Croatian Latin literature

Croatian Latin literature
Marko Marulić, one of the most important Croatian Latinists, known as the "father of Croatian literature"

Croatian Latinism or Croatian Latin literature is a term that refers to the literary works written in the Latin language, which evolved on present-day Croatia since the 9th century. Since that time, both public and private documents have been written in a local variant of medieval Latin. Some works have been found written between 12th and 14th centuries that were written in a variant more resembling classical Latin.



Convent of St. Benedict in Zadar

Croatian Latin literature has been found in modern-day Croatia dating back to the 9th century, and is evident from numerous epigraphs cast in stone and even more numerous in public and private writings. Some of these contain the beauties of poetic expression. The sarcophagus of Peter the Black from Split in the 11th century has an inscription pertaining to the transience of life, written by the deacon Dabrus (Croatian: Dabro). A better known example is the tombstone inscription of Vekenega, the head of the Benedictine convent of St. Mary in Zadar (d. 1111). This inscription is written on four tablets with 20 verses (hexameters and elegiac couplets), where an unknown poet credits Vekenega's work for the convent. An interesting inscription can be found for the knez of Bribir, Mladen Šubić (d. 1348) in the Trogir Cathedral of St. Lawrence, consisting of 22 goliardic verses. There are also fragments of two inscriptions of great importance to Croatian history: Knez Trpimir I (mid-9th century) and Queen Jelena of Zadar (976), starting with In hoc tumulo quiescit Helena famosa ("Jelena the Famous rests in this grave") and ending with Icque aspiciens vir [anime] dic [miserere Deus] ("When you look here, man, say: 'God, have mercy for her soul'."). The oldest document of a Croatian ruler is the Trpimir's charter (852), the first record of a Croatian name in a Croatian document.

Abundant traces of the Latin creativity in medieval Croatia is already dated 9th century, as a number of stone inscriptions as well as more numerous well preserved public and private documents. In some of these monuments, especially in verse inscriptions, past the beauty of poetic expression. Thus, on the sarcophagus of the Split nobleman Peter Black (11th century) we read ten verses about the transience of life, drawn up by the deacon Beaver (Dabrus). Notable is the tomb inscription Vekenega, Director of the Benedictine Monastery of St.. Mary in Zadar (1111th death), the four-disc set with 20 verses (hexameters and elegiac distisi), in which an unknown poet celebrates Vekenegine credit for the monastery. An interesting inscription bribirskoga Prince Mladen Subic (died 1348) in the Trogir Cathedral, consisting of 22 Goliard. Fragments are preserved, two in particular worth inscription: Prince Trpimira from the 9th century grave inscription of Queen Helen Celebrities from 976th, which begins: In hoc tumulus quiescit Helena Famosa (= "In this grave rests Jelena celebrity") and ends with the words: Icque aspiciens vir "anime" DIC "miserere Deus" (= "Man, when you look over here, tell me, 'Lord, have mercy on her soul'). The oldest documents with the court any of the Croatian rulers is Trpimirova Grants (852nd), in which the first document in the local Croatian name was mentioned.

From 11th century known are the two charters of King Petar Kresimir IV.: Grant on the occasion of the foundation of the monastery of St.. Mary in Zadar (1066th), and grants which St. Grisogono of Zadar gives the island of Maun in our Dalmatian coast "(= dalmatico in nostro mari). From other documents are important records of notary (the oldest is from the 1146th in Zadar), the Statute (the oldest is from Split, 1240) and the Statute of the Zagreb chapter, which is composed of Zagreb Canon John Archdeacon Gorički (1334th) and the oldest in Croatia urbarium (urbarium is a collection of regulations, which in medieval Croatia, Slavonia and Vojvodina edit related nobleman and peasants and their mutual obligations). The same category belongs to Supetar kartular, Proceedings of transcripts of documents relating to the Monastery of St.. Peter in a village not far from Split (established 1064). This is an important source for the history of Croatia with the end of the 11th century.

From 11th century date and two surviving liturgical drama, both in the oldest ritual of the Zagreb cathedral. One of the most primitive form, the quest for the tomb (Sepulchre Visitatio) and the second is much more developed in the Christmas cycle, Trokraljevska game (Officium stellae), which presents the three kings who came to worship Christ, their visit to Herod, etc.

