Hyderabad, India


Hyderabad, India
Hyderabad
  • హైదరాబాద్
حیدر آباد
The City of Pearls
—  metropolitan city  —
Clockwise from top Charminar, Birla Mandir, Hussain Sagar, Chowmahalla Palace
Hyderabad
Location of Hyderabad in India
Coordinates 17°21′58″N 78°28′34″E / 17.366°N 78.476°E / 17.366; 78.476Coordinates: 17°21′58″N 78°28′34″E / 17.366°N 78.476°E / 17.366; 78.476
Country India
State Andhra Pradesh
District(s)
Founded 1591 AD
Mayor Banda Kartika Reddy
Commissioner A K Khan
Members of Parliament Asaduddin Owaisi, Anjan Kumar Yadav, Sarve Satyanarayana
Planning Agency GHMC, HMDA
Population

Metro

6,809,970[1] (4th) (2011)

7,749,334[2] (6th) (2011)

Official languages Telugu and Urdu
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
Area

Elevation
• Coastline


536 metres (1,759 ft)
0 kilometres (0 mi)

Climate

Precipitation
Temperature
• Summer
• Winter

Aw (Köppen)

     603 mm (23.7 in)
     26.0 °C (78.8 °F)
     35.9 °C (96.6 °F)
     2 °C (36 °F)

Website www.ghmc.gov.in

Hyderabad (Listeni/ˈhdərəbæd/; Telugu: హైదరాబాద్ [ɦəjd̪ərɑːbɑːd̪], Urdu: حیدرآباد [ɦɛːd̪(ə)raːbaːd̪]) is the capital of Andhra Pradesh, India, and is one of the largest metropolitan cities in the country with an area of 650 square kilometres (250 sq mi).[3] The city has a population of 6,809,970 with a further 7,749,334 living in the metropolitan area, making Hyderabad the fourth most populous city and the sixth-most populous urban agglomeration in India.[2] The city is often known by the sobriquet The City of Pearls.[4]

Hyderabad was established in 1591 AD on the banks of the Musi River located at the crossroads of North and South India on the tip of the Deccan Plateau, leading it to develop a unique culture.[5] The twin cities of Hyderabad and Secunderabad come under the ambit of a single municipal unit, the Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation.[6]

Hyderabad was once a global center of the diamond and pearls trade,[7] and, during late 20th and early 21st century, the city emerged as a major global center for the information technology (IT) industry,[8] and biopharmaceutical industry.[9] The city is home to the Telugu Film Industry, known popularly as Tollywood.[10]

Hyderabad is home to many historical sites, including the UNESCO Asia Pacific Heritage site of Chowmahalla Palace.[11] The city is a regular tourist hotspot and carries many places of interest.[12]

Contents

Etymology

There are different theories and myths regarding the origins and etymology of Hyderabad's name. One of the myths says that Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah fell in love with and married a local nautch girl known as Bhagmathi, or Bhagyavathi,. Later, when Bhagmathi adopted the title of Hyder Begum, Qutb Shah renamed the city as Hyderabad.[13] Another theory says Hyderabad was named in honour of the fourth caliph, Ali Ibn Abi Talib, who was also known as Hyder.[14]

History

Early history

Although Hyderabad was established less than 500 years ago, archaeologists have unearthed Iron Age sites near the city that could date back to 500 BC.[15] Historical records says that this region of Hyderabad and surrounding was known as Golkonda, which was ruled by the Chalukya dynasty from 731 AD to 966 AD.[16] Due to the final dissolution of Chalukyas into four empires in the 11th century, Golkonda, including Hyderabad, came under control of the Kakatiya dynasty which existed during 1000–1310 AD.[17] Afterwards it was ruled by many Muslim dynasties until 1948. The Kakatiya dynasty's headquarters was at Warangal.[18] When Sultan Alauddin Khilji of Delhi took over Warangal, Hyderabad region came under the Khilji dynasty (1310–1321 AD). Alauddin Khilji carried with him to Delhi the Koh-i-Noor diamond, which was mined from Kollur mines in Golkonda of Kakatiya dynasty.[19] Afterwards Muhammad bin Tughluq annexed Khilji Sultanate of Delhi and formed the Tughlaq dynasty in Delhi, which brought Warangal under the direct rule of Tughlaq dynasty of Delhi Sultanate until 1347 AD. In 1347 AD, Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah the chief of Tughlaq dynasty, revolted against Delhi Sultanate and established Bahmani Sultanate of Deccan, including Golkonda with Gulbarga as his headquarters, Bahmani Sultanate ruled this region until 1518 AD. It was the first independent Muslim sultanate of Deccan.[18]

