List of sovereign states by date of formation
Below is a list of sovereign states by formation dates, sorted by continent. This list includes only the 194 sovereign states currently in existence; it does not include former sovereign states. For proposed states or various indigenous nations which consider themselves still under occupation, see list of active autonomist and secessionist movements. Micronations are not included in this list.
Nation-building is a long evolutionary process. It is therefore practically impossible to come up with a single date for a nation's "birth". However, most nations have accepted some dates in their respective histories as their symbolic starting points. This is usually done more for nationalistic propaganda than for scientific reasons. For many ancient and medieval nations these starting points are usually the dates when a nation was mentioned in a written document for the first time or simply a date from their national mythology. In Europe, this often coincides with the ruler's conversion to Christianity. For post-colonial nations, starting with the United States, the beginning of statehood is usually considered to be the date when independence was declared, granted and/or recognised.
Independence dates for widely recognised states, earlier than 1919, should be treated with caution, since prior to the founding of the League of Nations, there was no international body to recognise nationhood, and independence had no meaning beyond mutual recognition of de facto sovereigns (the role of the League of Nations was effectively taken over by the United Nations after the Second World War). See also: disputed territories.
The situation is further complicated by the confusion between two terms commonly used as synonym: nation (generally considered an ethnic or cultural grouping) and state (an independent political entity). Taking this into account a declaration of being the "oldest country" in the world is not fruitful and will inevitably be disputed. The following list contains the formation dates of countries with a short description of those events. For a more detailed description of a country's formation and history please see the main article for each country.
Country Date Birth of current form of government Date Date of acquisition of sovereignty Date Date of most recent significant territorial modification Algeria 1962-07-03 French recognition of Algerian referendum on independence held two days earlier Angola 1975-11-11 Independence from Portugal Benin 1960-08-01 Independence from France 1894-01-15 Borders of French Protectorate of Dahomey set at conclusion of Second Franco-Dahomean War Botswana 1885-03-31 Establishment of the Bechuanaland Protectorate by the United Kingdom 1894 Extended north into Ngamiland 1966-09-30 Independence from the United Kingdom Burkina Faso 1958-12-11 Self-government achieved and republic within Franco-African Community 1947-09-04 Restoration of colonial boundaries used from 1919–1932 1960-08-05 Independence from France Burundi 1966-11-28 Monarchy replaced by republic 1962-07-01 Independence from Belgium Cameroon 1960-01-01 Independence from France 1961-10-01 Merger of part of British Cameroons with Cameroon Cape Verde 1975-07-05 Independence from Portugal Central African Republic 1979 Monarchy replaced by republic 1958-12-01 Central African Republic becomes autonomous territory in French Republic 1960-08-13 Independence from France Chad 1960-08-11 Independence from France 1994-02-03 Aouzou Strip awarded to Chad Comoros 1975-07-06 Independence from France declared Congo, Democratic Republic of the 1884-04-22 Congo Free State recognized as an independent state 1960-06-30 Independence from Belgium Congo, Republic of the 1960-08-15 Independence from France Côte d'Ivoire 1958-12-04 Autonomous republic within French Community 1960-08-07 Independence from France Djibouti 1977-06-27 Independence from France Equatorial Guinea 1968-10-12 Independence from Spain Eritrea 1993-05-24 Independence from Ethiopia declared 2002-04-01 Badme ruled to be Eritrean by the Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission (EEBC after the Eritrean-Ethiopian War). Contested by Ethiopia Ethiopia 1975-03-21 Monarchy abolished and replaced by republic ~800 B.C. Formation of the state of D'mt 2002-04-01 Badme ruled to be Eritrean by the Eritrea-Ethiopia Boundary Commission (EEBC after the Eritrean-Ethiopian War). Contested by Ethiopia Gabon 1960-08-17 Independence from France Gambia 1965-02-18 Independence from the United Kingdom Ghana 1957-03-06 Independence from the United Kingdom 1956-12-13 Union of British Togoland with Gold Coast Guinea 1958-10-02 Independence from France Guinea-Bissau 1973-09-24 Independence from Portugal declared 1974-09-10 Independence from Portugal recognized Kenya 1963-12-12 Independence from the United Kingdom Lesotho 1966-10-04 Independence from the United Kingdom 1868-03-12 Area that is now present-day Lesotho placed under British rule Liberia 1847-07-26 Independence from the United States Libya 1969-09-01 Monarchy replaced by republic 1951-12-24 Independence from UN Trusteeship (British and French administration after Italian governance ends in 1947) 1984-02-13 Aouzou Strip awarded to Chad Madagascar 1958-10-14 The Malagasy Republic was created as autonomous state within French Community 1960-06-26 France recognizes Madagascar's independence Malawi 1964-07-06 Independence from the United Kingdom Mali 1958-11-25 French Sudan gains autonomy 1960-08-20 Senegal secedes from Mali Federation 1960-09-22 Independence from France Mauritania 1960-11-28 Independence from France 1979-08-11 Mauritania withdraws from Tiris al-Gharbiyya (part of Western Sahara) Mauritius 1968-03-12 Independence from the United Kingdom 1965 Separation of Chagos Archipelago Morocco 789 idrisid dynasty 1956-03-02 Independence from France 1969-01-04 Return of Ifni to Morocco 1956-04-07 French protectorate formally relinquished Mozambique 1975-06-25 Independence from Portugal Namibia 1990-03-21 Independence from South African rule 1994-03-01 Walvis Bay integrated into Namibia Niger 1958-12-04 Autonomy within French Community 1960-08-03 Independence from France Nigeria 1960-10-01 Independence from the United Kingdom 1970-01-15 Biafra re-integrated into Nigeria 1961-06-01 Northern Cameroons integrated in Nigeria Rwanda 1962-07-01 Independence from Belgium São Tomé and Príncipe 1975-07-12 Independence from Portugal Senegal 1960-08-20 Independence from France Seychelles 1976-06-29 Independence from the United Kingdom Sierra Leone 1961-04-27 Independence from the United Kingdom Somalia 1960-07-01 Merger of State of Somaliland (formerly British Somaliland) and Italian Somaliland South Africa 1910-05-31 Creation of the Union of South Africa from the previously separate colonies of the Cape, Natal, Transvaal and Orange River 1931-12-11 Statute of Westminster, which establishes a status of legislative equality between the self-governing dominion of the Union of South Africa and the UK 1994-04-27 Reincorporation of the nominally independent bantustans into post-Apartheid South Africa 1961-05-31 Republic declared (South Africa no longer a Commonwealth realm) South Sudan 2011-07-09 Separation of Southern Sudan from Sudan Sudan 1956-01-01 Independence from Egyptian and British joint rule 2011-07-09 South Sudan secedes from Sudan Swaziland 1968-09-06 Independence from the United Kingdom Tanzania 1961-12-09 Independence of Tanganyika from the United Kingdom 1964-04-26 Merger of Zanzibar with Tanganyika to form Tanzania Togo 1958-08-30 Autonomy within French Union 1960-04-27 Independence from France Tunisia 1957-07-25 Declaration of Republic 1956-03-20 Independence from France Uganda 1962-03-01 Self-government granted 1962-10-09 Independence from the United Kingdom Zambia 1964-10-24 Independence from the United Kingdom Zimbabwe 1965-11-11 Unilateral declaration of independence by Southern Rhodesia 1901 BSAC separates North-Eastern Rhodesia from Southern Rhodesia 1980-04-18 Recognized independence from the United Kingdom as Zimbabwe