Among Latin creativity in the medieval Croatian culture important are the chronicles. First among them is the Chronicle of the Priest Dukljanina the middle of the 12th century, for which the author in the introduction, says that it is "Slav" translated into Latin and called the Libellus Gothorum or Sclavorum regnum. Author of "Chronicles" is an unknown Catholic priest from Bar, and the name "Pop Dukljanin" gave him a Croatian historian Ivan Lucic, who had this piece published as a contribution to his own work De regno et Dalmatiae Croatiae (1666.) Entitled Presbyter Diocleatis Regnum Sclavorum, and to the Latin text (in 47 chapters), while the alleged "Slavic" the original is not preserved. There is an old Croatian translation (probably from the 14th century), which was compiled by an unknown author in the vicinity of Split. This is a translation of the 16th century from Split Dmin Papalic found on the Makarska Riviera and copied it, "according rič rič. This translation, called Croatian Chronicle, but covers only 23 chapters of the Latin original, for which the translator is believed to tell the history of Croatia and which added five chapters on the reign of King Zvonimir and legends about his death. Papalićev transcript is then translated into Latin freestyle Marko Marulić (1510th), and this is the Latin translation of Ivan Lucic also released in the aforementioned work, entitled Regnum Dalmatiae et Croatiae gesture. "Chronicle" is usually divided into three parts: genealogy of Slavic rulers, the legend of St.. Vladimir and dukljanska Chronicle 11th and 12th century. The historical value of the work is not great. The absence of any timescale, inventing and mixing of various historical figures and events and interventions later copyists significantly impede recognition of the true historical basis of the work.

In the 13th century Archdeacon Thomas (Thomas Archidiaconus about 1200th-1268th), a native of Split, from the Roman family, clergyman and politician in his hometown, wrote Solinska history (Historia Saloni, 1266). It is presented in chronological order the life and work of Archbishop of Split-Solin since Roman times his age, making many of the past ekskurse medieval Croatian city of Split and, therefore, represents a valuable historical source for the period Kresimir IV. and Zvonimir. Contemporary History, shows very vividly, for example, the rush of the Tartars, the conflicts between Split and Trogir, and political disputes in the city.

Spis Siege of Zadar (Obsidio Jadrensis), the two books is the work of an unknown artist from the 14th century. It is not a dull chronicle, but a lively and detailed overview of the fate of heavy Zadar when he 1345th / '46. from land and sea besieged by the Venetians. The same event is preserved and less modern file Zadar Chronicle (Chronica Jadrensis), whose author is inclined to the Venetians, as opposed to the deliberate author of Zadar, who writes very antimlečanski. Verse chronicle of the earliest history of Dubrovnik, compiled by the author, who himself called Milecije (Miletius, 13th or 14th century), so just to work, from which we saved 91 hexameter, called Milecijeva Chronicle.

Humanism and the Renaissance

Humanism is already in the first decades of the 15th century penetrated to the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, primarily because of its proximity to the source. Due to cultural contacts with Italy, but in predrenesansno time - mostly intermediate individual members of the local elite, but also intermediate itinerant humanists - late 14th century in Croatia, notice the beginnings of humanistic work: a collection of ancient inscriptions, and rewriting old code.

Primorsky the end of the 15th century, was under Venetian rule, while the northern Croatia of 12th century to defeat mohačkog 1526th located in the state union with Hungary (and will later, until 1918. be in a state-specific legal addiction to it), and 1527th together with parts of Hungary came under Habsburg rule. Humanists from coastal areas in increasing numbers are leaving to study in Italy and other European countries and also strengthen cultural ties with the centers of European humanism. Humanists from the northern Croatian develop its activities mainly in korvinskom round in Budapest. Only Dubrovnik and its surroundings maintained relative independence to Napoleon's time, and there is the literature on the Croatian and creativity flowered in Latin, and until deep in the 19th century. Statue of János Vitéz