Early modern

The Golkonda fort is the oldest existing structure in Hyderabad

In 1518, Sultan Quli, governor of Golkonda, revolted against Bahmani Sultanate of which Golkonda was a part, and established the Qutb Shahi dynasty which lasted until 1687 AD.[18] Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah, the fifth sultan of the Qutb Shahi dynasty, established Hyderabad on the banks of the Musi River in 1591 AD,[20] to relieve a water shortage the dynasty experienced at its old headquarters at in Golkonda.[21] He then constructed the Charminar, Purana pul and Mecca Masjid.[22]

In 1687 AD, the Golkonda Sultanate came under Mughal emperor Aurangzeb after a year-long siege.[23] It was then renamed Deccan Suba and, during this short rule by the Mughal's, the capital was shifted from Golkonda to Aurangabad and returned during the Asaf Jahi dynasty.[23][24]

In 1724 AD, the Mughal governor of Deccan Suba, Asaf Jah I, gained autonomy by defeating a rival official to establish control over the Deccan Suba and named it Hyderabad Deccan (or Hyderabad State). They remained with the title Nizam-ul-Mulk ("Governor of the country") which was once bestowed to Asaf Jah I by the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb. The dynasty was called Asaf Jahi dynasty and the rulers were referred to as Asif Jahi Nizams, or Nizams of Hyderabad. Hyderabad became the formal capital of the Asaf Jahi dynasty, which came to an end on 17 September 1948, a year after India's independence from British Raj.[23][24]

The Nizam period

Hyderabad State was the richest[25] and the seniormost (21-gun) salute state among Indian Princely States during the period of Nizam. Hyderabad was spread over 223,000 km2 (86,000 sq mi) region in the Deccan, ruled by the Asaf Jahi dynasty, who had the title of Nizam and was conferred the title of His Exalted Highness and "Faithful Ally of the British Government" by the United Kingdom,[26] the only Indian prince to be given these both statuses.[27] The rule of the Nizams brought cultural and economic growth for Hyderabad city. One example of the wealth of Nizam rule is the Jewels of the Nizams, which is a international tourist attraction displayed in Salar Jung Museum. The land area of the state was 223,000 km2 (86,000 sq mi). In 1948 it had an estimated population 1.7 crore and an estimated annual revenue of £90,029,000.[26] Hyderabad State printed its own currency, the Hyderabadi rupee, until the introduction of the Indian rupee in 1951.[28] The pace at which the last Nizam Mir Osman Ali Khan amassed wealth made him one of the world's richest man in 1937.[27] As per the Forbes All-Time Wealthiest List of 2008, Nizam Mir Osman Ali Khan is the fifth richest man ever, with an estimated worth of US$210.8 billion (adjusted with the present value of the US dollar).[28]

The Nizams set up numerous institutions in the name of the dynasty including schools, colleges, madrasah, a university that imparted education in Urdu, and hospitals.[28] Inspired by the Indian Civil Service, they established the Hyderabad Civil Service and built large reservoirs, like the Nizam Sagar, Tungabhadra, Osman Sagar, and Himayat Sagar. Survey work on the Nagarjuna Sagar Dam was initiated during this time, though the actual work was completed by the Government of India in 1969.[29][30][31]

Integration into Indian Union

Following India's independence from the British Empire in 1947, the Asaf Jahi Nizam declared his intention to remain independent.[32] In 1948, the Hyderabad State congress began agitating against the Nizam, with the support of Indian National Congress and Communist Party of India. On 13 September 1948, the Indian Army attacked Hyderabad in Operation Polo; within 5 days they were successfully able to defeat the bulk of the Nizam's regular army and the semi-independent Razakar mercenearies. On 17 September 1948, the Nizam joined India by signing the Instrument of Accession, which made him the Rajpramukh ("Princely Governor") of Hyderabad State.[33]

The Constitution of India, which became effective on 26 January 1950, made Hyderabad State one of the part B states of India and Hyderabad city continued to be its capital. In 1955, B. R. Ambedkar, Chairman of the Drafting Committee of the Indian Constitution, was so impressed with amenities of Hyderabad city that it should be designated the second capital of India after Delhi. He said, "Hyderabad has all the amenities which Delhi has and it is a far better city than Delhi. It has all the grandeur which Delhi has. Buildings are going cheap and they are really beautiful buildings, far superior to those in Delhi. The only thing that is wanting is a Parliament House which the Government of India can easily build."[34]