Country Date Birth of current form of government Date Date of acquisition of sovereignty Date Date of most recent significant territorial modification Antigua and Barbuda 1981-11-01 Independence from the United Kingdom Argentina 1810-05-25 May Revolution installs first local government 1884-10-18 Conquest of the Desert 1816-07-09 Argentine Declaration of Independence Bahamas 1964-01-07 Internal self-governance granted 1973-07-10 Independence from the United Kingdom Barbados 1966-11-30 Independence from the United Kingdom Belize 1981-09-21 Independence from the United Kingdom 1859 Treaty establishes border between British Honduras and Guatemala 1964-01-01 Self governing colony Bolivia 1809-05-25 1825-08-06 Bolivian War of Independence 1903-11-11 Signing of the Treaty of Petrópolis with Brazil whereby Bolivia gained lands in Mato Grosso in exchange for the territory of Acre Brazil 1889-11-15 Proclamation of the Republic 1822-09-07 Independence from Portugal declared 1903-11-11 Signing of the Treaty of Petrópolis with Bolivia whereby Brazil was given the territory of Acre in exchange for lands in Mato Grosso 1825-08-29 Independence recognized by Portugal Canada 1867-07-01 Canadian Confederation 1931-12-11 Statute of Westminster 1949-04-01 Dominion of Newfoundland joins as the province of Newfoundland Chile 1810-09-18 First Government Junta declares Chile an autonomous republic within Spain 1818-02-12 Independence declared from Spain 1929-07-03 Chile awarded Arica district in Treaty of Lima 1844-04-25 Independence recognized by Spain Colombia 1810-07-10 Independence declared from Spain 1903-11-03 Separation of Panama from Colombia 1819-08-07 Independence recognized by Spain Costa Rica 1821-09-15 Costa Rica declared independence from Spain 1824-07-25 Partido de Nicoya 1838-11-15 Independence from Federal Republic of Central America Cuba 1959-01-01 Cuban Revolution 1868-10-10 Independence from Spain declared 1898-12-10 Spain relinquishes all claim of sovereignty over and title to Cuba 1902-05-20 United States military occupation ends Dominica 1967-02-27 Became an associated state of the United Kingdom 1978-11-03 Independence from the United Kingdom Dominican Republic 1865-03-03 Independence regained from Spain following the Dominican Restoration War Ecuador 1809-08-10 1822-05-24 Independence from Spain of Gran Colombia, of which Ecuador is a part 1942-02-26 Rio Protocol ends border dispute with Peru 1830-05-13 Dissolution of Gran Colombia El Salvador 1821-09-15 El Salvador becomes province in first mexican empire , which declared independence from Spain 1823 El Salvador becomes an state of federal republic of central america 1841 Disolution of the federal republic of central america , El slvador becomes independent Grenada 1967-02-27 Associated state of the United Kingdom 1974-02-07 Full independence from the United Kingdom Guatemala 1821-09-15 Guatemala becomes state in Federal Republic of Central America, which declared independence from Spain 1839-04-17 Independence from Federal Republic of Central America declared Guyana 1966-05-26 Independence from the United Kingdom Haiti 1987-03 Constitution 1804-01-01 The French colony Saint-Domingue gains independence as Haiti 1844-02-27 The Dominican Republic gains independence from Haiti Honduras 1821-09-15 Honduras becomes state in Federal Republic of Central America, which declared independence from Spain 1972-09-01 Swan Islands returned to Honduras from United States occupation 1838-10-26 Independence from Federal Republic of Central America Jamaica 1962-08-06 Independence from the United Kingdom Mexico 1917 Constitution 1810-09-16 Independence from Spain declared 1853-12-30 Gadsden Purchase 1821-08-24 Independence recognized by Spain in Treaty of Córdoba Nicaragua 1821-09-15 Nicaragua becomes state in Federal Republic of Central America, which declared independence from Spain 1838-11-05 Independence from Federal Republic of Central America Panama 1903-11-03 Separation of Panama from Colombia 1979-10-1 United States returns Panama the Panama Canal Zone Paraguay 1992-06 Democratic Constitution 1811-05-14 Independence from Spain declared 1938 Paraguay awarded a large portion of the Gran Chaco as a result of the Chaco War Peru 1821-07-28 Independence from Spain declared 1942-02-26 Rio Protocol ends border dispute with Ecuador 1879 Independence from Spain recognized Saint Kitts and Nevis 1967-02-27 Associated state of the United Kingdom 1980-12-19 Anguilla separated from Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla 1983-09-19 Independence from the United Kingdom Saint Lucia 1967-02-27 Associated statehood 1979-02-22 Independence from the United Kingdom Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1969-10-27 Associated statehood 1979-10-27 Independence from the United Kingdom Suriname 1954-12-15 Self government granted 1975-11-25 Independence from Netherlands Trinidad and Tobago 1962-08-31 Independence from the United Kingdom United States 1787-09-17 Ratification of the United States Constitution replaced the previous Articles of Confederation creating a new system of government 1776-07-04 Independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain declared 1981-09-07 The United States cedes Serrana Bank and Roncador Bank to the Republic of Colombia as a result of a treaty signed in 1972 1783-09-03 Independence from the Kingdom of Great Britain recognized Uruguay 1825-08-25 Independence declared, joined in union with United Provinces of the Río de la Plata (current Argentina).(Independence from Brazil declared) 1828-08-27 Treaty of Montevideo signed, recognizing Uruguay's independence Venezuela 1811-07-05 independence from Spain declared 1830-01-13 President José Antonio Páez declares Venezuela independent from Gran Colombia
Country Date Birth of current form of government Date Date of acquisition of sovereignty Date Date of most recent significant territorial modification Afghanistan 1919-08-20 Treaty of Rawalpindi gives Afghanistan control from the United Kingdom over its own affairs Bahrain 1971-08-15 Independence from the United Kingdom 1521-07-01 Portuguese conquest of current territory Bangladesh 1971-03-26 Independence from Pakistan declared Bhutan 1885 Ugyen Wangchuck ends period of civil war and unites Bhutan 1865-11-11 Treaty of Sinchula Brunei 1984-01-01 Brunei regains its independence after an agreement with the British on 4 January 1979 Cambodia 1989-09-26 Becomes free from Vietnamese occupation; it gets back its name instead of the People's Republic of Kampuchea China, People's Republic of 1949-10-01 Establishment of the People's Republic of China (PRC) as the Chinese Civil War nears its end 221 B.C. Nation firstly unified by Qin Dynasty 1999-12-20 Transfer of the sovereignty of Macau from Portugal to the PRC India 1950-01-26 Indian constitution comes into force 320 B.C Foundation of Maurya Empire 320 BC 1975-05-16 Accession of Daman, Diu + Sikkim to India Indonesia 1945-08-18 Ratification of the Constitution of Indonesia by the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence 1945-08-17 Indonesian Declaration of Independence from Netherlands 2002-05-20 Independence of East Timor, formerly administered as a province of Indonesia 1949-12-27 Independence from the Netherlands recognized Iran 1979-02-11 Iranian Revolution ends monarchism and establishes an Islamic Republic 3200 B.C. Proto-Elamite in Early Bronze Age 1988-08-20 Iran-Iraq War ends with Iran liberating all lost territories Iraq 2003-03-20 Iraq defeated and occupied. New gov. formed 1932-10-03 Kingdom of Iraq 1991-02-28 Kuwait was liberated. Israel 1948-05-14 Reading of the Declaration of Independence of Israel before the expiration of the British Mandate of Palestine at midnight 1994-10-26 Signing of the Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace, whereby most of the disputed 400 square-kilometer area in the Arabah was handed back to Jordan Japan 1947-05-03 Coming into force of the current Constitution of Japan, whereby the emperor was deprived of his powers and a liberal democracy was established 660BC Unity of the country by the Imperial family, and the capital was established in Yamato 1972-05-15 Return of the Ryukyu Islands to Japan and abolition of the United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands Jordan 1946-05-25 End of the British Mandate for Palestine 1994-10-26 Signing of the Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace, whereby most of the disputed 400 square-kilometer area in the Arabah was handed back to Jordan Kazakhstan 1991-12-16 Independence declared from the Soviet Union Kuwait 1991-02-28 End of Iraqi occupation (Gulf War) 1969-12-18 Formal division of Saudi-Kuwaiti neutral zone Kyrgyzstan 1991-08-31 Independence from the Soviet Union Laos 1949-07-19 Independence from France Lebanon 1926-05-23 Lebanese Republic formed 1941-11-26 Independence from France declared 1920-09-01 France establishes State of Greater Lebanon with current boundaries 1943-11-22 Independence from France recognized Malaysia 1963-07-31 The Federation of Malaya was changed to Malaysia. 