Adjectivals and demonyms for countries and nations
The following is a list of adjectival forms of countries and nations in English and their demonymic equivalents. A country adjective describes something as being from that country, for example, "Italian cuisine" is "cuisine of Italy". A country demonym denotes the people or the inhabitants of or from there, for example, "Germans" are people of or from Germany.
Note: Demonyms are given in plural forms. Singular forms simply remove the final 's' or, in the case of -ese endings, are the same as the plural forms. The ending -men has feminine equivalent -women (e.g. an Irishman and a Scotswoman). The French terminations -ois / ais serve as both the singular and plural masculine; adding 'e' (-oise / aise) makes them singular feminine; 'es' (-oises / aises) makes them plural feminine. The Spanish termination "-o" usually denotes the masculine and is normally changed to feminine by dropping the "-o" and adding "-a". The plural forms are usually "-os" and "-as" respectively.
Adjectives ending in -ish can be used as collective demonyms (e.g. the English, the Cornish). So can those ending in -ch / -tch (e.g. the French, the Dutch) provided they are pronounced with a 'ch' sound (e.g. the adjective Czech does not qualify).
Many place-name adjectives and many demonyms refer also to various other things, sometimes with and sometimes without one or more additional words. (Sometimes, the use of one or more additional words is optional.) Notable examples are cuisines, cheeses, cat breeds, dog breeds, and horse breeds. (See List of words derived from toponyms.)
Country name Adjectivals Demonyms colloquial term(s) Abkhazia Abkhaz, Abkhazian Abkhazians Afghanistan Afghan Afghans Albania Albanian Albanians Algeria Algerian Algerians American Samoa American Samoan American Samoans Andorra Andorran Andorrans Angola Angolan Angolans Anguilla Anguillan Anguillans Antigua and Barbuda Antiguan, Barbudan Antiguans, Barbudans Argentina Argentine, Argentinean, Argentinian Argentines, Argentineans, Argentinians Armenia Armenian Armenians Aruba Aruban Arubans Australia Australian Australians "Aussies" Austria Austrian Austrians Azerbaijan Azerbaijani, Azeri Azerbaijanis, Azeris Bahamas Bahamian Bahamians Bahrain Bahraini Bahrainis Bangladesh Bangladeshi Bangladeshis Barbados Barbadian ("Bajan") Barbadians "Bajans" Belarus Belarusian Belarusians Belgium Belgian Belgians Belize Belizean Belizeans Benin Beninese, Beninois Beninese, Beninois Bermuda Bermudian, Bermudan Bermudians, Bermudans Bhutan Bhutanese Bhutanese Bolivia Bolivian Bolivians Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnian, Bosniak, Herzegovinian Bosnians, Bosniaks, Herzegovinians Botswana Motswana (pl. Batswana), Botswanan Batswana, Botswanans Brazil Brazilian Brazilians British Virgin Islands British Virgin Island British Virgin Islanders Brunei Bruneian Bruneians Bulgaria Bulgarian Bulgarians Burkina Fasoa Burkinabè/Burkinabé Burkinabè/Burkinabé Burmab Burmese Bamar, Burmese Burundi Burundian Burundians Cambodia Cambodian Cambodians Cameroon Cameroonian Cameroonians Canada Canadian Canadians "Canucks" Cape Verde Cape Verdean Cape Verdeans Cayman Islands Caymanian Caymanians Central African Republic Central African Central Africans Chad Chadian Chadians Chile Chilean Chileans People's Republic of China Chinese Chinese Republic of China See Taiwan, below Christmas Island Christmas Island Christmas Islanders Cocos (Keeling) Islands Cocos Island Cocos Islanders Colombia Colombian Colombians Comoros Comorian Comorians Dem. Republic of the Congo Congolese, Congo Congolese Republic of the Congo Cook Islands Cook Island Cook Islanders Costa Rica Costa Rican Costa Ricans "Ticos" Côte d'Ivoire Ivorian Ivorians Croatia Croatian Croatians, Croats Cuba Cuban Cubans Cyprus Cypriot Cypriots Czech Republic Czech Czechs Denmark Danish Danes Djibouti Djiboutian Djiboutians Dominica Dominicand Dominicansd