On 1 November 1956, the states of India were reorganised on linguistic grounds. Hyderabad State was split on linguistic lines to become the parts of three newly carved states. Nine Telugu speaking districts of Hyderabad State, (a tenth district, Ranga Reddy was carved out of Hyderabad district in 1978) also known as Telangana, were merged with the Telugu speaking state of Andhra State to create the state of Andhra Pradesh with Hyderabad city as its capital city.[35]

Post-integration

Hyderabad has become one of the major hubs of the information technology (IT) industry and the growth in the IT sector and opening of Rajiv Gandhi International Airport attracted activity in other economic sectors like real estate in the 2000s. The global financial crisis of the late-2000s impacted construction activity.[36][37]

Geography

Hyderabad is spread over an area of 650 km2 (250 sq mi),[3] and situated on Deccan Plateau in northwest Andhra Pradesh. It has an average elevation of about 536 metres (1,607 ft) above sea level. Most of the area has a gently sloping terrain and some areas are hilly.[38]

The original city of Hyderabad was established on the banks of Musi River,[38] now known as the historic Old City, home to the Charminar and Mecca Masjid laying on the southern bank of the river. The extended New City on the north of the river have many government buildings and landmarks. Both parts of the city are connected with many bridges across the river, of which Purana pul ("old bridge"), built during the 1593 AD is the oldest.[39]

The Musi River originates from Anantagiri Hills, which is 70 km (43 mi) southwest of Hyderabad.[40] Osman Sagar and Himayat Sagar are dams built over the Musi river.

Climate

Average temperature and precipitation in Hyderabad

Hyderabad has a combination of a tropical wet and dry climate (Köppen Aw) that borders on a hot semi-arid climate( Köppen BSh). During summer (from late February to early June) the maximum temperature goes up to 42 °C (108 °F), and during monsoons (late June to early October), the temperature remains average and, during winter (late October to early February), the minimum temperature records up to 12 °C (54 °F). The climate remains fairly warm and does not receive much rainfall in the monsoon. With the onset of winters in northern and central India, temperatures marginally decrease in December and January and the nights become quite cool in and around the city. For most parts of the year the weather and climate of Hyderabad remains fairly moderate. The best season is observed in the city in between October–February.[citation needed]

The mean maximum temperature ranges between 39 °C (102 °F) and 43 °C (109 °F) in May. After the withdrawal of the monsoon, the maximum temperature rises slightly due to increased insulation. The mean minimum temperature is 13 °C (55 °F) to 17 °C (63 °F) in December and January, but it rises to 26 °C (79 °F) to 29 °C (84 °F) in May. The minimum temperature falls rapidly after October, and less than 10 °C (50 °F) was recorded on individual days. The climate is mild from November to February. The summer months of April and May are hot, and the city frequently records temperatures exceeding 40 °C (104 °F). The period from July to September is warm and humid. Temperatures in the evenings and mornings are generally sharply cooler because of the city's moderate elevation. Hyderabad receives around 810 millimetres (32 in) of rain every year, almost all of it concentrated in the monsoon months. The highest maximum (day) temperature ever recorded was 45.5 °C (114 °F) on 2 June 1966, while the lowest minimum (night) recorded temperature was 6.1 °C (43 °F) on 8 January 1946.[41]

Climate data for Hyderabad
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 28.6
(83.5)
31.8
(89.2)
35.2
(95.4)
37.6
(99.7)
38.8
(101.8)
34.4
(93.9)
30.5
(86.9)
29.6
(85.3)
30.1
(86.2)
30.4
(86.7)
28.8
(83.8)
27.8
(82.0)
32.0
Average low °C (°F) 14.7
(58.5)
17.0
(62.6)
20.3
(68.5)
24.1
(75.4)
26.0
(78.8)
23.9
(75.0)
22.5
(72.5)
22.0
(71.6)
21.7
(71.1)
20.0
(68.0)
16.4
(61.5)
14.1
(57.4)
20.2
Rainfall mm (inches) 3.2
(0.126)
5.2
(0.205)
12.0
(0.472)
21.0
(0.827)
37.3
(1.469)
96.1
(3.783)
163.9
(6.453)
171.1
(6.736)
181.5
(7.146)
90.9
(3.579)
16.2
(0.638)
6.1
(0.24)
804.5
(31.673)
Avg. rainy days .3 .4 .9 1.8 2.7 7.6 10.6 10.1 8.9 5.7 1.6 .4 51.0
Sunshine hours 279.0 271.2 263.5 273.0 282.1 180.0 142.6 136.4 168.0 226.3 246.0 263.5 2,731.6
Source no. 1: Indian Meteorological Department (1951–1980) [42]
Source no. 2: Hong Kong Observatory (sun only, 1971–1990) [43]


Demographics

Religion in Hyderabad
Religion Percent
Hinduism
  
55.40%
Islam
  
41.17%
Christianity
  
2.13%
Others†
  
1%
Distribution of religions
† Includes Sikhs (0.03%), Buddhists (0.04%), Jains(0.04%).