1957-08-31 Malayan Independence from the United Kingdom was declared in Dataran Merdeka (Independence Square) 1965-08-09 Establishment of Singapore as an independent sovereign state 1963-09-16 Malaysia was formed after the self government of Sabah (was North Borneo), Sarawak and Singapore to federate with the existing States of the Federation of Malaya. Maldives 1965-07-26 Independence from the United Kingdom Mongolia 1911-12-29 Proclamation of Mongolian independence from Qing Dynasty China Myanmar 1948-01-04 Myanmar (Burma) declares independence from the British Empire 1956 Signing of border treaty with the People's Republic of China Nepal 2008-05-28 Formation of Republic 1768-12-21 Nepali unification 1815-12-02 Sugauli Treaty ends the Gurkha War North Korea 1948-09-09 Declaration of creation of North Korea 1953-07-27 Cease-fire in the Korean War creates the southern border along the Military Demarcation Line Pakistan 1947-08-14 Independence from British India 1947 A.D. British India Partition 1971-12-16 De facto : Province of East Pakistan dissolved following the surrender of the Pakistani Army at the end of the Bangladesh Liberation War 1974-02-22 De jure : Recognition by Pakistan of Bangladesh as an independent country, whereby Pakistan definitely surrenders claims over the former province of East Pakistan Philippines 1935-11-30 The Commonwealth of the Philippines was established through the provisions of the Tydings-McDuffie Act and the Jones Law. The 1935 constitution remained in effect after independence in 1946. 1898-06-12 The First Philippine Republic declares itself independent from the Spanish Empire. 1930 Seven of the Turtle Islands were returned by the United Kingdom to the United States as the successor of the Sultanate of Sulu, becoming part of the Philippine Archipelago. The remaining three islands became the Turtle Islands National Park (Malaysia). 1946-07-04 The United States recognizes independence on 4 July under the provisions of the Treaty of Manila (1946). The nowrap | 1935 Philippine constitution remains in effect Qatar 1971-09-03 Independence from the United Kingdom Saudi Arabia 1932-09-23 Regions of Al-Hasa, Qatif, Nejd and Hejaz unified to become Saudi Arabia 1927-05-20 Kingdom of Nejd and Hejaz recognized as independent in Treaty of Jeddah 2000-06-12 Border with Yemen finalized by Treaty of Jeddah Singapore 1965-08-07 Singapore cease to be a state of Malaysia 1959-06-03 Self government under the United Kingdom 1966-08-09 Establishment of Singapore as an independent sovereign state 1965-08-09 separate from and independent of Malaysia South Korea 1948-08-15 First Republic of South Korea established 1953-07-27 Cease-fire in the Korean War creates the northern border along the Military Demarcation Line Sri Lanka 1948-02-04 Dominion 1972-05-22 Full independence from the United Kingdom Syria 1961-09-28 End of the United Arab Republic China, Republic of 1911-10-10 After the Xinhai Revolution the Republic of China formally replaced the Qing Dynasty 1949-12-07 Republic of China government moved to Taiwan after the Chinese Civil War 1955-02-25 Withdrawal of the Republic of China from the Dachen Archipelago Tajikistan 1991-09-09 Independence from the Soviet Union Thailand 1776 Expulsion of Burmese and reunification of Thailand 1909-03-10 Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909 Timor-Leste 1975-11-28 East Timor declares its independence but was suppressed by the Indonesian invasion 2002-05-20 Independence was recognized by the international community following the UN-sponsored act of self-determination of 1999 Turkmenistan 1991-10-27 Independence from the Soviet Union United Arab Emirates 1971-12-02 End of treaty relationship with the United Kingdom 1972-02-11 Ras al-Khaimah joins the UAE Uzbekistan 1991-08-31 Independence from the Soviet Union declared Vietnam 1945-09-02 Independence from Japan and France 2879 BC Formation of Van Lang 1976-07-02 Reunification of North Vietnam and South Vietnam Yemen 1990-05-22 Unification of North Yemen and South Yemen 1990-05-22 Unification of North Yemen and South Yemen
Europe & the islands
Country Date Birth of current form of government Date Date of acquisition of sovereignty Date Date of most recent significant territorial modification Albania 1912-11-28 Declaration of independence from Ottoman Empire 1944-11-28 Albanian state re-established after Italian/German occupation Andorra 1813 Reversal of annexation of Andorra by the Napoleonic Empire, through the Peninsular war Armenia 1918-05-28 Establishment of the Republic of Armenia 1990-08-23 Independence from the Soviet Union declared 1936-12-05 Establishment of the Armenian SSR 1991-09-21 Independence recognized by the Soviet Union Austria 1955-05-15 Austrian Independence Treaty re-established Austria as a sovereign state 1921-12-14 City of Sopron moved to Hungary after plebiscite Belarus 1990-07-27 Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic 1945 Curzon Line 1991-08-25 Independence recognized by Soviet Union Azerbaijan 1918-05-28 Establishment of the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic 1991-10-18 Declaration of independence from the Soviet Union 1920-04-28 Establishment of the Azerbaijan SSR Belgium 1831-07-21 King Leopold I of Belgium swears allegiance to the constitution making the country a constitutional monarchy 1830-10-04 Independence was proclaimed by the provisonial government 1919-06-28 Treaty of Versailles and annexation of the East Cantons Bosnia and Herzegovina 1992-03-05 Independence declared 1943-11-25 Establishment of Bosnia in Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Bulgaria 1989-11-10 People's Republic of Bulgaria was replaced by the Republic of Bulgaria 681 The Byzantine Empire recognizes Bulgaria 1940-09-07 Under the Vienna Awards, Southern Dobruja was returned to Bulgaria Croatia 1991-10-8 From SFR Yugoslavia Cyprus 1960-08-16 Independence from United Kingdom Czech Republic 1993-01-01 Dissolution of Czechoslovakia, creating Czech Republic and Slovakia Denmark 1953-06-05 Constitutional Act of Denmark 958, or prior The Jelling stones, a pair of rune stones considered to be the "birth certificate" of Denmark reads: "King Haraldr ordered this monument made ... who won for himself all of Denmark and Norway and made the Danes Christian." 1920-06-15 Sønderjylland was recovered from Germany Estonia 1918-02-24 Estonian Declaration of Independence, whereby a republic was declared 1918-02-24 Independence declared from the Russian Empire 1920-07-01 De jure: Signing of the Estonian-Latvian Border Treaty whereby Valga proper was ceded to Estonia 1991-08-20 Independence (from the Soviet Union) reasserted, end of occupation 1945-01-01 De facto: Eastern coast of Narva river and most of Petseri County were transferred to Russian SFSR Finland 1809 Diet of Porvoo, birth of Finland as an autonomous state entity within Russian Empire 1917-12-06 Independence from Russian Empire declared 1956 Porkkala returned from Soviet control 1918-01-03 Independence from Russia recognized by the highest Soviet executive body - VTsIK France 1870-09-04 Establishment of a lasting republican form of government, considered uninterrupted in French law 486 Kingdom of the Franks becomes the first Christian State after the fall of the Roman Empire 1947-02-10 Metropolitan France:
Annexation of Tende, La Brigue and other villages formerly in Italy
1958-10-05 Establishment of the current semi-presidential system known as the Fifth Republic 843 Creation of the Kingdom of France (West Francia), Treaty of Verdun 1962-07-05 Overseas France:
Loss of the French departments in Algeria following the latter's independence
