caricatured by Entropa. The most provocative country is Poland - with the reference to the gays. It is followed by the U.K. (missing) and Slovakia that, according to Mr Černý, is a bubble restricted by Hungary.
On 13 January 2009—the day after the exhibit was informally unveiled—Bulgaria's ambassador to the EU registered the country's protest with the European Commission, and sent a formal protest note to the Czech government. Bulgaria's depiction in the sculpture, as a series of squat toilets, is one of the most provocative, and after the informal unveiling of Entropa the Bulgarian government demanded that the sculpture be taken down before its official launching. This has not been done, but after continuing complaints, the Bulgarian depiction was covered with black fabric on 20 January 2009. Individuals outside the government, as well, expressed outrage about the portrayal:It is one thing portraying, say, France as a country on strike, but quite another to show my homeland as a toilet. That is downright wrong.—Georgi Gotev, Bulgarian journalist
Bulgarian news portal News.bg commented that the country's deputy was "obviously interpreting [the exhibit's] idea as an insult attempt." A number of non-government organisations, e.g. Polish Indeks 73 opposed to covering of the part of the work by initiating on-line petitions.
Jan Vytopil, the man in charge of cultural events during the Czech CEU Presidency, has defended the exhibit, arguing the presence of a "squat toilet Bulgaria" in the presence of the other patently absurd depictions made it clear that the piece seeks to demolish stereotypes. Czech Deputy Prime Minister Alexandr Vondra also frequently stressed that the government committee which authorized the piece wanted to avoid censorship:What we approved was a blank map; we decided not to censor anything. When we saw the finished work, we thought it might be too much. That remains to be seen. At any rate, it is an expression of freedom, we decided not to censor it.
On 14 January 2009, the Slovak National Party called on Foreign Affairs Minister Ján Kubiš to demand the removal of the sculpture, calling it an offence to the Slovak nation. On 15 January 2009, Kubiš complied and lodged a formal protest, but did not demand the removal of the sculpture.
Given the controversial nature of the portrayals of other countries, Czech diplomats expect protests from other countries as well; however, As of 14 January 2009[update] these have yet to materialize. In fact, the public in Poland appears to be largely in favour of Poland's portrayal, with 64% considering it "spot on" and only 13% thinking it "an insult to Polish people", according to an online poll by news portal TVN24.
Ole Molesby, the Danish Ambassador to the Czech Republic, has stated he does not expect the Mohammed caricature protests to begin anew, and that Denmark does not intend to complain. Černý has denied that the similarity is intentional.
On 13 January 2009, the authorship of Entropa came into question. Officially, the artwork was to have been an international collaboration between David Černý and artists from the other 26 EU countries. However, on that day, Alexandr Vondra announced the work was probably created by a smaller group of people, explaining that Černý did not inform him about this until the evening before. The original news article in Lidové noviny pointed out that some of the artists' names did not seem to exist in their countries' citizen records and had no Internet footprint. Černý himself admitted on 13 January that the artists' names had been fabricated.
The official booklet provided summaries of past expositions for most of the alleged authors, some of which matched those of known artists, e.g. Austria's "Sabrina Unterberger"'s résumé apparently belonged to Ernst Logar. Many of these "artists" had their own websites (designed by Tomáš Pospiszyl, Krištof Kintera and Libor Svoboda), but the contact information listed was false (other than the e-mail addresses, which were functional).
Lidové noviny originally listed Belgium, Germany, Greece, Ireland, and the UK as countries for which fictitious artists' identities were given. These specific claims were later retracted, replaced by general charges that some of the names in the booklet are non-existent, their résumés are erroneous, or that the artists deny knowing David Černý or having cooperated with him.
On the evening of 13 January 2009 Černý officially admitted that the piece was really created entirely by him and two friends, and that all the officially supplied artists' identities had been fabricated. In a prepared statement, Černý offered an apology to Prime Minister Mirek Topolánek, Deputy Prime Minister Alexandr Vondra, and the Czech Minister of Foreign Affairs Karel Schwarzenberg "and their offices" for deceiving them, stating he did not want them to be responsible for his fabulations. The statement went on to point out: "We knew the truth would come out. But before that we wanted to find out if Europe is able to laugh at itself."
Černý's collaborators' names were given as Tomáš Pospiszyl and Krištof Kintera. The authors maintained that a larger international team of people was involved in the project's execution. They explained that they originally wanted to contact artists from all 27 member countries of the EU, but failed due to limited time and financing. Alexandr Vondra responded with an official statement expressing his disappointment and stressed that Černý would bear responsibility for deceiving the government.