The statue of János Vitéz in Esztergom, Hungary. Sculpted by Zoltán Szentirmai

Central figure korvinskog circle in Buda were János Vitéz (Johannes de Vitéz Zredna about 1408th to 1472nd) and his nephew John Česmički (Ianus Pannonius, 1434th to 1472nd), both of Croatian origin, and both educated in Italy. Knight is not as stressed as a Latin writer as much as an organizer, as established in Buda scriptorium and the library (Corviana) Pozsony in 1467, modeled on the University of Bologna, the first high school in the territory of Slovakia and Hungary (Academia Istropolitana). John Česmičkog, the greatest Latin poet of the time outside of Italy, the Italians think its because he was educated in Italy, because its Hungarians Hungary became a feudal aristocrat and humanist was most prominent in korvinskom round, while the Croats, because his was of Croatian origin. By the influence of his work undoubtedly belongs to the Hungarian and Croatian literature, and partly to the Italian, but above all a universal European Latin literature (he wrote exclusively in Latin). His Latin poems by all at the best Italian the Latin poetry of 15th century, especially epigrams, which are simple, clear, like always poentirani improvisation, like his idol Martial. The theme of their tight love, friendly disagreements, literary discussions, naivety and greed of pilgrims of all those who want to enrich their account. Later his epigrams, but calmer, and often imbued with melancholy. Then write the elegy, which is still sjetniji and turobniji, and which, although written in the best humanistic style is a lot of allusions to classical themes, reflecting the sensitive nature of the lyric.


Are located in Zadar Nin bishop Juraj Divnića, historian, and Latin poet whose personality around Zadar together humanists.


From Sibenik, the Croatian humanist George Hafner (Georgius Sisgoreus, 15th century), who in 1477 publishes a book of poetry and three books of elegies, lyrical songs (Elegiarum et carminum libri tres) which are also the first Croatian incunabula. In a collection of poems in elegiac distisima, sapfičkoj stanza and falečkom penalty with the usual humanities topics from antiquity, but also those that ispjevao saepenumero Doloris cruciata affectus (= often suffered pain "), as he says in the introduction, where he thinks on his own and the People's suffering. Own deep-felt pain can best be seen in the elegy on the death of two brothers (De duorum backfire Fratrum) - one of them fell Pro Patria pugnans, pro laribusque suis (= "fighting for their homeland and their doorstep). In an elegy upon the fields laid waste Sibenik (De agri Sibenicensis vastatione) expressed sadness and outrage because of the Turkish robbery at his home country. The poet would have to fight: Pro and, fides sacra, et patria dulcis, pro and / sit vita mea dedit barbaricis viris (= "holy faith, for you, and sweet homeland, for you / I'd give my life barbaric these people" ). Three letters in prose, which are included in the collection, which were sent to him friends, and the poetic deputies that he dedicated himself to others, it is evident that took place live literary connections between the humanities circles across the Adriatic coast. The manuscript remained less prose work about the position and the town of Illyria (De situ et civitate Illyriae Sibenici). Although he wrote exclusively in Latin, Hafner usmjeno praises work of the national language emphasizing songs and proverbs.

In Sibenik won the first humanistic education Šižgorićev younger fellow citizen Vrančić Anthony (Antonius Verantius or Wrantius or Vrantius, 1504th to 1573rd), uncle and designers polihistora Faust (Faustus Verantius, 1551–1617), also from Sibenik. On his numerous journeys Anthony Vrančić collected Roman inscriptions in the Balkans, and during a diplomatic mission in the Ottoman Empire, along with well-known Flemish humanist AB Busbecqom in Ankara, he found Augustus autobiographical writing by the divine Augustus (Res gestae divi Augusti), later called the Monument Ankara (Monumentum Ancyranum). Since it was published, it is this inscription known as the Codex Verantianus. Besides the historical part travelogue, published a collection of poems in elegiac distisima Songs in leisure (She went from the 1542nd year), in which he sings about love, life's joys and social events.