Georgia 1918-05-26 Establishment of the Democratic Republic of Georgia 1991-04-09 Independence from the Soviet Union declared 1992-07-23 Abkhazia asserted its declared independence from the Soviet Union 1991-11-28 South Ossetia declared independence from Georgia Germany 1871-01-18 German Realm (Empire) founded 1955-05-05 Federal Republic of Germany (commonly referred to at the time as West Germany) declared fully sovereign 1990-10-03 Reunification of West Germany and East Germany Greece 1975-06-11 Third Hellenic Republic 1821-03-25 (traditional)
Greek Revolution starts, various regional administrations established during 1821 1947-02-10 Peace treaty with Italy awards the Dodecanese to Greece 1822-01-01 First Hellenic Republic proclaimed 1832-03-04 Independence recognized (as Kingdom of Greece) Hungary 1989-10-23 People's Republic of Hungary was replaced by the Republic of Hungary 1849-04-14 Independence declared from Habsburg Empire 1947-02-10 With the Paris Peace Treaty, Hungary loses all territories that were regained with the Vienna Awards and during World War II, thus it returns to the 1920 borders (except for three villages in the northwest given to Czechoslovakia). 1991-06-19 End of 46 years long Soviet occupation. Iceland 930 The Icelandic Commonwealth established. 1944-06-17 Secedes from a Union with Denmark formally as an independent republic. 1972-09-01 No territorial changes on land have taken place, however the expansion of the Exclusive Economic Zone was such an important change in territory for Iceland that it merits a special inclusion here. 1946 Departure of last United States occupation troops Ireland 1919-01-21 Elected Irish Parliament Dáil Éireann unilaterally declares Ireland's independence from the United Kingdom 1922-12-06 Irish Free State secedes from United Kingdom by agreement in accordance with the terms of the Anglo-Irish Treaty but remains a dominion of the British Empire 1922-12-08 Northern Ireland secedes from the Irish Free State and rejoins the United Kingdom in accordance with the Irish Free State Constitution Act 1922 1931-12-11 Statute of Westminster confers legislative independence from the United Kingdom 1949-04-18 Republic of Ireland Act 1948 declares the state to be a republic and thus no longer subject in any way to the British Crown Italy 1861-03-17 Italian unification 1945-04-25 Disestablishment of the German-backed Italian Social Republic, whereby the unity and independence of the Italian state was restored 1975-11-10 Signing of the Treaty of Osimo which definitely divides the Free Territory of Trieste between Italy and Yugoslavia Lithuania 1918-02-16 Independence declared from Germany and Russia 1939-10-27 and 1940-08-03 Eastern Vilnius Region ceded to Lithuania 1990-03-11 Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania independence (from the Soviet Union) reasserted, end of occupation Latvia 1918-11-18 Independence declared from Germany and Russia 1944 Abrene district ceded to Russian SFSR (modern Russia) 1990-05-04 Independence (from Soviet Union) reasserted, end of occupation Liechtenstein 1813-10-19 Dissolution of the Confederation of the Rhine 1719-01-23 Purchase of Vaduz Luxembourg 1890-11-23 Separates from union with the Kingdom of the Netherlands, becomes Grand Duchy in its own right 1945 End of German occupation during World War II 1839-04-19 Partition of Luxembourg under the Treaty of London Macedonia 1991-09-08 After a referendum, the Socialist Republic of Macedonia declared independence from Yugoslavia Malta 1964-09-21 Independence from United Kingdom Moldova 1991-08-27 Independence from Soviet Union 1940-08-02 Moldavian SSR formed Monaco 1861 Franco-Monegasque Treaty confirms Monaco's sovereignty (formerly a protectorate of the Kingdom of Sardinia) Montenegro 2006-06-03 Declaration of independence from Serbia and Montenegro Netherlands 1568 Treaty of Münster signed, independence from Spain 1945-05-05 German occupying forces surrender. 1839-04-19 The United Kingdom of the Netherlands divided under the Treaty of London (1839). Norway 872 King Harald I of Norway unifies the Petty kingdoms of Norway. 1814 Dissolution of the union between Norway and Denmark and establishment of the Constitution of Norway 1930-02-27 Jan Mayen was made part of the Kingdom of Norway. 1905-06-07 Dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden 1945-05-08 German occupying forces surrender. Poland 1989-06-04 The first partially free Parliament's vote after 45-years long Soviet domination 966 adoption of Christianity by the first historically documented Polish ruler Mieszko I. 1951-02-15 Polish-Soviet border adjustment treaty 1025 formation of the Kingdom of Poland by Mieszko's son Bolesław I Chrobry. Portugal 1974-04-25 Carnation Revolution ends the authoritarian Estado Novo 1139-07-26 County of Portugal becomes independent from the Kingdom of León after the Battle of Ourique as part of the Reconquista. Recognized by León in 1143 and by the Pope in 1179. 1801-06-06 Spain occupies the present day border town of Olivença since the War of the Oranges. Romania 1989-12-22 Romanian Revolution of 1989 1877-05-21 Independence declared from the Ottoman Empire 1947-02-10 Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina 1878-07-13 Independence recognized internationally by the Treaty of Berlin San Marino 1600 Constitution of San Marino 301-09-03 Traditional founding 1463 Added Fiorentino, Montegiardino, Serravalle, and Faetano 1243 Formation of republican government Serbia 2006-06-08 Republic of Serbia declared legal successor to Serbia and Montenegro, ending the process of the dissolution of Yugoslavia. 1835-02-15 Serbia proclaimed a hereditary constitutional monarchy. International recognition by the Treaty of Berlin[disambiguation needed ]. 2008-02-17 Unilateral declaration of independence of Kosovo from Serbia. UN Court of Justice's opinion on the issue requested by Serbia. Slovakia 1993-01-01 Dissolution of Czechoslovakia, creating Slovakia and Czech Republic Slovenia 1991-06-25 Declaration of independence from Yugoslavia Spain 1978 Constitution of Spain 1478 Unification of the state with the abolition of the Crown of Aragon, after the Spanish Succesion War. 1801-06-06 Spain takes in Olivenza as a result of the War of the Oranges. Sweden 1523-06-06 Gustav Vasa elected King of Sweden and marking a definite secession from the Kalmar Union. 1905-06-07 Dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden 1809-03-29 Loss of Finland to Imperial Russia. Switzerland 1848-11-12 Foundation of the federal state after Sonderbund war 1291 Traditional founding 1815-08-07 Restoration of the Ancien Régime (federalism), reverting the changes imposed by Napoleon Bonaparte. Ukraine 1991-08-24 Independence from Soviet Union declared 1954-02-19 Transfer of Crimea from Russia to Ukraine United Kingdom 1707-05-01 The Acts of Union united the two kingdoms of Scotland and England (including Wales) to create the Kingdom of Great Britain 843 Kingdom of Scotland 1922-12-06
Irish Free State secedes from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland by agreement in accordance with the terms of the Anglo-Irish Treaty and the Irish Free State Constitution Act 1922 927-12-07 Kingdom of England 1171 then
Lordship of Ireland
Kingdom of Ireland
1216 Principality of Wales Vatican City 1274 Birth of current form of government the Papal conclave in 1274 1929-06-07 Ratification of the Lateran Treaty, making the Vatican City a sovereign State 1929-02-11 Signing of the Lateran Treaty
Country Date Birth of current form of government Date Date of acquisition of sovereignty Date Date of most recent significant territorial modification Australia 1901-01-01 Commonwealth of Australia established as a Dominion of the British Empire. 1942-10-09 Statute of Westminster was adopted by Australia 1975-09-16 Papua New Guinea becomes formally independent of Australia 1986-03-03 Australia Act 1986 eliminated the remaining ties between the legislature and judiciary of Australia and their counterparts in the United Kingdom. Fiji 1970-10-10 Independence from United Kingdom Kiribati 1979-07-12 Independence from United Kingdom 1975-10-01 Separation of Gilbert Islands (later Kiribati) and Ellice Islands (later Tuvalu) Marshall Islands 1979-05-01 Constitution and local government established 1986-10-21 Compact of Free Association with the United States Federated States of Micronesia 1979-05-10 Constitution ratified 1986-11-03 Compact of Free Association with the United States 1979-05-10 Yap, Chuuk, Pohnpei, and Kosrae unite to form the Federated States of Micronesia Nauru 1968-01-31 Independence from UN Trusteeship New Zealand 1840-02-06 Treaty of Waitangi between the British Crown and the indigenous Māori tribes cedes kawanatanga of New Zealand to Queen Victoria. De facto:
Formation of first responsible ministry in 1856. 1840-02-06 Treaty of Waitangi effectively unites the New Zealand archipelago as a single territory.The Kermadec Islands were incorporated in 1887. De jure:
New Zealand Constitution Amendment Act 1947 receives royal assent. Palau 1981-01-01 Republic of Palau created upon adoption of constitution 1994-10-01 Emerged from United Nations trusteeship (administered by the United States). Papua New Guinea 1973-12-01 Self governing colony 1975-09-16 Independence from Australia Samoa 1962-06-01 Independence from New Zealand Solomon Islands 1976-01-02 Self government granted by United Kingdom 1978-07-07 Independence from United Kingdom Tonga 1970-07-04 Independence from United Kingdom 1845-12-04 Unification of what is now the islands of Tonga by George Tupou I of Tonga Tuvalu 1975-10-01 Separation of Gilbert Islands (later Kiribati) and Ellice Islands (later Tuvalu) 1978-10-01 Independence from United Kingdom 1979-02-07 Treaty with United States recognizing Tuvaluan control over Funafuti, Nukufetau, Nukulaelae, and Niulakita atolls Vanuatu 1980-07-30 Independence from joint British-French condominium
Country Date Birth of current form of government Date Date of acquisition of sovereignty Date Date of most recent significant territorial modification Egypt 1952-07-23 Egyptian Revolution of 1952 1922-02-28 Unilateral recognition of independence by the United Kingdom but continued British military occupation 1982-04-25 Withdrawal of last Israeli troops and settlers from Sinai as agreed upon in the peace treaty with Israel 1953-06-18 Republic proclaimed 1956-06-18 Withdrawal of last British troops from the Suez Canal Zone 1961-09-28 De facto disestablishment of the United Arab Republic following a military coup in Damascus Russia 1990-06-12 Russian SFSR declares sovereignty over its own territory 1480 Grand Duchy of Muscovy secures its independence from the Golden Horde 1954-02-19 Transfer of Crimea from Russia to Ukraine Turkey 1923-10-29 Turkey was declared as a republic. 1923-06-24 Treaty of Lausanne recognizes the new Turkish state as the successor state of the Ottoman Empire 1939-06-29 Syrian province of Iskanderun transferred by French Mandatory Government to Turkey. Annexed by Turkey as Hatay State
In this list, "date of last subordination" refers to the last date of control by an external government. In some cases this is the same as the date of independence marking decolonization or dissolution of a political union. In other cases, a sovereign state submitted to foreign military occupation or political subjugation for a period of time and later regained its independence.
Dates refer to de facto rule or occupation, including partial occupation during conflicts, whether or not legitimized by international recognition.
In a union such as Czechoslovakia, the Soviet Union, or the Kalmar Union, one of the constituents can be considered the dominant power - generally where the seat of government was located. The United Kingdom is a particularly complicated case. If England is viewed as the dominant member, then history can be traced from Roman conquest, Saxon invasions, 10th century unification, and 1066 Norman Conquest before the union of England and Scotland in 1707. However, if viewed from a Scottish perspective, an unbroken history of sovereignty can be traced from 843 unification through 1707 union with England (with a brief annexation by England 1657-1660). Some Scots view the 1707 union as a ceding of sovereignty to England. (See discussion archive.)
Country First acquisition of sovereignty Date of last subordination Previous governing power Notes Afghanistan August 19, 1919 1989 Soviet Union Occupied in 2001 by US-led forces, but these were in support of the UN-recognized Islamic State of Afghanistan (the Northern Alliance); Hamid Karzai was chosen at the 2001 International Conference on Afghanistan to lead the Afghan Interim Authority, and subsequently elected President in 2004.
Previously occupied by India, Persia, Bokhara, Russia and UK, until 1919 Treaty of Rawalpindi
Albania 1912 November 1944 Germany Unified 1444 under Skanderbeg. Occupied by Ottoman Empire ca 1480-1912, by Italy 1939-43, and by Germany 1943-44. Algeria July 3, 1962 July 3, 1962 France Andorra September 7, 1278 November 1944 France Acte de paréage 1278; occupied several times by France: 1812-13, 1870, 1914, 1936, 1939 Angola November 11, 1975 November 11, 1975 Portugal Alvor Agreement Antigua and Barbuda November 1, 1981 November 1, 1981 United Kingdom Argentina May 25, 1810 July 9, 1816 Spain Congress of Tucumán Armenia 190BC September 23, 1991 Soviet Union First independent as Kingdom of Armenia 190 BC – 428 AD Australia October 9, 1942 October 9, 1942 United Kingdom Dominion status 1902, Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1942. Austria November 12, 1918 May 15, 1955 World War II Allies Austrian State Treaty. Previously occupied by Germany. Azerbaijan August 30, 1991 August 30, 1991 Soviet Union Bahamas July 10, 1973 July 10, 1973 United Kingdom Bahrain December 16, 1971 December 16, 1971 United Kingdom Previously ruled by Portugal, by Iran, and by Oman. Bangladesh March 26, 1971 December 16, 1971 Pakistan Barbados November 30, 1966 November 30, 1966 United Kingdom Belarus July 27, 1990 August 25, 1991 Soviet Union Belgium October 4, 1830 1945 Germany Part of Netherlands before 1830 Belize September 21, 1981 September 21, 1981 United Kingdom Benin August 1, 1960 August 1, 1960 France Bhutan 1634 1634 (none) -none- Autonomous since at least the 10th century. Unified 1634, after the Battle of Five Lamas. Bolivia August 6, 1825 August 6, 1825 Spain 1836-39 as dominant partner in Peru–Bolivian Confederation, governed from Tacna, Peru. Bosnia and Herzegovina 1166 March 1, 1992 Yugoslavia Botswana September 30, 1966 September 30, 1966 United Kingdom Brazil September 7, 1822 September 7, 1822 Portugal Brunei January 1, 1984 January 1, 1984 United Kingdom Previously occupied by Japan Bulgaria 681 1944 Soviet Union Previously occupied by Byzantine Empire (1018–1185) and Ottoman Empire (1393-1878) Burkina Faso August 5, 1960 August 5, 1960 France Burundi July 1, 1962 July 1, 1962 Belgium Cambodia 802 September 26, 1989 Vietnam Khmer Empire founded 802 according to Sdok Kok Thom Inscription Cameroon January 1, 1960 1961 United Kingdom Northern part gained independence from France in 1960 Canada December 11, 1931 December 11, 1931 United Kingdom Dominion status 1867, Statute of Westminster 1931. Cape Verde July 5, 1975 July 5, 1975 Portugal Central African Republic August 13, 1960 1960 France Chad August 11, 1960 1960 France Chile September 18, 1810 February 12, 1818 Spain China, People's Republic of 221BC 1368 Mongol Empire Unified 221 BC under Qin Dynasty. Part of the Mongol Empire under the Yuan Dynasty from 1279 Battle of Yamen until 1368. Partial occupation by Japan, 1937-1945. Colombia July 20, 1810 August 7, 1819 Spain Battle of Boyacá 1819 Comoros July 6, 1975 1975 France Congo, Democratic Republic of the 1885 June 30, 1960 Belgium 1885 Berlin Conference established Congo Free State as sovereign entity (private domain of King Leopold of Belgium); annexed to Belgium 1908-1960. Congo, Republic of the August 15, 1960 1960 France Costa Rica September 15, 1821 1838 Federal Republic of Central America Previously part of Mexico 1822-23 and a colony of Spain before 1821. Côte d'Ivoire August 7, 1960 1960 France Croatia May 21, 879 October 8, 1991 Yugoslavia Croats came to Roman Dalmatia as free people from White Croatia in the early 7th century. Cuba May 20, 1902 May 20, 1902 United States A colony of Spain until 1898, then occupied but not annexed by USA 1899-1902. Cyprus August 16, 1960 1960 United Kingdom Czech Republic 935 