Due to the sculpture's potential for controversy, the point that each country's piece was designed by an artist from that country was strongly stressed by the Czech government. According to Lidové noviny, Czech Prime Minister Alexandr Vondra remarked: "The fact remains that we have provided a platform for free artistic expression and that is how Entropa must be viewed. But, had I known the circumstances were different than we had thought for a year and a half, I would not have authorized it." Vondra attempted to distance the Czech government from Černý's work early on, saying,
It is a piece of art—nothing else... If Europe is not strong enough to look at this, it would be a tragedy. It is Europe through the eyes of 27 artists. It is not Europe through the eyes of the Czech presidency.
The sculpture reportedly cost 12 million CZK to make, of which 10 million was contributed by New World Resources, a Dutch mining company which owns OKD in the Czech Republic, and 2 million was paid by the Czech government, which has subsequently leased the work for an additional 1.2 million CZK until the end of June. After the fabrication came to light, Černý was accused of misappropriating state funds. He responded that the money was not used at all, since the artists knew they would deviate from the stated project, and would be returned.
Černý originally stated that he meant for the sculpture to be amusing, saying, "Irony is about making fun. It is not meant to offend anybody" and later issuing an official statement saying, "We wanted to see if Europe is able to laugh at itself." On January 15, Černý reflected on the hostile reception of Entropa:
I certainly don't feel like a winner. That's how I'd feel if there were a few shocked Brusselian bureaucrats walking around the piece, shaking their heads, thinking about what those Czechs have done here. We expected this to be treated as a joke, a happening, a nice installation, nothing else. That we are already discussing the removal of some parts doesn't seem like a tremendous success to me. I'd be much happier if it remained whole.
The authors defended their choice to use false names in creating the sculpture by stating the deception was part of the art:
Černý has also said that making this sculpture in this way was "more fun." Later, however, the artists apologized for the deception, saying, "We apologize to Prime Minister Mirek Topolánek, Deputy Prime Minister Alexandr Vondra, Minister Karel Schwarzenberg and their offices for not informing them about the true state of things and thus deceiving them." Krištof Kintera, one of the true co-authors of the sculpture, said in an interview that the mystification was supposed to last longer, but that it was untenable—both ethically, as the artists didn't want to cause more trouble for Czech diplomacy, and practically, as they couldn't keep answering e-mails using the fabricated artists' identities.
Kintera also commented that the sculpture revealed a divide between Western and Eastern Europe: "We didn't want to defame anyone; advanced European democracies are used to many things, but the East still strives to promote itself in a positive light, so it's not as well attuned to this."
Fate of the sculpture
After the true authorship of the sculpture came to light, Alexandr Vondra stated its continued display was under review because Černý had violated the government's specifications of the project, which—in line with Černý's original description—called for an international collaboration of artists. Already on January 14, 2009, the official Entropa presentation page was withdrawn from the Czech presidency's website. Nevertheless, the sculpture was ceremonially launched on January 15, 2009. Alexandr Vondra again defended the piece, saying, "we consider Entropa to be art, nothing more and nothing else."
During the ceremony, David Černý again apologized to the Czech government and expressed regret that the sculpture was considered offensive. He said the offending pieces would be removed if officials cannot be persuaded about the artists' intentions.
On 23 April 2009, Černý's intention to remove the sculpture prematurely on May 10 was published, which he presented as a protest against the way in which Topolánek's government had been deposed and against the prepared Fischer's cabinet, which was eventually installed on May 8.
The removal actually started on May 11. Černý himself was however not present, although he had earlier suggested the contrary. A crew he had sent there dismantled the sculpture and on Thursday, May 14 loaded its parts into three trucks, which had to come one by one because of limitations of the Justus Lipsius building. Afterwards, the pieces, protected against damage due to shaking, were transported by road to Prague.
The sculpture was set up again in the Centre of Contemporary Art DOX in Prague-Holešovice and inaugurated on 11 June 2009, in presence of guests including the former Czech president Václav Havel. Entropa has been exposed in Techmania Science Center in Plzeň since September 2010 as part of an EU exhibition.
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- ^ a b c d Mock, Vanessa (15 January 2009). "Cheers and Jeers for the EU’s master of deception". Radio Netherlands Worldwide. http://www.radionetherlands.nl/currentaffairs/region/europe/090115-eu-cerny-entropa. Retrieved 16 January 2009.
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- ^ "Entropa obsahuje iniciály Hitlera, zlobí se historici" (in Czech). 16 January 2009. http://aktualne.centrum.cz/domaci/kauzy/clanek.phtml?id=627241. Retrieved 2 February 2009.