Dominican Republic Dominicane Dominicanse "Quisqueyanos" East Timor Timorese Timorese "Maubere" Ecuador Ecuadorian Ecuadorians Egypt Egyptian Egyptians El Salvador Salvadoran Salvadorans England English English Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinean, Equatoguinean Equatorial Guineans, Equatoguineans Eritrea Eritrean Eritreans Estonia Estonian Estonians Ethiopia Ethiopian Ethiopians Falkland Islands Falkland Island Falkland Islanders "Belongers" Faroe Islands Faroese Faroese Fiji Fijian Fijians Finland Finnish Finns France French French (or Frenchman/Frenchwoman) French Guiana French Guianese French Guianese French Polynesia French Polynesian French Polynesians, Tahitians Gabon Gabonese Gabonese Gambia Gambian Gambians Georgia Georgian Georgians Germany German Germans Ghana Ghanaian Ghanaians Gibraltar Gibraltar Gibraltarians Llanitos Great Britain British Britons see Other words for "British" Greece Greek, Grecianf, Hellenic Greeks, Greciansf, Hellenes Greenland Greenlandic Greenlanders Grenada Grenadian Grenadians Guadeloupe Guadeloupe Guadeloupians Guam Guamanian Guamanians Guatemala Guatemalan Guatemalans Guinea Guinean Guineans Guinea-Bissau Guyana Guyanese Guyanese Haiti Haitian Haitians Ayisyen Honduras Honduran Hondurans "Catrachos" Hong Kong Hong Kong, Hongkongese Hongkongers, Hongkongese "Hongkies" "Hongers" Hungary Hungarian, Magyar Hungarians, Magyars Iceland Icelandic Icelanders India Indian Indians Indonesia Indonesian Indonesians Iran Iranian Iranians Iraq Iraqi Iraqis Ireland Irish Irish Isle of Man Manx Manx Israel Israeli Israelis Italy Italian, Italicf Italians, Italicsf Jamaica Jamaican Jamaicans Japan Japanese Japanese Jordan Jordanian Jordanians Kazakhstan Kazakh, Kazakhstani Kazakhstanis, Kazakhs Kenya Kenyan Kenyans Kiribati Kiribati I-Kiribati North Korea North Korean Koreans South Korea South Korean Kosovo Kosovar, Kosovan Kosovars Kuwait Kuwaiti Kuwaitis Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstani, Kyrgyz, Kirgiz, Kirghiz Kyrgyzstanis, Kyrgyz, Kirgiz, Kirghiz Laos Laotian, Lao Laotians, Laos Latvia Latvian Latvians, Letts Lebanon Lebanese Lebanese Lesotho Basotho Basotho Liberia Liberian Liberians Libya Libyan Libyans Liechtenstein Liechtenstein Liechtensteiners Lithuania Lithuanian Lithuanians Luxembourg Luxembourg, Luxembourgish Luxembourgers Macau Macanese, Chinese Macanese, Chinese Republic of Macedonia Macedonian Macedonians Madagascar Malagasy Malagasy Malawi Malawian Malawians Malaysia Malaysian Malaysians Maldives Maldivian Maldivians Mali Malian Malians Malta Maltese Maltese Marshall Islands Marshallese Marshallese Martinique Martiniquais, Martinican Martiniquais Mauritania Mauritanian Mauritanians Mauritius Mauritian Mauritians Mayotte Mahoran Mahorais Mexico Mexican Mexicans Micronesia, Federated States of Micronesian Micronesians Moldova Moldovan Moldovans Monaco Monégasque, Monacan Monégasques, Monacans Mongolia Mongolian Mongolians, Mongols Montenegro Montenegrin Montenegrins Montserrat Montserratian Montserratians Morocco Moroccan Moroccans Mozambique Mozambican Mozambicans Namibia Namibian Namibians Nauru Nauruan Nauruans Nepal Nepali Nepalese Netherlands Dutch Dutch New Caledonia New Caledonian New Caledonians New Zealand New Zealand New Zealanders "Kiwis" Nicaragua Nicaraguan Nicaraguans Niue Niuean Niueans Niger Nigerien Nigeriens Nigeria Nigerian Nigerians Norway Norwegian Norwegians Northern Ireland Northern Irish / Irish Irish / Northern Irish Northern Marianas Northern Marianan Northern Marianans Oman Omani Omanis Pakistan Pakistani Pakistanis Palestinian territories Palestinian Palestinians Palau Palauan Palauans Panama Panamanian Panamanians Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinean, Papuan Papua New Guineans, Papuans Paraguay Paraguayan Paraguayans Peru Peruvian Peruvians Philippines Philippine, Filipino Filipinos, Filipinas Pinoys Pitcairn Island Pitcairn Island Pitcairn Islanders