1968 Soviet Union Unified under Boleslaus I who acceded to the throne in 935. Successor to Czechoslovakia, previously occupied by Germany and the USSR. Denmark 980 1945 Germany Unified ca 980 by Harald Bluetooth. Djibouti June 27, 1977 1977 France Dominica November 3, 1978 1978 United Kingdom Dominican Republic 1821 1924 United States Previously occupied by Spain, France, and Haiti Ecuador May 24, 1822 May 13, 1830 Gran Colombia Previously a colony of Spain Egypt 3100BC February 28, 1922 United Kingdom Unified in 3100 BC by Pharaoh Menes or probably Narmer, founder of the First Dynasty. Conquered at various times by Achaemenid, Macedonian, Roman, Arab/Islamic, Ottoman, and Napoleonic Empires. El Salvador September 15, 1821 November 21, 1898 Greater Republic of Central America Previously a part of the Federal Republic of Central America 1823-38, Mexico 1822-23, and a colony of Spain before 1821. Equatorial Guinea October 12, 1968 1968 Spain Eritrea May 24, 1993 May 24, 1993 Ethiopia Estonia February 24, 1918 August 20, 1991 Soviet Union Previously occupied by Denmark, Sweden, Poland, Russia, and Germany. Ethiopia 50 December 1944 United Kingdom Aksumite Empire founded ca 50. Occupied 1936-1941 by Italy, then administered by UK until 1944 Anglo-Ethiopian Agreement. Fiji October 10, 1970 1970 United Kingdom Finland December 6, 1917 1918 Russian Empire France 843 1945 Germany 843 Treaty of Verdun established West Francia. Gabon August 17, 1960 August 17, 1960 France Gambia February 18, 1965 February 18, 1965 United Kingdom Georgia 1008 April 8, 1991 Soviet Union Germany January 18, 1871 May 5, 1955 World War II Allies Unified in 1871. Occupied 1945-1955 until ratification of Bonn–Paris conventions. Ghana March 6, 1957 March 6, 1957 United Kingdom Greece 1822 1944 Germany Previously occupied jointly by Italy, Germany and Bulgaria; before 1821 by Ottoman Empire. Grenada February 7, 1974 February 7, 1974 United Kingdom Guatemala September 15, 1821 1838 Federal Republic of Central America Previously part of Mexico 1822-23 and a colony of Spain before 1821. Guinea October 2, 1958 October 2, 1958 France Guinea-Bissau September 24, 1973 September 10, 1974 Portugal Guyana May 26, 1966 May 26, 1966 United Kingdom Previously colonized by Dutch Haiti January 1, 1804 1934 United States Previously a colony of France. Honduras September 15, 1821 1925 United States Occupied several times by USA. Previously a part of the Greater Republic of Central America 1896-98, the Federal Republic of Central America 1823-38, Mexico 1822-23 and a colony of Spain before 1821. Hungary 895 1956 Soviet Union Principality of Hungary founded 895. Ruled by Austria-Hungary before 1918. Iceland 930 1946 United States Settled c. 900. Ruled by Danish monarchs from 1380 to 1944, though a Norwegian possession from 1262 to 1814. Regained sovereignty in 1918 as Kingdom of Iceland, current republic founded 1944. Previously occupied by the United Kingdom 1940-41, and the United States from 1941 until withdrawal in 1946. India August 15, 1947 January 26, 1950 United Kingdom First Indian Empire by Chandragupta Maurya founder of Maurya Empire, then Gupta Empire 320 A.D, then Mughal Empire in 1527, then British Raj since 1857 until Independence. Indonesia August 17, 1945 1949 Netherlands Previously occupied by Portugal, Spain, France, British Empire, and Japan. Iran 3200BC 1501 Timurid Empire Turkmen states Proto-Elamite in Early Bronze Age (3200 B.C.). First formation of a civilized state by Cyrus the Great in Persian Empire (559 BC), then the second Persian Empire by Sassanid Dynasty. Reunification by Safavid Dynasty (1501). Iraq 1932 June 28, 2004 United States Occupied by USA 2003-2004 Ireland January 21, 1919 December 11, 1931 United Kingdom Independence declared 1919, Dominion status 1922, Statute of Westminster 1931, declared a republic 1948. Israel May 14, 1948 1948 United Kingdom Italy March 17, 1861 1945 World War II Allies Unified in 1861. Jamaica August 6, 1962 August 6, 1962 United Kingdom Previously a Spanish colony Japan 400 April 28, 1952 World War II Allies Founded 660 BC by Emperor Jimmu according to legend. Unified state emerged during the Kofun period c. 400 AD. 1952 Treaty of San Francisco ended postwar occupation. Jordan May 25, 1946 August 2, 1958 Arab Federation Part of Arab Federation Feb-Aug 1958 governed from Baghdad, Iraq. Previously ruled by Persian, Roman, Islamic, and Ottoman Empires; UK, etc. Kazakhstan December 16, 1991 December 16, 1991 Soviet Union Kenya December 12, 1963 December 12, 1963 United Kingdom Kiribati July 12, 1979 July 12, 1979 United Kingdom Kuwait June 19, 1961 February 1991 Iraq Previously ruled by Ottoman Empire and UK. Kyrgyzstan August 31, 1991 August 31, 1991 Soviet Union Laos 1354 November 9, 1953 France Occupied by Japan during World War II Latvia November 18, 1918 May 4, 1990 Soviet Union Previously ruled by Lithuania, Sweden, and Russia Lebanon November 8, 1943 December 31, 1946 France Previously ruled by Ottoman Empire Lesotho 1822 October 4, 1966 United Kingdom Liberia July 26, 1847 July 26, 1847 American Colonization Society Settled but not claimed by USA Libya December 24, 1951 December 24, 1951 United Kingdom and France Previously occupied by Italy and by Ottoman Empire Liechtenstein 1806 1866 German Confederation Previously subject to the Confederation of the Rhine. Formed 1719 from Vaduz and Schellenberg, but under the Holy Roman Empire. Lithuania 1253 March 11, 1990 Soviet Union Kingdom of Lithuania; Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania Luxembourg 1815 1945 Germany Independent from France 1815 but in personal union with Netherlands until 1890 Macedonia September 8, 1991 September 8, 1991 Yugoslavia Madagascar 1787 June 26, 1960 France Malawi July 6, 1964 July 6, 1964 United Kingdom Malaysia August 31, 1957 August 31, 1957 United Kingdom The Federation of Malaya gained independence in 1957; in 1963 it added territories of Sabah and Sarawak and changed its name to Malaysia. Maldives 1140 July 26, 1965 United Kingdom Unified according to legend by King Koimala (1117-1141). Independent sultanate until 1887, when it became a British protectorate. Mali 1230 September 22, 1960 Mali Federation Mali Empire ca. 1230. A colony of France 1890-1960, then part of Mali Federation governed from Dakar, Senegal. Malta September 21, 1964 September 21, 1964 United Kingdom Marshall Islands October 21, 1986 October 21, 1986 United States Compact of Free Association Mauritania November 28, 1960 November 28, 1960 France Mauritius March 12, 1968 March 12, 1968 United Kingdom Previously controlled by the Netherlands and France. Mexico September 16, 1810 1863 France Parts of northern Mexico continued under control of Benito Juárez. Previously a colony of Spain Micronesia, Federated States of November 3, 1986 November 3, 1986 United States Compact of Free Association Moldova August 27, 1991 August 27, 1991 Soviet Union Monaco 1297 1945 Germany Previously occupied by Italy and France. Subject to Sardinia 1815-1861. Mongolia 1206 March 13, 1921 China Mongol Empire formed 1206; occupied by China during Qing Dynasty (1635–1911) and Republic of China (1919–1921) Montenegro 1042 May 21, 2006 Serbia and Montenegro Duklja gained its independence from the Byzantine Empire in 1042. Independent from Ottoman Empire in 1878, union with Serbia/Yugoslavia 1918-2006. Occupied by Austria-Hungary, Italy, and Germany. Morocco 110BC 1956 France Kingdom of Mauretania 110 BC–40 AD. Later occupations by Roman Empire, Umayyad Caliphate, Spain and France. Mozambique June 25, 1975 June 25, 1975 Portugal Portuguese colony from 1498 Myanmar 849 January 4, 1948 United Kingdom Pagan Kingdom founded 849. Occupied by Japan 1942-1945 Namibia March 21, 1990 March 21, 1990 South Africa Nauru January 31, 1968 January 31, 1968 Australia/New Zealand/United Kingdom Previously occupied by Germany 1888, Australia 1914, Japan 1942 Nepal 1768 1768 (none) -none- Autonomous throughout its recorded history, and certainly since its 1768 unification. Netherlands July 26, 1581 1945 Germany Independent from Spain in 1581; occupied by France under Napoleon. New Zealand November 25, 1947 November 25, 1947 United Kingdom Dominion status 1907, Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1947. Nicaragua