According to the 2011 provisional population results, Hyderabad city had a population of 6,809,970, making it the fourth largest city in India,[1] while the population of the urban agglomeration was 7,749,334.[2] Hyderabad is a cosmopolitan city, whose residents are adherents to many religions, predominantly Hinduism (55.40%) and Islam (41.17%), and others including Christianity (2.13%), Sikhism (0.2%) and Jainism (0.4%) as per 2001 Census.[45] Muslims have substantial presence across the city and are predominant in and around Old City. There are many iconic temples, mosques, and churches in the city.[46]

Telugu and Urdu[47] are the official languages of Hyderabad,[48] while English is commonly used.[49] Telugu in Hyderabad has a varied dialect called the Telangana dialect.[50] Urdu spoken here has influences of Arabic, Turkish, Persian and Hindi, giving rise to a dialect sometimes called Hyderabadi Urdu, or Deccani. The city hosts national level Urdu mushairas regularly.[51] Hindi,[51] Marathi,[52] Bengali,[53] Kannada and Tamil are spoken by a significant part of the population.[54]

Administration

The Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation (GHMC) is in charge of the civil administration and infrastructure of the Hyderabad. The titular head of GHMC is the Mayor of Hyderabad. The valid executive powers of the GHMC are vested for the Municipal Commissioner,[55] an IAS officer appointed by the Government of Andhra Pradesh. The city is divided into five zones and eighteen circles that contain 150 municipal wards,[56] each ward is overseen by a corporator. The corporators are elected through popular vote, and almost all the political parties field candidates.[55] The GHMC is spread over three districts, Hyderabad, Ranga Reddy and Medak. The district collectors oversees the elections held in the city.[57]

The GHMC was established in 2007 by merging twelve municipalities into the Municipal Corporation of Hyderabad formed in 1869 then it was known as Kotwal-e-Baldia (Commissioner of Municipality).[58] Before 2007, the mayor was chosen by the legislative body of the municipal corporations. On 16 April 2007, The state government modified the Hyderabad Municipal Corporation Act, 1955, to stipulate that the mayoral election be held directly and simultaneously with the corporation elections.[59]

Hyderabad Metropolitan Development Authority (HMDA), is the urban planning agency of Hyderabad, India. It was formed in 2008 by expanding the Hyderabad Urban Development Authority. It contains the entire area of GHMC and its suburbs. The enlarged jurisdiction of HUDA now extends to 54 mandals located in five districts with a total area of nearly 8,005 km2 (3,091 sq mi).[60]

Electricity, water and sewerage services to general public were first commissioned in 1925, with the establishment of The City Endowment Board.[29][61] Currently rainwater harvesting, water and sewerage services are regulated by Hyderabad Metropolitan Water Supply and Sewerage Board (HMWSSB) whereas electricity is regulated through Central Power Distribution Company of Andhra Pradesh Limited. HMWSSB and APCPDCL work with the co-ordination and planning supervised by HMDA.[60]

Andhra Pradesh High Court in Hyderabad.

Hyderabad contain twenty-four Legislative Assembly constituency which come under five Lok Sabha segments of Hyderabad, Malkajgiri, Secunderabad, Medak and Chevella constituencies.[62][63] Hyderabad is the seat of the Andhra Pradesh High Court and under its jurisdiction comes the lower City Civil Court and the Metropolitan Criminal Court.[64]

The city is alienated by the state police into Hyderabad Police and Cyberabad Police, which come under the state Home Ministry and are headed by police commissioners. The city is divided into five police zones, each headed by a Deputy Commissioner of Police. The Traffic Police is a semi-autonomous body under the Hyderabad and Cyberabad commissionerates.[65]

Economy

Hyderabad is the financial, economic and political capital of Andhra Pradesh. The city is the largest contributor to the state's gross domestic product (GDP), state tax and excise revenues.[66] The nominal GDP of Hyderabad metro was estimated at US$15 billion in 2010. The city ranks 93rd (as of 2008) in the list of richest cities in the world by GDP (PPP) with US$60 billion, the sixth highest in India.[67] Hyderabad is ranked as the second best Indian city for doing business in the Doing Business 2009 Report published by the World Bank Group.[68] The city is one of India's prominent IT hubs, contributing most of Andhra Pradesh's INR36,000 revenue from software exports.[69] Starting in the 1990s, the economic pattern of the city changed from a primarily service hub to a more diversified spectrum, including trade, transport, commerce, storage and communication.[citation needed] Service industry is the major contributor, with urban workforce constituting 90% of the total workforce.[70] The largest employers in Hyderabad are the Governments of Andhra Pradesh and India]] with 113,098 and 85,155 employees, respectively.[71]

Cyber Towers at Hitec City.