Poland Polish Poles Portugal Portuguese Portuguese Puerto Rico Puerto Rican Puerto Ricans, Boricuas Qatar Qatari Qataris Republic of Ireland Irish / Southern Irish g Irish / Southern Irish g Réunion Réunionese, Réunionnais Réunionese, Réunionnais Romania Romanian Romanians Russia Russian Russians Rwanda Rwandan Rwandans St. Helena St. Helenian St. Helenians St. Kitts and Nevis Kittitian, Nevisian Kittitians, Nevisians St. Lucia St. Lucian St. Lucians Saint-Pierre and Miquelon Saint-Pierrais, Miquelonnais Saint-Pierrais, Miquelonnais St. Vincent and the Grenadines St. Vincentian, Vincentian St. Vincentians, Vincentians Samoa Samoan Samoans San Marino Sammarinese Sammarinese São Tomé and Príncipe São Toméan São Toméans Saudi Arabia Saudi, Saudi Arabian Saudis, Saudi Arabians Scotland Scots, Scottish, Scotchh Scots Senegal Senegalese Senegalese Serbia Serbian Serbians, Serbs Seychelles Seychellois Seychellois Sierra Leone Sierra Leonean Sierra Leoneans Singapore Singapore Singaporeans Slovakia Slovak Slovaks Slovenia Slovene, Slovenian Slovenians, Slovenes Solomon Islands Solomon Island Solomon Islanders Somalia Somali; Somalian Somalis; Somalians South Africa South African South Africans South Ossetia South Ossetian South Ossetians South Sudan South Sudanese South Sudanese Spain Spanish Spaniards Sri Lanka Sri Lankan Sri Lankans Sudan Sudanese Sudanese Surinam Surinamese Surinamers Swaziland Swazi Swazis Sweden Swedish Swedes Switzerland Swiss Swiss Syria Syrian Syrians Taiwan Taiwanese Taiwanese Tajikistan Tajikistani Tajikistanis, Tajiks Tanzania Tanzanian Tanzanians Thailand Thai Thai Togo Togolese Togolese Tonga Tongan Tongans Trinidad and Tobago Trinidadian, Tobagonian Trinidadians, Tobagonians "Trinis", "Trinibagonians" Tunisia Tunisian Tunisians Turkey Turkish Turks Turkmenistan Turkmen Turkmens Turks and Caicos Islands none Turks and Caicos Islanders Tuvalu Tuvaluan Tuvaluans Uganda Ugandan Ugandans Ukraine Ukrainian Ukrainians United Arab Emirates Emirati, Emirian Emiratis, Emirians United Kingdom British Britons see Other words for "British" United States Americani, U.S. Americansj Uruguay Uruguayan Uruguayans Uzbekistan Uzbekistani, Uzbek Uzbekistanis, Uzbeks Vanuatu Ni-Vanuatu, Vanuatuan Ni-Vanuatu Venezuela Venezuelan Venezuelans Vietnam Vietnamese Vietnamese Virgin Islands Virgin Island Virgin Islanders Wales Welsh Welsh Wallis and Futuna Wallisian, Futunan Wallisians, Futunans Western Sahara Sahraw, Sahrawian, Sahraouian Sahrawis, Sahraouis Yemen Yemeni Yemenis Zambia Zambian Zambians Zimbabwe Zimbabwean Zimbabweans
a Formerly known as Upper Volta.
b Also known as Myanmar.
c Sometimes considered offensive.
d The penultimate syllable is stressed.
e The second syllable is stressed.
f Rare and/or archaic.
g There is no adjective or demonym that distinguishes the Republic of Ireland from the entire island of Ireland. When distinction from Northern Ireland is necessary, the colloquial Southern Irish or Southerner is sometimes used; some people in the Republic of Ireland may find this offensive, though others in Northern Ireland may find it equally offensive in not distinguishing the Republic of Ireland from the island. As an alternative, an adjectival phrase may be used – for instance, "a law of the Republic of Ireland" – or, as a last resort, the name "Republic of Ireland" may be used as if it were an adjective (as in "a Republic of Ireland law").
h Scotch is only normally used for manufactured products of Scotland, most commonly food and drink - in most other contexts it is archaic and often considered mildly derogatory. Scottish is used for everything else.
i In near-universal use, though many adjectives for U.S. citizens have been proposed.
j In near-universal use, though many alternative words for American have been proposed.
- List of adjectival and demonymic forms of place names
- Lists of people by nationality
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