In Trogir humanist circle occupies an important place Ćipiko Coriolanus (Coriolanus chain, 1425th to 1493rd), who wrote a memoir titled Maritime three books on the works of the Supreme Commander Peter Mocenigo (Petri Mocenici imperatoris gestorum libri tres, 1477). Trogir is Fran Trankvil Andreis (Andronicus Tranquillus Parthenius, 1490th to 1571st), who studied in Dubrovnik, Padua and other Italian universities and in Vienna, Ingolstadt and Leipzig. His extensive scientific and literary work in Latin include discussions, dialogues, epistles and songs. Particularly interesting is an epistle in which pictures the situation in Hungary after the Battle of Mohács (1526th) and Letter of Pope Pius V, in which politicians sharply criticized the church. Of special interest is his heksametarska Oratio (also "Prayer" and "Speech"), printed 1518th in Augsburg, which reminded the Germans of Turkish danger that threatens all of Europe.


The central figure of the Split humanist circle was Marulić Mark (Marcus Marulus, 1450th-1524th), who gained fame in Europe Latin works moralizing and didactic content: Making the merry life of the examples of the saints (De institutione bene vivendi per exempla sanctorum, 1506th ) - now known by the title 4th Published in the 1530th The Making merry and blessed in life (De institutione bene vivendi beateque) - and Evangelistarium (Evangelistarium, 1516). The first piece was published in 15 editions and translated into Italian, French, German, Czech and Portuguese language, while the second had nine editions and once translated into Italian. These are in fact practical guidance on how believers will achieve a decent life and basic Christian virtues, and were written in the spirit of st. Bernard of Clairvaux (Bernardus Claravallensis, 1090th to 1153rd), one of the main representatives of ascetic mysticism (see Wiktionary: asceticism). The same tendency to have a moralistic Marulićeva and other religious activities, which are related and some that is on this topic written in Croatian. Despite the fact that he was convinced Catholic, in some places the negative phenomena in the church, which is perhaps an echo reformacijskih ideas and effort to be part of the church on time do something in order to strengthen its position undermined.

As his contemporary Zadranin Kožičić Benja Simon (Simon Begnius about 1460th-1536th) held by Pope Leo X. speech devastated Croatia (De Croatiae desolatione, 1516) and suggests Marulić antitursku Letter to Pope Hadrian VI. (Epistola ad Adrianum Pontifice maximum VI, 1522.). These are of course only a few in a series addressing the central humanist - speeches, letters and other literary forms - Western Europe, to save themselves antemuralia Christiana (= "the first Christian works"). Mum has been much recourse, and all collectively referred to as Antiturcica name.

Main Marulić literary work in Latin was Davidijada (Davidias, written between the 1506th and 1516). This is a great heroic-historical epic distinctly Christian tendencies in 14 books from 6765 heksametarskih verses. Choose the theme from the Old Testament, which is the most specific for transalpine, but for the Mediterranean humanism. The poem was written by Virgil literary process in classical Latin, with some additions of biblical and medieval Latin, and possesses considerable artistic quality.

Among humanists hvarskog circle is more important Vinko Pribojević (Vincentius Priboevius, 15th-16th century), which centers on the origins of the Slavs and occasions (De origine successibusque Slavorum, printed 1532nd) is the first in Croatian literature presents the idea of Pan-Slavism.


In Dubrovnik, the most senior Latinist poet Elias Crijević (Aelius Lampridius Cervinus, 1463rd-1520). He wrote elegies, epistles, and went unfinished poem about Epidaurum (De Epidaurus), but the best he has managed the cycle of love poetry dedicated to the educated, but preslobodnoj of Roman Flavius. For these songs, for which he became poet laureatus, appears genuine humanist poet: on the one hand, learning and self-imitation of ancient poets and humanities, on the other hand, emphasized sensibility, and what sometimes goes further than his idol floor. Crijević features a great talent for describing the natural beauty, and in his songs we find a beautiful description of Lopud Dubrovnik and Rijeka.

