Heavy equipment (construction)


Heavy equipment (construction)
Heavy equipment vehicles of various types parking near a highway construction site
A wheeled bulldozer in an open pit coal mine

Heavy equipment refers to heavy-duty vehicles, specially designed for executing construction tasks, most frequently ones involving earthwork operations. They are also known as, construction equipment, construction plant, earth movers, engineering vehicles, or simply equipment. They usually comprise five equipment systems: implement, traction, structure, power train, control and information.[1] Heavy equipment functions through the mechanical advantage of a simple machine, the ratio between input force applied and force exerted is multiplied.[2] Currently most equipment use hydraulics as a primary source of transferring power.

Contents

History

The use of heavy equipment has a long history; the ancient Roman engineer Vitruvius (1st century BCE) gave descriptions of heavy equipment and cranes in ancient Rome in his treatise De architectura.

The pile driver was invented around 1500. The first tunnelling shield was patented by Isambard Kingdom Brunel in 1818. The advent of mobile steam engines during the 19th century allowed development of new machinery, such as steamrollers. During the 20th century, diesel engines became the major power source of heavy equipment.

"Until almost the twentieth century, one simple tool constituted the primary earthmoving machine: the hand shovel. This tool was the principal method by which material was either sidecast or elevated to load a conveyance, usually a wheelbarrow, or a cart or wagon drawn by a draft animal. In antiquity, an equivalent of the hand shovel or hoe and head basket—and masses of men—were used to move earth to build civil works. Builders have long used the inclined plane, levers, and ignorant to place solid building materials, but these labor-saving devices did not lend themselves to earthmoving, which required digging, raising, moving, and placing loose materials. The two elements required for mechanized earthmoving, then as now, were an independent power source and off-road mobility, neither of which could be provided by the technology of that time." [3]

Types

Images

Implements and Hydromechanical Work Tools

Traction: Off-the-road tires and Tracks

  • see caterpillar tracks

Heavy equipment requires specialized tires for various construction applications. While many types of equipment have continuous tracks applicable to more severe service requirements, tires are used where greater speed or mobility is required. An understanding of what equipment will be used for during the life of the tires is required for proper selection. Tire selection can have a significant impact on production and unit cost. There are three types of off-the-road tires, transport for earthmoving machines, work for slow moving earth moving machines, and load and carry for transporting as well as digging. Off-highway tires have six categories of service C compactor, E earthmover, G grader, L loader, LS log-skidder and ML mining and logging. Within these service categories are various tread types designed for use on hard-packed surface, soft surface and rock. Tires are a large expense on any construction project, careful consideration should be given to prevent excessive wear or damage.

Structure

"This system connects components, transmits loads, provides attachment points for implements, and allows the machine to travel over uneven ground. The machine’s frame, articulation, and steering for wheeled equipment are the major parts of this system."[4]

Powertrain

Control and Information

"The control and information systems. These systems enable the operator to direct and control all the other systems and provide information to guide operations or to monitor the performance and health of the equipment."[5]

Equipment operators

* see Heavy equipment operator

operator training

The International Union of Operating Engineers has equipment schools where apprentice operators are trained.

The Association of Equipment Manufacturers provides effective safety training materials for operators of rough terrain forklifts and operators of industrial and agricultural mowers.

The National Association of Heavy Equipment Training Schools provides American national certification for heavy equipment operator

In the USA haul trucks are typically operated by Teamsters, who they are included on this page as equipment but have a differing apprenticeship and education system.

Currently there is not an international association of heavy equipment schools.

Equipment Cost

[6]

Depreciation can be calculated several ways, the simplest is the straight-line method. The annual depreciation is constant, reducing the equipment value annually. The following are simple equations paraphrased from the Peurifoy & Schexnayder text:

m = some year in the future

N = equipment useful life (years)

and Dn = Annual depreciation amount

Dn = purchase price / N

Book value (BV) in year m

BVm = purchase price - (m x Dn)

example:

N = 5

purchase price = $350,000

m = 3 years from now

BV3 = $350,000 - ( 3 x $350,000/5) = $140,000

Operating cost

For an expense to be classified as an operating cost, it must be incurred through use of the equipment. These costs are as follows[7]:

  • repairs
    • repair parts
    • repair labor
  • tires
  • 3rd party service contract
  • replacement of high-wear items

The biggest distinction from a cost standpoint is if a repair is classified as a major repair or a minor repair. A major repair can change the depreciable equipment value due to an extension in service life, while a minor repair is normal maintenance. Major repairs are charged to the equipment, and minor repairs are charged to the job. It is advantageous for projects to classify all repairs as major, while the equipment department will desire to classify all repairs as "minor" and charge the work to a job.

Models

Die-cast metal promotional scale models of heavy equipment are often produced for each vehicle to give to prospective customers. These are typically in 1:50 scale. The popular manufacturers of these models are Conrad and NZG in Germany, even for US vehicles.

Notable Manufacturers


See also

References

  1. ^ C. B. Tatum et al., J. Constr. Engrg. and Mgmt. 132, 987 (2006)
  2. ^ "Machine." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 22 May 2008, 20:01 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 25 May 2008 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Machine&oldid=214260935>.
  3. ^ William R. Haycraft "History of Construction Equipment" Journal of Construction Engineering and Management / Volume 137 / Issue 10, Accepted 14 February 2011; published online 15 September 2011 http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)CO.1943-7862.0000374
  4. ^ C. B. Tatum et al., J. Constr. Engrg. and Mgmt. 132, 987 (2006)
  5. ^ C. B. Tatum et al., J. Constr. Engrg. and Mgmt. 132, 987 (2006)
  6. ^ Peurifoy & Schexnayder "Construction Planning Equipment, and Methods" McGraw Hill 6th edition ISBN 0-07-232176-8, 2002.
  7. ^ Bartholomew, S.H. “Estimating and Bidding for Heavy Construction” CSU Chico, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, ISBN 0-13-598327-4, 2000
  8. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zoomlion

External links


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