Tourism industry forms an important role in the economy of Hyderabad. Tourism-related fairs are held regularly in the city.[72] The city was rated nineteenth in the world by The New York Times in The list of 41 Places to Go in 2011.[73] As of 2011, The tourism promotion budget for the city was increased to INR52 crores. Andhra Pradesh, which is India's top domestic tourist destination, receives up to 157 million visits,[74] and reached 1.5 million international tourists, which generated US$23 million in revenue.[when?][74] The city houses famous historical sites including Charminar, UNESCO Asia Pacific Heritage site of the Chowmahalla Palace,[11] Salar Jung Museum (the world largest private collection museum) as well as art galleries, libraries, sports complexes, museums and theatres.[75]

Hyderabad is known as The City of Pearls, as once it was the only global center of large diamonds and natural pearls trade.[4][7] Many traditional and historical bazaars are located around the city.[76][77] The Laad Bazaar situated near Charminar has shops that sell pearls, jewellery[76] and products such as silverware, Nirmal, Kalamkari paintings and artifacts, bidriware, lacquer bangles studded with stones, saris, handwoven materials silk and cotton ware are made.[78] The Retail industry in Hyderabad is on the rise.[79] Most of the national and international brands have set up retail business in the city, multiple central business districts are spread across the city being developed in the latest Kothapet, Gachibowli and Rajendranagar.[80]

Laad Bazaar, located near the Charminar.

Hyderabad is a biopharmaceutical hub of the world, and known as India's pharmaceutical capital.[81] In 2008–09, Hyderabad's biopharmaceuticals exports reached US$3.1 billion.[82] The establishment of public sector in life science research and the purposely built Genome Valley, Fab City and the Nano Technology park with dedicated facilities established extensive infrastructure in bio-technology industry and these attributes attracted regional and MNC industries to set up there head offices, warehouses, research and development centres in the city.[83]

Hyderabad witnessed a high growth in the real estate business, which led to the decline of vegetable supply in the city.[84] In 2007–08, the city's prime residential real estate areas of Banjara Hills and Jubilee Hills reached the highest growth percentage in India. The Economic Times evaluated the city's prime center properties of Banjara Hills to be worth US$20.7 billion,[85] and for the advancement of infrastructure in the city, the Andhra Pradesh government is building a skyscraper business district at the suburbs of the city at the heart of which will be the 450-metre (1,480 ft) tall APIIC Tower.[36] In 2011, Hyderabad ranked fourth best city to live in India.[37] The retail industry growth over the last decade have spurred hectic commercial activity. A number of mega malls have come up and more are being built in the city.[86] CREDAI is optimistic about the coming times. Leveraging on the trend, major property developers have set up base in the city.[87]

Information technology

iLabs Centre and iLabs OVAL, HITEC City

Hyderabad is among the global centres of information technology for which it is known as Cyberabad (Cyber City).[88][89] The city's IT sector includes the IT-enabled services, business process outsourcing and entertainment industries.[89] During 2008–09, Hyderabad's IT exports reached US$4.7 billion.[82]

The development of a township with related technological infrastructure called HITEC City prompted global and particularly US-based IT and ITeS companies to establish their operations in Hyderabad.[88] The city is home to more than 1300 IT firms and houses the Indian headquarters of Microsoft, Google,[8] CA Technologies, Amazon.com and Facebook's only office in India.[89][90] The Microsoft campus in Hyderabad is the largest research and development (R&D) facility outside the US.[8] The campus of CA Technologies's in the city is the largest R&D facility of the company.[91]

The other companies based in Hyderabad are Motorola, Infosys, Wipro, Mahindra Satyam, General Electric, Tata Consultancy Services, Accenture, IBM, Deloitte, Hewlett-Packard, Oracle Corporation, Dell, Cisco, AT&T Inc., ADP, Broadridge and Intel. Most of which have developed their research and development centres with their corporate offices in the city.[citation needed]

There have been extensive investments in digital infrastructure within the city promoting the setting up of several campuses by a vast array of companies within the city. This list includes several multinational corporations having established their development centres in the city. Major areas where such campuses have been set up are Madhapur,[92] Kondapur,[93] Gachibowli,[94] and Uppal.[95]

Education and research

Osmania University, college of Arts.[96]