His fellow citizen and a contemporary of James Bunić (Iacobus Bonus, 1469th-1500th) was distinctly religious-oriented. His short poem The Rape mythological Cerberus (De Rapti Cerbere about 1490th-1534th), written in his youth, is the oldest poem in Croatian literature. Written by the great Christian poem Christ's life and works (De Vita et gestis Christi, 1526.), Which is a paraphrase of the Gospels and all the while the first poem in the Neo-Latin literature which shows the whole life of Christ. This work, published nine years after Lutherovih thesis, primarily a promotional character in protureformacijskom spirit. In the wake of his poetic process is a younger contemporary of Bunićev Damian Beneš (or Benešić, 1477th-1539th), the author of the great epic poem De morte Christi (Christ's death "), which remained in manuscript and was published only in recent times (2006). [1].

In Dubrovnik, in addition to literature in the strict sense, flourished and scientific literature. Historian Louis Crijević Tuberon (Ludovicus Cerva Tuber, 1459th-1527th) is significant in that it is emulating the Sallustius and Tacitus, fluent and picturesque display events, personality, social and economic conditions over a wide area of Buda and Constantinople in the period in 1490 to 1522. year. Very interesting to further past ekskursi and anecdotal and novelistički inserts the psychological characterization of individual personality. Due to the harsh criticism of church policy to the historical work 1734th placed on the Index Librorum Prohibitorum.

Philosopher George Dragišić (Georgius Benignus de Salviatis, 1450th-1520th) was derived from Srebrenica in Bosnia, and after initial training in Dubrovnik, where he studied in Italy, Paris and Oxford. In Florence became a member of the Platonic Academy and Pletonove Besarionovog circle, where noted as a real connoisseur of Greek, Latin and Hebrew. After the Thirty Years' stay in Italy, he returned to his native Dubrovnik, from where it soon went back to Italy. His philosophical works were written in the form of Renaissance dialogue and seek reconciliation and tomizam skotizam.

Istria and Kvarner

Matthias Flacius

Matthias Flacius (Matthias Flacius Illyricus, 1520th-1575th) from Labin in Istria, where haministička-center and Koper and Piran, the most important among the Croatian humanists Protestants. All his life he spent in Germany and was an associate of Luther and Melanchthon. After Luther's death, when many Protestant leaders have become advocates of progressive struggle and compromise with Rome, Vlačić was najgorljiviji representative Lutherovih ideas and eventually the founder of a new, radical currents, named after him flacijanizam. Due to the uncompromising attitude was the rest of his life haunted by the Catholic Church. His theological, philosophical, historical and philological work is vast: he left more than 300 books and shorter papers. The main works are the witness of truth Catalogue (Catalogue testium veritatis, 1556.), Which presented 650 witnesses, a renegade from the Roman Church, and the key to the Scriptures (Clavis Scripturae Sacrae, 1567.), Encyclopedic dictionary hebreizama, which became the fundamental work Protestant interpretation of the Bible.

Frane Petric (or Frank, or also Petris Petris, Latin Franciscus Patricius, 1529th-1597th), from Cres, studied mostly in Padua, the greatest center aristotelstva, but is inclined toward "divine" Plato and became the opponent of "animals" Aristotle. After many travels in the Mediterranean, she returned to Italy, where Ferrari in Rome and became a professor of philosophy. He wrote in Italian about the poetics, rhetoric, philosophy, history, mathematics, geometry and medicine, but is most famous for antiperipatetički philosopher. I work in Latin Peripatetic discussions (Discussiones peripateticae, 1581) emphasizes presocratici philosophy of nature and seeks to invalidate the importance of Aristotle. In his new philosophy of the general (Nova de Universis philosophia, 1591). Petric exposes his metaphysical conception of the world, based on several sources - mainly Plato, the Stoics, Neo and Hermes Trismegistus. Since in this part of Genesis and the image of the world substantially different from the teachings of scholastic Aristotelianism, to work, despite the efforts of Sciences to defend, or at least enlighten quaedam loca obscuriora (a dull place "), 1594th was forbidden.