September 15, 1821 1933 United States Previously a part of the Greater Republic of Central America 1896-98, the Federal Republic of Central America 1823-38, Mexico 1822-23, and a colony of Spain before 1821. Niger August 3, 1960 August 3, 1960 France Nigeria October 1, 1960 October 1, 1960 United Kingdom North Korea 2333BC September 9, 1948 Soviet Union Gojoseon established in 24th century BC according to legend.. Modern state established 1948 after Soviet occupation since 1945. Previously occupied by Japan (1910–1945). Norway 872 May 1945 Germany Unified ca 872 at Battle of Hafrsfjord. For a long time in unions with Denmark and with Sweden (until 1905). Occupied by Germany 1940-45. Oman 751 1743 Persia Previously occupied by Great Seljuq Empire, Ottoman Empire, Portugal (1508–1650), etc. Pakistan August 14, 1947 March 23, 1956 United Kingdom Previously a colony of the British Empire. Palau October 1, 1994 October 1, 1994 United States Previously ruled by Spain, Germany, Japan. Panama November 3, 1903 1990 United States A colony of Spain until 1821, then a dependency of Colombia until 1903. Occupied by USA 1989-90. Papua New Guinea September 16, 1975 September 16, 1975 Australia Paraguay May 14, 1811 1876 Brazil Occupied 1870-1876 by Brazil, in Triple Alliance with Argentina and Uruguay. Colony of Spain before 1811. Peru July 28, 1821 August 25, 1839 Peru–Bolivian Confederation Independent from Spain 1821; part of Peru–Bolivian Confederation 1836-39. Philippines June 12, 1898 July 4, 1946 United States Spanish colony 1565–1898; declared independence from Spain in 1898; sovereignty passed from Spain to the U.S. in 1898; waged an unsuccessful war of independence against the U.S. 1899–1902; accepted U.S. sovereignty April 19, 1901; occupied by Japan 1942–1944. Poland 960 1945 Soviet Union Unified ca 960 by Mieszko I. Partitioned several times between Germany and the USSR. Portugal July 25, 1139 1808 France Convention of Sintra ended French occupation of Lisbon. Independent from Kingdom of León in 1139. Qatar September 3, 1971 September 3, 1971 United Kingdom Romania July 13, 1878 August 1958 Soviet Union Occupied by the USSR 1944-1958. Russia 860 1480 Golden Horde Rurik Dynasty founded ca 860. Great stand on the Ugra river in 1480 marked end of Mongol/Tatar rule. Rwanda July 1, 1962 July 1, 1962 Belgium Saint Kitts and Nevis September 19, 1983 September 19, 1983 United Kingdom Saint Lucia February 22, 1979 February 22, 1979 United Kingdom Saint Vincent and the Grenadines October 27, 1979 October 27, 1979 United Kingdom Samoa January 1, 1962 January 1, 1962 New Zealand German colony 1900 to 1914; occupied by New Zealand 1914; Trust Territory first of the League of Nations, then of the United Nations and administered by New Zealand, 1920 to 1962. San Marino 301 1945 World War II Allies Previously occupied by Roman Empire, and briefly by Rimini (1503), and Papal States (1739). São Tomé and Príncipe 1975 Portugal Saudi Arabia 1744 January 1919 Ottoman Empire First Saudi State independent 1744-1818; last Ottoman troops evicted from Medina by Kingdom of Hejaz 1919; Hejaz incorporated 1926 into Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd, precursor to Saudi Arabia Senegal June 20, 1960 June 20, 1960 France Independent first as Mali Federation with capital in Dakar. Previously part of Ghana, Mali and Songhai Empires. Serbia 850 1945 Germany Vlastimir of Serbia established statehood for Serbia in 850; Independent from Ottoman Empire in 1817, formed the core of Yugoslavia 1918-2003 Seychelles June 29, 1976 June 29, 1976 United Kingdom Perhaps sovereign 1790-1794 Sierra Leone 1961 United Kingdom Singapore August 31, 1963 August 9, 1965 Malaysia British colony 1824-1963; occupied by Japan 1942-1945; declared independence, then merged with Malaysia from 1963 until 1965. Slovakia January 1, 1993 January 1, 1993 Czechoslovakia Slovenia June 25, 1991 June 25, 1991 Yugoslavia Solomon Islands July 7, 1978 July 7, 1978 United Kingdom Somalia July 1, 1960 July 1, 1960 United Kingdom and Italy Union of British Somaliland and Trust Territory of Somalia South Africa December 11, 1931 December 11, 1931 United Kingdom Dominion status 1910, Statute of Westminster 1931. South Korea 300BC August 15, 1948 United States Jin state established in 3rd century BC. Modern state established 1948 after US Army Military Government since 1945. Previously occupied by Japan (1910–1945). South Sudan July 9, 2011 July 9, 2011 Sudan Spain 1479 1814 France Union of Kingdom of Castile and Kingdom of Aragon in 1479. Previously occupied by Roman Empire, etc. Sri Lanka 377BC 1972 United Kingdom Unified as Anuradhapura Kingdom 377 BC - 1017. Conquered by Indian kingdoms, Portuguese, Dutch, and British. Sudan 1070BC 1956 United Kingdom and Egypt Kingdom of Kush 1070 BC–350 AD. Later ruled by the Ottoman Empire, Egypt, and then as Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 1899–1956. Suriname 1975 Netherlands Swaziland 1968 United Kingdom Sweden unknown June 6, 1523 Denmark No exact date for consolidation of Sweden. In Kalmar Union 1397–1523. Switzerland 1291 1815 Austria Old Swiss Confederacy formed 1291. Occupied by France 1798, then Austria 1813. 1815 Congress of Vienna restored independence. Syria September 28, 1961 United Arab Republic Tajikistan September 9, 1991 September 9, 1991 Soviet Union Tanzania 1961 United Kingdom Thailand 1238 1768 Burma Independent from Khmer Empire in 1238. Timor-Leste November 28, 1975 May 20, 2002 United Nations Occupied by Indonesia 1975-1999, administered by U.N. 1999-2002. Togo 1960 France Tonga 1845 1970 United Kingdom United 1845 by George Tupou I. British protectorate 1900-1970. Trinidad and Tobago 1962 United Kingdom Tunisia 1956 1956 France Occupations by Rome, Ottoman Empire and France Turkey 1037 1243 Mongol Empire Seljuq Empire founded 1037; conquered at 1243 Battle of Köse Dağ Turkmenistan October 27, 1991 October 27, 1991 Soviet Union Tuvalu October 1, 1978 October 1, 1978 United Kingdom Uganda 1962 United Kingdom Ukraine January 22, 1918 August 24, 1991 Soviet Union United Arab Emirates 1971 United Kingdom United Kingdom 843 843 (none) Roman Empire Kingdom of Scotland unified 843; Kingdom of England unified 927. Tender of Union 1657-1660, Acts of Union 1707, adding Kingdom of Ireland in 1801 (only Northern Ireland from 1922). Partial occupations by Normans, Vikings, Romans. United States of America July 4, 1776 October 19, 1781 United Kingdom Independence declared 1776; British surrender 1781; U.S. recognized by Treaty of Paris 1783. Uruguay 1815 August 27, 1828 Brazil Independent 1815-1820 as Liga Federal; occupied 1820 by Portugal/Brazil until 1828 Treaty of Montevideo Uzbekistan September 1, 1991 September 1, 1991 Soviet Union Vanuatu July 30, 1980 July 30, 1980 United Kingdom and France Vatican City 756 February 11, 1929 Italy Independent as Papal States 756-1870; part of Italy until 1929 Lateran Treaty Venezuela July 5, 1811 January 13, 1830 Gran Colombia Previously a colony of Spain Vietnam 2879BC 1954 France Văn Lang confederacy arose 2879 BC according to legend. Later invaded and attacked by China, Mongolia, Thailand and Japan. Geneva Conference (1954) ended French occupation. While not an occupation, the USA gave military support to the South Vietnam government until the 1973 Paris Peace Accords. Yemen November 1, 1918 November 30, 1967 United Kingdom North Yemen independent from Ottoman Empire 1918; South Yemen from UK in 1967; unified 1990 Zambia 1964 United Kingdom Zimbabwe November 11, 1965 1980 United Kingdom The British colony of Southern Rhodesia unilaterally declared Independence as Rhodesia 1965; known as Zimbabwe Rhodesia in 1979; unrecognised by any other nation. Country First acquisition of sovereignty Date of last subordination Previous governing power Notes
- Declaration of independence
- List of active autonomist and secessionist movements
- List of countries by Independence Day
- List of European sovereign states by date of achieving sovereignty
- List of former European colonies
- List of former national capitals
- List of sovereign states
- Timeline of country and capital changes
- List of national constitutions
- ^ Treaty of Peace Between the United States and Spain; December 10, 1898 The Avalon project.