Schools in Hyderabad are affiliated to either CBSE, SSC[97] or ICSE, run by government aid or private (local governing bodies, individuals, missionaries or other agencies). In schools the medium of instruction is mostly English, Hindi, Urdu[98] or Telugu. Children have to study for ten years in schools, followed by two years in junior college, where they have to choose discipline for three–four years graduation programme. Admissions to professional colleges in Hyderbad is through EAMCET, most of the colleges are categorised and affiliated with either Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University or Osmania University.[99]

The city houses, two deemed universities, six state universities and three central universities, which are the University of Hyderabad,[100] Maulana Azad National Urdu University and English and Foreign Languages University.[101]

Among international business schools, Indian School of Business ranked 12 in global MBA ranking by the Financial Times of London in 2010,[102] Institute of Public Enterprise is recognised as a Centre of Excellence by the ICSSR.[103] and ICFAI Business School is a reputed deemed to be university.[104]

The city is home to India's premier technical and engineering schools, the International Institute of Information Technology, Hyderabad since 1998 and the Indian Institute Of Technology since 2008,[105] were set up with the technical and financial collaboration with the Government of Japan,[106] as well as the Birla Institute of Technology & Science, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences, Gandhi Medical College and Osmania Medical College.[107] The National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research are the top centres of medical science and bio-medical education in Hyderabad.[108] The premier professional fashion designing institution in the city are Raffles Millennium International-Hyderabad, NIFT Hyderabad and Wigan & Leigh College.[109]

Research institutions

Hyderabad is home to various CSIR and other public sector research institutes such as Indian Institute of Chemical Technology,[110] Indian Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Limited,[111] Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology,[112] Central Research Institute of Unani Medicine,[113] Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics, National Geophysical Research Institute, National Institute of Nutrition, Indian Immunologicals Limited, Institute of Genetics and Hospital for Genetic Diseases, Center For Food Technological Research Institute, Central Institute for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, National Mineral Development Corpation, Indian Railway Institute of Signal Engineering and Telecommunications for railway signal engineering and International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics. Further, Defence Research and Development Organisation labs like ANURAG, DMRL, DRDL and DERL are facilitated with research centres in Hyderabad to develop communication and radar systems and for the Integrated Guided Missile Development Program. The Nuclear energy sector has three organisations under the Department of Atomic Energy including the Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research, Nuclear Fuel Complex and Electronics Corporation of India Limited.[114]

Transport

Air

Rajiv Gandhi International Airport

In 1935, the Hyderabad's first aerial services were initiated.[61] The Rajiv Gandhi International Airport at Shamshabad, is the world's number one airport in the category of serving 5–15 million passengers[115] and world fifth best airport, both ranked by Airports Council International,[116] and the best airport in India according to Britain-based consultancy Skytrax.[117] The airport has the longest runway in India.[118] In January 2011, it became India's first airport to transport more than 30,000 tonnes (66,000,000 lb) of temperature-controlled pharmaceutical products,[119] and caters to the high passenger and cargo volumes. It is the primary base for SpiceJet's fleet of Bombardier Dash 8s.[120] GMR Hyderabad International Airport Limited, which operates the airport has been awarded the Center for Asia Pacific Aviation award in the category of Best Airport Environmental Performance of the Year 2009.[121]

The airport is connected to the city by three major roads.[122] The 11.6-kilometre (7.2 mi) Hyderabad Elevated Expressways provides dedicated high-speed travel to the airport. As of 2011, it is the longest expressways in India.[123] The Nehru Outer Ring Road serves as a controlled-access expressway between Gachibowli and Shamshabad.[122] Metered taxis and buses are available as transports to the airport.[124]

Rail

MMTS train

Railways were first introduced in the city in 1870,[125] and the major extensions began after the opening of SecunderabadWadi line in 1874.[126] The city's Secunderabad Railway Station is the headquarters of the South Central Railway zone of the Indian Railways and it is the largest railway station in Hyderabad.[127] The other major railway stations are Hyderabad Deccan Station, Kachiguda Railway Station and Begumpet Railway Station.