17th to 20th Century

The transition between the humanist and classicist period, typical for 17th century, humanists becoming mostly scientists. In these were one hundred years, often just in Latin, appeared epochal works from almost all branches of science and philosophy, to name but a few: Galileo Galileo, Francis Bacon, René Descartes, Baruch Spinoza, Gottfried Leibniz. Among Croatian Latinists this period is the important figure of Stephen (Stephanus Gradius, 1613–1683), a Dubrovnik diplomat at the Roman Curia, the curator and director of the Vatican Library. He has written discussions on philosophy, theology, mathematics and physics, as well as speech and song. Among his most famous poems is Prejasne Venetian Republic, which talks of the troubles of his native city (De laudibus Serenissimae Reipublicae Venetae et Patriae cladibus drought Carmen, 1675th), in 315 hexameters, which gives a very striking description of the catastrophic earthquake in Dubrovnik in 1667. Among Latinists 17th century stands out and Ivan Lucic (Joannes Lucius, 1604th-1679th), whose most important work of the kingdom of Dalmatia and Croatian (De regno et Dalmatiae Croatiae, 1666.), where he gives an overview of Croatian history from prehistoric times to 15th century, thoroughly supported by the source material and illustrated with six historical maps. Because of his actions Lucic is considered the founder of the Croatian scientific historiography. Lucic was involved in a dispute about the authenticity of documents Trimalhionove Feast (Cena Trimalchionis) Roman satirist Petronius arbitrator, who was found in Trogir. Another prominent historian of this era is Paul Ritter Vitezović (1652nd-1713th) with his brief work of only 32 printed pages, entitled Resuscitated (Croatia rediviva regnante Leopoldo Magno caesar, 1700.), But also other works of historiography, both prose so verse, some of which remained in manuscript.

Through almost all of European Literature 18th century Latinist passes only weak currents. Besides, a little Latin writers rely on previously creativity and among them no more of the former thematic cohesion. However, in the Republic of Dubrovnik in the 18th century - its the last century, because it is in 1808. Napoleon abolished - Latin literature fruitful than the one written in the vernacular. Conditions for re-empowerment of cultural creativity matured after reconstruction of the economy after the disastrous earthquake and great fire 1667th year. The fact that out of all European literature of this period only in Dubrovnik Latinist currents stronger than national, can be explained by the fact that there was no življih cultural ties with Croatian background, but also by the fact that Dubrovnik would like to keep up with the rest of Europe and considered to be at international language effectively meet the world with local conditions and culture are both in private and in the wider South Slavic area.

The last five prominent Croatian Latinist - Boskovic, Stay, Rabbits, and Džamanjić Galjuf - mostly living and working abroad. PRE George (Georgius Ferrich, 1739th-1820th), on the contrary, to act his age in his hometown. First, his literary work rendition of the Psalms of David in hexameters, and then in lyrical verse. However, the law is an area was the folk literature. Based on the popular adage has assembled a collection of 113 fables in verse by Latin and folk called Fabulae ab Illyricis adagiis desumptae or anecdote prorečja slovinskijeh (1794). Is preserved and its correspondence with the curator in hexameters Court Library in Vienna, Johannes Müller and the Mayor of Split Julius Bajamonti the late 18th century. In these letters, poetry PRE exhibits his observations about the local folklore, especially the delightful folk songs. Muller sent a letter to the translations of 37 folk songs, including Hasanaginica, which is the sixth consecutive translation of this famous song from a total of one hundred famous. He compiled a collection of Latin translations of poems slovinskih (Slavica poematia Latine reddita) of 26 and 12 epic love of folk songs with 13 Kačićevih from his song written in the spirit and style of folk poetry. According to this lively interest in folk literature PRE is a precursor of Romanticism. He also wrote many epigrams, and among the best works of his description of Dubrovnik coast (Periegesis orae Rhacusanae, 1803). Hexameters in 3379, where he provides not only descriptions of natural beauty, but also customs and historical events.

Raymond Rabbit (Raymundus Cunichius, 1719th-1794th) is known primarily as a translator from Greek, and then as a poet epigram. All his life he spent in Italy, as well as Džamanjić and Galjuf, was a member of the Roman Arcadia literary academy, established the 1690th His translation of Homer's Iliad in the Latin verses (Homer Ilias Latinis versibus Express, 1776) and despite all the flaws is considered the most successful Latin translation homerskih pockets. In addition to Homer, he translated into Latin poets Theocritus and the Greek Anthology. The original epigrams in elegiac distisima proves to be a great epigramatik and the diversity of topics and the elegance of the verse.