- ^ Country Profile: Cuba, September 2006, U.S. Library of Congress – Federal Research Division.
- ^ Ranbir Vohra (2001). The Making of India: A Historical Survey (2 ed.). M.E. Sharpe. p. 192. ISBN 9780765607126. http://books.google.com/?id=kRIPIwEHXBYC. .
- ^ Op. cit. Vohra & nowrap 2001, p. 24.
- ^ a b c d Malaysia Act 1963
- ^ United Nations Member States
- ^ a b Federation of Malaya Independence Act 1957
- ^ a b c d Agreement relating to the separation of Singapore from Malaysia as an independent and sovereign state
- ^ a b Agreement relating to the separation of Singapore from Malaysia as an independent and sovereign state/proclamation of singapore
- ^ a b c Singapore Act 1966
- ^ a b Agreement relating to Malaysia between United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Federation of Malaya, North Borneo, Sarawak and Singapore
- ^ 1935 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines, CorpusJuris.com
- ^ CIA Factbook
- ^ COUNTRY PROFILE: PHILIPPINES. U.S. Library of Congress – Federal Research Division. March 2006. http://memory.loc.gov/frd/cs/profiles/Philippines.pdf. asserts, "The Philippines attained independence from Spain on June 12, 1898, and from the United States on July 4, 1946.", implying that the cession of the Philippines to the U.S. by Spain on December 10, 1898 via the Treaty of Paris was invalid. Other sources (e.g. The CIA Factbook) assert that the philippine islands were ceded to the US by Spain in 1898 following the Spanish-American War.
- ^ Republic of the Philippines, Philippine Government website.
- ^ Convention regarding the boundary between the Philippine Archipelago and the State of North Borneo. United Nations Treaty Collection. January 2, 1930 and July 6, 1932. http://untreaty.un.org/unts/60001_120000/17/33/00033631.pdf.
- ^ Bautista, Lowell B. (3 September 2009). "The Historical Context and Legal Basis of the Philippine Treaty Limits". Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law 1: 21. doi:10.1007/s12180-009-0003-5. ISSN (Print) 1864-9629 (Online) 1864-9610 (Print) 1864-9629 (Online). http://www.hawaii.edu/aplpj/articles/APLPJ_10.1_bautista.pdf. "The Boundaries Treaty of 1930 clarifies those islands in the region belonging to U.S. and those to the State of North Borneo and delimits the boundary between the Philippine Archipelago (under U.S. sovereignty) and the State of North Borneo (under British protection). [...] When the Boundaries Treaty of 1930 was finalized, an exchange of notes supplemented the Treaty. Pursuant to the notes, sovereignty over these islands was transferred to the U.S., and it was agreed that Great Britain should continue to administer these islands until the U.S. gave notice to the contrary." 
- ^ The government of the Republic of China, which currently administers Taiwan, was the generally recognized sovereign power over Mainland China beginning in 1 January 1912 (also the first year of the Taiwanese calendar "民國"). Sovereign control of Taiwan by this government began on 25 October 1945 (Retrocession Day).
- ^ The PRC acquired de facto control in Mainland China on 1 October 1949. The Republic of China continued to be generally recognized as the legitimate government of China until 25 October 1971, when the PRC was admitted to the United Nations. Currently, due to the PRC's One-China policy, only 25 states recognize the Republic of China, although many more retain unofficial relations.
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- ^ Rose, Leo E.; Margaret W. Fisher (1970). The Politics of Nepal. Ithaca: Cornell University Press. p. xi. ISBN 0-8014-0574-2. "Nepal is of special interest, partly because it is an Asian country that was never reduced to colonial status."
- ^ "New Zealand Parliament - New Zealand sovereignty: 1857, 1907, 1947, or 1987?". New Zealand Parliament Research Papers. http://www.parliament.nz/en-NZ/PubRes/Research/Papers/9/1/8/00PLLawRP07041-New-Zealand-sovereignty-1857-1907-1947-or-1987.htm. Retrieved April 19, 2009.
- ^ Donald N. Clark (2000). Culture and customs of Korea. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. xvii. ISBN 978-0-313-30456-9. http://books.google.com/books?id=1VL_4bOmv4oC.
- ^ "Paraguay". Britannica.com. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/442637/Paraguay/27953/War-of-the-Triple-Alliance. Retrieved 2009-06-26.
- ^ COUNTRY PROFILE: PHILIPPINES. U.S. Library of Congress – Federal Research Division. March 2006. http://memory.loc.gov/frd/cs/profiles/Philippines.pdf. asserts, "The Philippines attained independence from Spain on June 12, 1898, and from the United States on July 4, 1946.", implying that the cession of the Philippines to the U.S. by Spain on December 10, 1898 via the Treaty of Paris was invalid. Other sources (e.g. The CIA Factbook) assert that the philippine islands were ceded to the US by Spain in 1898 following the Spanish-American War.
- ^ Independence recognized via the Treaty of Manila (1946).
- ^ Leitch Lepoer, Barbara (1989). "Singapore as Part of Malaysia". Library of Congress Country Studies. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?frd/cstdy:@field(DOCID+sg0033). Retrieved 29 January 2011.
- ^ Hadenius, S; Nilsson, T and Åselius, G. (1996). Sveriges historia: vad varje svensk bör veta (Swedish history: what every Swede Should Know), p. 13: "Hur och när det svenska riket uppstod vet vi inte. Först under 1100-talet börjar skriftliga dokument produceras i Sverige i någon större omfattning […]" "How and when the Swedish kingdom appeared is not known. It is not until the 12th century that written documents begin to be produced in Sweden in any larger extent […]"
- ^ Köprülü, Mehmet Fuat; Gary Leiser (1992). The origins of the Ottoman empire. SUNY Press. p. 33. ISBN 0-7914-0819-1. http://books.google.com/?id=D-WaKed2iNgC. "It can be said that this war had a decisive effect on the fate of the Seljuq Empire. Afterwards Anatolia fell, in effect, under Mongol rule; although the peace which was made — on condition that a heavy annual tax be paid to the Mongols — left a theoretical semi-independence to the Seljuq sultan."
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