Hyderabad's light rail transportation system is known as the MultiModal Transport System (MMTS). The patronage increased considerably from 11,000 passengers a day to over 1.50 lakh passengers.[128] MMTS Phase 2 is expected to complete by 2012 to handle 3 lakh passengers a day.[129]

Hyderabad Metro, the city's under-construction rapid transit system, is expected to operate four lines by 2014.[130]

Road

Hyderabad is connected with National Highways—NH-7, NH-9 and NH-202.[131] To ease the traffic congestion with in and around the city the HMDA developed multiple major projects as Inner Ring Road, Outer Ring Road, interchanges, overpasses and underpasses which solved the city traffic congestion.[123]

The Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (APSRTC) is by far the most frequently used means of public transport within the city and operates a fleet of 22,183 transport buses within city and rest of India.[132] According to the Guinness World Records published in 2005, APSRTC operates the world's largest fleet of buses, estimated to be carrying 13 million passengers per day.[133] Inter City Bus Terminal is a INR1 billion ongoing project at Miyapur and, when ready in 2012, will be Asia's largest bus station, with 200 bus bays.[134] Mahatma Gandhi Bus Station, located at center of the city,[135] is the main bus station of the city with 74 platforms for 89 buses, carrying 80,000–120,000 passengers in a day.[136]

Hyderabad has a wide taxi service system. Company operated taxis are metered and those operated by private organisations have fixed fares. The yellow-coloured auto rickshaw are metered and are the most widely available transport service in the city.[137]

Culture

Makkah Masjid,مسجد مكة Hyderabad. Photo:1885 AD

Historically, Hyderabad is a city where distinct cultural and linguistic traditions of North and South India meet. Hyderabadis, as residents of the city are known, have developed a distinctive culture which is a mixture of Hindu and Muslim traditions. A typical Hyderabadi could be either a Telugu or a Urdu-speaking person.[138][139]

The traditional Hyderabadi garb is Sherwani and Kurta Paijama for men,[140] Khara Dupatta and Salwar kameez for women, that reflects distinctive culture of Hyderabad. Women of all cultures and faiths in city generally wear sari and Salwar kameez.[141] Burqa and Hijab is commonly practised among the Muslim women when in public,[142] this is one of the more visible cultural attributes of Hyderabad.[139][142] Most of the young generations wear western clothing.

Public carnivals celebrated in Hyderabad include the Ganesh Chaturthi (locally known as the Ganesh Nimajjanam),[143] Bonalu,[144] Eid ul-Fitr and Eid al-Adha.[145]

Hyderabadi Biryani

Cuisine

Hyderabads cuisine' 400-year history can started with the Nizams. It is highly influenced by Mughals and partially by French,[146] Arabic, Turkish and Irani food where rice, wheat and spices are widely used to great effect. It is influenced by the native Telugu and Marathwada cuisine, bringing in a unique taste to the dishes.[147][148]

Hyderabadi Biryani and Hyderabadi Haleem with a blend of traditional South Indian, Mughalai, Arabic and Persian cuisine,[148] are iconic dishes of India.[149] Other popular native foods include Nahari, Kulche, and Chakna, and in desserts are Qubani ka meetha, Double ka meetha and Kaddu Ki Kheer (a sweet porridge made with sweet gourd).[147][150] Other popular cuisines among residents are south Indian, Italian, Mexican, Chinese and Continental.[150] Modern day pubs and discos are all popular among the youth in the city.[151]

Media

A special Coach which takes visitors around the studios of Ramoji Film City – the world's largest integrated film studio complex at over2,000 acres (809 ha) of land.[152]

Ravindra Bharati, Shilpakala Vedika and Lalithakala Thoranam are well-known auditorium for theatre and performing arts in the city.[153] The modern Hyderabad International Convention Centre (HICC), also known as HITEX, was constructed with the cost of INR3 billion.[154]

Among the early newspapers in Hyderabad was The Deccan Times establish in the early 1780s.[155] Now the city has three main print media that publish newspapers and magazines in Telugu, Urdu, and English. The major Telugu dailies are the Eenadu, Sakshi and Andhra Jyothy. The major English dailies are The Times of India, The Hinduand The Deccan Chronicle.[156] and the Urdu dailies of the city are The Siasat Daily, The Munsif Daily and Etemaad.

Early in 1919 the British cantonment of Secunderabad established the communication station in the Hyderabad State and in 1924 a unknown spark station was operated from same region, Deccan Radio is the first general broadcasting radio station of Hyderabad to go live on air in 1925.[157] The radio industry expanded with a number of private and government owned FM channels being introduced. Notable FM radio channels that broadcast in the city include AIR, Radio Mirchi FM (98.3 MHz), Radio City FM (91.1 MHz) and Big FM (92.7 MHz).[158]

Prasads IMAX Theatre houses the largest IMAX-3D in the world.[159]