- ^ Skai TV, Καμένη η Ελλάδα σε αμφιλεγόμενο έκθεμα (English Machine translation: Greece burnt in controversial exhibit), Retrieved on 2009-01-15.
- ^ "EU art expo draws on national stereotypes". Agence France-Press. 2009-01-12. http://www.france24.com/en/20090112-eu-art-expo-draws-national-stereotypes. Retrieved 2009-01-14. [dead link]
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- ^ "Sweden seen as land of bribes in EU sculpture". The Local (Swedish Edition). 16 January 2009. http://www.thelocal.se/16974/20090116/. Retrieved 20 January 2009. "Sweden is depicted as an IKEA ‘flat-pack’ cardboard box. However, with a hole toward the bottom of the box, viewers can also see a small piece from the Saab JAS-39 Gripen aircraft."
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- ^ "Po Bulharsku protestuje proti Entropě i Slovensko" (in Czech). České noviny news portal. Neris. 2009-01-15. http://www.ceskenoviny.cz/index_view.php?id=355071. Retrieved 2009-01-15.
- ^ "Czy uważasz, że rzeźba dobrze oddaje stereotypy dotyczące Polski?" (in Polish). TVN 24. http://www.tvn24.pl/1001670,1,1,czy-uwazasz--ze-rzezba-dobrze-oddaje-stereotypy-dotyczace-polski,sondy.html. Retrieved 14 January 2009.
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- ^ "Statement by Alexandr Vondra concerning new information about Entropa". eu2009.cz. 13 January 2009. http://www.eu2009.cz/en/news-and-documents/news/entropa-5844/. Retrieved 14 January 2009.
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- ^ "Černý pro LN: Vláda si dílo neobjednala". Lidové noviny. 14 January 2009. http://www.lidovky.cz/cerny-pro-ln-vlada-si-dilo-neobjednala-d8k-/ln_eu.asp?c=A090114_203103_ln_eu_val. Retrieved 14 January 2009.
- ^ "Krištof Kintera: "Entropa je pitomá, ale také krotká"" (in Czech). Hospodářské noviny. 15 January 2009. http://hn.ihned.cz/c4-10065240-32799250-500000_d-entropa-je-pitoma-ale-take-krotka. Retrieved 15 January 2009.
- ^ Czech EU Presidency removes ‘Entropa’ brochure from its website at EUX.TV
- ^ "Alexandr Vondra v Bruselu: Entropa je umělecké dílo, nic víc, nic míň" (in Czech). ČT24. 15 January 2009. http://www.ct24.cz/kultura/41768-alexandr-vondra-v-bruselu-entropa-je-umelecke-dilo-nic-vic-nic-min/. Retrieved 15 January 2009.
- ^ Černý chce Entropu odstranit z Bruselu už 10. května, České noviny, 23. 4. 2009, ČTK (Czech)
- ^ Černý odstraní Entropu dříve, nelíbí se mu Fischerova vláda, iDnes.cz, 23. 4. 2009, bar (Barbora Říhová) (Czech)
- ^ Brusel si na Entropu zvykl. Nechte nám ji až do června, žadoní, iDnes.cz, 23. 4. 2009, jw (Jan Wirnitzer) (Czech)
- ^ V Bruselu začala předčasná demontáž kontroverzní plastiky Entropa, iDnes.cz, 11. 5. 2009, bar (Barbora Říhová), lpo (Lenka Poláková)
- ^ Kontroverzní Entropa je v Praze. Udělal jsem ji já s Paroubkem, řekl Havel, iDnes.cz, 11. 6. 2009, jba (Jakub Bartosz)
- ^ Lidovky.cz
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David Černý — (* 15. Dezember 1967 in Prag) ist ein tschechischer Bildhauer. Von seiner Hand stammen einige bekannte Skulpturen in Prag, so die krabbelnden Kleinkinder an den Säulen des Fernsehturms und der auf dem Bauch eines kopfüber hängenden Pferdes… … Deutsch Wikipedia
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Черны, Давид — Чешский скульптор Чешский скульптор авангардист, известный своими скандальными работами. Среди его произведений: покрашенный в розовый цвет советский танк в Праге, скульптура святого Вацлава, сидящего верхом на брюхе мертвого и подвешенного за… … Энциклопедия ньюсмейкеров
David Černý — (born December 15, 1967 in Prague) is a Jewish Czech sculptor whose works can be seen in many locations in Prague. His works tend to be controversial. He gained notoriety in 1991 by painting a Soviet tank pink that served as a war memorial in… … Wikipedia
David Cerny — David Černý David Černý … Wikipédia en Français
David Černý — Le char JS 2 soviétique repeint en rose qui assure le … Wikipédia en Français