Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention
Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour Signed 17 June 1999 Location Geneva Effective 19 November 2000 Condition 2 ratifications Parties 174 Depositary Director-General of the International Labour Office Languages French and English
The Convention concerning the Prohibition and Immediate Action for the Elimination of the Worst Forms of Child Labour, known in short as the Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, was adopted by the International Labour Organization (ILO) in 1999 as ILO Convention No 182. It is one of 8 ILO fundamental conventions.
By ratifying this Convention No. 182, a country commits itself to taking immediate action to prohibit and eliminate the worst forms of child labour. The Convention is enjoying the fastest pace of ratifications in the ILO's history since 1919.
The ILO's International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC) is responsible for assisting countries in this regard as well as monitoring compliance. One of the methods used by IPEC to assist countries in this regard are Time-bound Programmes.
The ILO also adopted the Worst Forms of Child Labour Recommendation No 190 in 1999. This recommendation contains, among others, recommendations on the types of hazards that should be considered for inclusion within a country-based definition of Worst Form Hazards faced by Children at Work.
As of May 2011, the convention had been ratified by 174 out of ILO 183 members. Members that did not ratify the convention are:
Furthermore, the convention has not been ratified for Curaçao, Sint Maarten and the Caribbean Netherlands within the Kingdom of the Netherlands. For the United Kingdom, the convention has been extended to Guernsey, but not for Man, Jersey or any of the dependent territories.
Predefined worst forms of child labour
Convention 182 includes forms of child labour, which are predefined worst forms of child labour. They are also sometimes referred to as automatic worst forms of child labour.
The predefined worst forms of child labour are:
- all forms of slavery or practices similar to slavery, such as
- the sale of a child;
- trafficking of children, meaning the recruitment of children to do work far away from home and from the care of their families, in circumstances within which they are exploited;
- debt bondage or any other form of bonded labour or serfdom;
- forced or compulsory labour, including forced or compulsory recruitment of children for use in armed conflict;
- Commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC), including the use, procuring or offering of a child for:
- use, procuring or offering of a child by others for illegal activities, also known as children used by adults in the commission of crime (CUBAC), including the trafficking or production of drugs.
Worst form hazards: To be defined by each ratifying country
The last category of worst form of child labour is work which by its nature or the circumstances is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children, or Worst Form Hazards faced by Children at Work. Here the Convention recommended that the circumstances should be determined in consultation with organisations of employers and workers within a specific country. The Convention recommends that programmes of action should attend specifically to younger children, the girl child, hidden work situation in which girls are at special risk, and other groups of children with special vulnerabilities or needs. Worst Forms of Child Labour Recommendation No 190 contains recommendations on the types of hazards that should be considered to be included within a country-based definition of worst form hazards.
Country programmes on WFCL
Several programs exist (coordinated by the ILO or other UN organizations) to stimulate adherence to the convention:
- Programmes of the International Labour Organization addressing the worst forms of child labour
The Special Rapporteur on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography plays a role in the coordination of activities
- ^ "Convention No. C182, ratifications". International Labour Organization. 27 May 2011. http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/cgi-lex/ratifce.pl?C182.
- ^ "Conventions and ratifications". International Labour Organization. 27 May 2011. http://www.ilo.org/global/standards/introduction-to-international-labour-standards/conventions-and-recommendations/lang--en/index.htm.
- ^ "Ratifications of the Fundamental human rights Conventions by country". International Labour Organization. 26 May 2011. http://www.ilo.org/ilolex/english/docs/declworld.htm. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
- ^ a b "Detailpagina Verdragenbank; Verdrag betreffende het verbod op en de onmiddellijke actie voor de uitbanning van de ergste vormen van kinderarbeid" (in Dutch). Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Netherlands). http://www.minbuza.nl/nl/Producten_en_Diensten/Overige_diensten/Verdragen/Zoek_in_de_Verdragenbank?isn=009189. Retrieved 27 May 2011.
- all forms of slavery or practices similar to slavery, such as
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