Film making in Hyderabad was started in early 1917 by Lotus film Co, during the Nizams era.[160] The city is home to the Telugu film industry popularly known as Tollywood; in 2008 it occupied top position with maximum number of films produced in India, and in 2009 Tollywood stands on second position.[161] Saradhi Studios, Annapurna Studios, Ramanaidu Studios, Ramakrishna Studios, Padmalaya Studios, Ramoji Film City are the notable film studios in the city. The first Hyderabad International Film Festival (HIFF) was organised in 2007 by the Hyderabad Film Club and Andhra Pradesh Film Directors Association. Prasad IMAX Theaters houses the World's largest IMAX-3D,[159] largest screen (662 metres) in India and has powerful projector with 24 optical focus with 4D simulator. Inox, PVR Cinemas, Cine Planet, Cinemax, BIG Cinemas and Talkie Town are other multiplexes in Hyderabad.[162] 17 more multiplexes are being constructed in the areas like Kukatpally and Kacheguda.[163]

Hyderabad witnessed its first satellite television relay in 1974 with the launch of state-owned Doordarshan Kendra Hyderabad, which initially telecast through ATS-6 Satellite with the collaboration of NASA. The DD Kendra Hyderabad was officially inaugurated on 23 October 1977.[164] The State owned Doordarshan Kendra Hyderabad transmits two terrestrial television channels and one satellite television channel from Hyderabad. Notable private regional television channels broadcasting from Hyderabad are TV9, MAA TV, I-News, ETV, Gemini, Teja, Zee Telugu, ETV2, NTV, TV5, Bhakthi TV, Local TV, Munsif Urdu TV and ETV Urdu.

Hyderabad is covered many optical fibre cables.[165] There are four fixed telephone line operators in the city: BSNL, Tata Indicom, Reliance and Airtel. There are fifteen mobile phone companies in which GSMplayers include Vodafone, Airtel, BSNL, Idea, Tata DoCoMo, Reliance, Virgin Mobile, T24, Aircel and Uninor ; CDMA services are offered by BSNL, Virgin Mobile, Tata Indicom, MTS India and Reliance. 3G mobile services are offered by Airtel, Idea, Aircell and BSNL.

Sports

Indian Air Force HAL Dhruv helicopters performing during the 2007 Military World Games
Modern G.M.C. Balayogi Stadium, with world class infrastructure.[166]

Cricket and football (soccer) are the most popular sports in Hyderabad. The city has hosted national and international sports events such as the 2002 National Games of India, the 2003 Afro-Asian Games, the 2004 Hyderabad Open, the 2007 Military World Games, and the 2009 BWF World Championships,[167][168] and IBSF World Snooker Championship (2009).[169]

The Lal Bahadur Shastri Stadium and the latest Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium with a capacity of 55,000 are associated with cricket and serves as a home ground of Hyderabad Cricket Association which hosted matches during the 1987 Cricket World Cup and 1996 Cricket World Cup.[170] The Swarnandhra Pradesh Sports Complex and the G.M.C. Balayogi Stadium at Gachibowli are associated for hockey and football.[171]

The Deccan Chargers who is a franchise in the Indian Premier League (IPL)[172] won the 2009 IPL competition held in South Africa.[173] In the Indian Cricket League, the city is represented by the Hyderabad Heroes.[174] In the Premier Hockey League, Hyderabad is represented by the Hyderabad Sultans, who won the inaugural championship of 2005.[175] In 2011, with the establishment of the Elite Football League of India, Hyderabad is represented by the Hyderabad Skykings.[176]

The city houses many elite clubs formed by the Nizams and British, the Secunderabad Club, the Nizam Club and the Hyderabad Race Club known for its horse racing[177] conducts the Deccan derby, a popular annual event of this club.[178] The Andhra Pradesh Motor Sports Club organises popular events like the Deccan 1/4 Mile Drag, TSD Rallies and 4x4 Off road.[179] The Hyderabad Golf Club is a eighteen-hole golf course.[180]

Famous sports persons of international stature from Hyderabad include Ghulam Ahmed, M. L. Jaisimha, Mohammed Azharuddin, V. V. S. Laxman, Venkatapathy Raju, Shivlal Yadav, Arshad Ayub, Noel David (all play cricket), Syed Abdul Rahim, Syed Nayeemuddin, Shabbir Ali (football),[181] Sania Mirza (Tennis),[182] S. M. Arif, Pullela Gopichand, [saina nehwal,badminton]Jwala Gutta, Chetan Anand (badminton), Syed Mohammad Hadi, Mukesh Kumar (hockey) and Mir Mohtesham Ali Khan (bodybuilding).[183]

Sister cities

City Geographical location Nation Reference
Brisbane Queensland  Australia [184]
Ipswich Queensland  Australia [184]
Dubai Dubai  United Arab Emirates [185]
Miyoshi Hiroshima  Japan [186]
Riverside California  United States [187]
Indianapolis Indiana  United States [188]
San Diego California  United States [189]

See also

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