His disciple and friend of the Brno Džamanjić (Bernardus Zamagna, 1735th-1820th), a year after Rabbit Homer's Iliad, published Ulysses in the Latin verses (Homer Odyssee Latinis versibus Express). Like Rabbits, and he saw in Virgil, but his role model and I'm part rabbit. Both sites may not translate, but they paraphrase, which was the style of the former translation. Džamonjić wrote the original epic poem, commemorative and educational elegies, epigrams and heksametarske letter (Epistolae). Two short poem - Echo (Echo, 1764.) And airships (Navis aëria, 1768.) - It also emerged as a great Latin poet.

Mark Faustin Galjuf (Marcus Faustinus Gagliuffius, 1765th-1834th) says to himself: Sort Ragusinus, vita Italus, ore Latinus (= "The fate in Dubrovnik, in Italian life, the Latin language"). Often persecuted because of their political activities, wandering through Europe, celebrated as an improviser of Latin verses. Džono Rastic (Junius Restius, 1755th-1814th) is a major satirist in the Croatian Latinist poetry with poems (Carmina, 1816). He saw first and foremost on Horace (and is called the "Croatian Horace), but sometimes in Virgil and Juvenala. Sharp criticism of negative phenomena and individuals at the end of the Dubrovnik Republic, arguing that the blame for all the evil innovations that come from outside.

In northern Croatia, among many Latinists devotes a Katančić Matthias Peter (Petrus Mathias Katancsich, 1750th-1825th), the main representative of the Croatian literary classicism. He wrote poems in Latin, Croatian and Hungarian, but it is still known as a philologist, historian, archaeologist and numismatist. Season's Latin poems, written along the lines of Horace and issued together with his Croatian poems in the collection of autumn fruits (fructus autumnales, 1791.), Show that he was thoroughly knowledgeable klasički and that he was an experienced verzifikator. Valuable to him and two literary writings: short note about the Illyrian language prosody (Brevis in prosodiam Illyricae linguae animadversio, 1791.) Booklet about Illyrian poetry performed according to the laws of aesthetics (De poes Illyrica Libellus ad aestheticae exactus Legesse, 1817). The first essay provides the first attempt to develop principles for the formation of Croatian poetry in classical meters, and in another first Croatian literature discusses the aesthetic point of view.

Rudjer Joseph Boscovich (Rogerius Josephus Boscovich, 1711th-1787th), one of the most distinguished European scientific prose in the 18th century. Versatile, equally creative in the theoretical and practical part of various scientific disciplines, working in more cultural and scientific center of Europe, but is also included for the life of the great scientists. His theory of a single law in the nature of the existing work is presented in the main part of the Theory of Natural Philosophy (Philosophiae Naturalis Theoria, 1758). The Natural poem about the solar eclipse and the Moon (Luna De Solis ac defectibus, 1760) elaborate and simple verse exposes the causes of these phenomena.

Bošković countryman Benedict Stay (Stay Benedictus, 1714-1801.) From the 1746th lived in Italy since the celebrated philosophical poem in six books of philosophy poems (versibus traditae Philosophiae libri sex, 1744th), who wrote in his native Dubrovnik. This poem with more than 10,000 verses shows Descartes in philosophy and physics that attempts to reconcile with Christian teaching. Ravishing lyrics with beautiful poetic figures and carefully refined Stay language, such as Lukrecija, managed to close the reader and the serious nepjesničku topics. Already his contemporaries called him the new Lucretius. Encouraged by this success, starting in Rome even more difficult task - to expound in verse and Newtonian philosophy and scientific discoveries. And that is a great poem, with more than 24.000 lines, philosophically: Ten books later philosophy in verse (Philosophiae recentioris versibus traditae libri decem, 1755–1792). In preparing this work he collaborated Institute, which is interpreted Stay Newtonian physics and wrote a comment.

During the 19th century literature from the Latin dies throughout Europe, to the 20th century, in spite of individual efforts, almost completely disappeared. Croatian Latinist this period may be mentioned Ton Smerdel (1904th-1970th), classical philologist, who has published seven books ametričkih Latin poems, which incorporates the most productive recent neolatinske poets in the world.

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