- Consequences of the April 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption
The eruption of the Eyjafjallajökull volcano on 14 April 2010 affected the economic, political and cultural activities in Europe and across the world.
There was extensive air travel disruption caused by the closure of airspace over many countries affecting the travel arrangements of hundreds of thousands of people in Europe and elsewhere. Sporting, entertainment and many other events were cancelled, delayed or disrupted when individuals or teams were unable to travel to their destination.
The state funeral of President of Poland Lech Kaczyński and his wife on 18 April 2010 was affected as some national leaders were unable to attend, including Barack Obama, Stephen Harper, Angela Merkel, and Nicolas Sarkozy.
- 1 Economic impacts
- 2 Impact on Politicians and Royalty
- 3 Military and civil impact
- 4 Cultural impacts
- 5 Effect on the environment
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Air travel and transport throughout the world was cancelled due to the airspace restrictions and the International Air Transport Association (IATA) estimated the airline industry worldwide would lose £130 million ($200 million) a day as a result. IATA stated that the total loss for the airline industry was around US$1.7 billion (£1.1 billion, €1.3 billion). The Airport Operators Association (AOA) estimated that airports lost £80 million over the six-and-a-half days. Over 95,000 flights had been cancelled all across Europe during the six-day travel ban, with later figures suggesting 107,000 flights cancelled during an 8 day period, accounting for 48% of total air traffic and roughly 10 million passengers.
Following Air France-KLM's and British Airways' requests to the European Union, and additionally in the latter's case to the British government, for compensation, Gordon Brown announced that the EU Solidarity fund, designed to aid EU member states in the event of large-scale disasters, could be a possible source of compensation. The EU's competition commissioner, Joaquin Almunia, also said the EU was considering easing its rules on governmental subsidies to airlines. Late in April 2010, EU Transport Commissioner Siim Kallas said that governments would reimburse airlines for losses incurred, however the Irish Minister for Transport Noel Dempsey said that Ireland would not do so due to the financial crisis.
Following the air travel disruption, EU ministers agreed to accelerate the integration of national air traffic control systems into the Single European Sky and also to the immediate creation of a crisis coordination group to handle future transport disruptions.
Several sectors that depend on air freighted imports and exports were badly affected by the flight disruptions. Shortages of imported flowers, fruits and electronic hardware were reported in the immediate days after the disruption. Exports of information technology hardware were also affected as firms were unable to ship their product out.
The pharmaceuticals industry is expecting that it will be hit by spoilage concerns as the stock they manufacture in the UK is time sensitive, and will expire quickly, while not being able to ship to overseas customers. Imports of medications have been affected, and local stocks, as they expire.
There were growing fears about the transportation of food supplies and other essential goods. It was reported that the United Kingdom would soon face shortages of fresh items that are normally shipped in by air.
FedEx, DHL Express and other transport companies were grounded throughout much of Europe; FedEx cancelled more than 100 flights. Instead they had to transport packages to alternate destination (such as Istanbul or Madrid) and then ship by road to final location.
Travel firm TUI Travel reported losses of GB£5-6 million per day during the airspace closure due to travellers being unable to return home.
The carmaker BMW said it was suspending production at three of its plants in Germany, because of interruptions in the supply of parts. As waylaid travellers scrambled for other modes of transport, ferry and railway companies enjoyed an unexpected bonanza, while some car-hire firms were reportedly hiking charges.
In the United Kingdom alone thirteen travel firms collapsed during the summer of 2010. The ash cloud disruption was cited as one of the contributing factors.
Kenya is reported to have destroyed 400 tonnes of flowers it was unable to airship into the UK. As a result, their economy was estimated to be incurring losses of $3.8m each day of the disruption. Thousands of Kenyan farm workers were temporarily laid off as harvesting of flowers and vegetables was stopped by 19 April due to the grounding of flights. The Kenya Flower Council said 3,000 tonnes of flowers were destroyed and the Fresh Produce Exporters Association of Kenya called the situation "disastrous".
Zambia's flower and vegetable industry lost about $150,000 (£98,000) a day. Other African industries, such as Uganda's fish and flower export businesses, were also affected by the lack of air freight.
Nissan declared a suspension in the production of three models in Japan on 21 April 2010 because supply of parts has been disrupted. It halted production of 2,000 vehicles in two plants. Honda also announced a partial halt to production. Factories in China's Guangdong province saw air shipments of clothes and jewellery delayed. In South Korea, Samsung and LG were unable to air-freight more than 20% of their daily electronics exports and the Federation of Hong Kong Industries said hotels and restaurants in Hong Kong were facing shortages of European produce.
The New Zealand fisheries economy was helped by the disruption caused to air transport in Europe. Difficulties in bringing fresh salmon to international markets normally supplied by Norway and other northern European nations have substantially boosted orders for New Zealand salmon. Similarly Holland is unable to supply orchids for the start of the May wedding market in North America. This shortfall has also been a boost to New Zealand exporters.
Impact on Politicians and Royalty
A number of world leaders and politicians had to postpone planned trips or were diverted and delayed due to the closure of airports and airspace:
- Prime Minister of Russia, Vladimir Putin postponed a trip to Murmansk on 15 April
- Norwegian Prime Minister Jens Stoltenberg was in New York City for a conference and was unable to return to Oslo on schedule. Stoltenberg and his entourage flew to Madrid on Friday, and then onto Basel, Switzerland. Unable to get a train from Basel, they travelled the rest of the way by car.
- The President of Portugal, Cavaco Silva had to extend his state visit to the Czech Republic. The President made his way from Prague to Barcelona by car and then took a Falcon of the Portuguese Air Force home to Lisbon. President Silva arrived in Portugal on the evening of 18 April. Angela Merkel, Chancellor of Germany was forced to make a "surprise" visit to Portugal as she returned from the Nuclear Security Summit in Washington DC. She was expected to return to Germany by 10am on Saturday, but has since then flown to Rome and is also expected to return home to Germany by car.[not in citation given]
- The ban on flights in the UK disrupted the UK general election campaign trail on 15 April. Liberal Democrat treasury spokesperson Vince Cable's visit to Dunfermline and West Fife was terminated, as was Labour Defence Secretary Bob Ainsworth's journey to Scotland. Former British Prime Minister, Tony Blair, got stranded in Israel during his scheduled election campaign tour.
- Emir of Qatar Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani postponed an official two day state visit to Germany, originally scheduled for 18–20 April.
- On 18 April, the Pakistan Prime Minister Yousuf Raza Gilani was forced to cancel his visit to France and a summit in Brussels.
- On 20 April, disruption to the Irish Government business occurred when nine Government and six opposition members of Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Parliament of Ireland, were stranded at various destinations around the world. The Government passed one vote by a majority of two TDs that day, narrowly avoiding defeat.
Funeral of Lech Kaczyński and Maria Kaczyńska
The funeral of President of Poland Lech Kaczyński and his wife, who were killed on 10 April 2010 in a plane crash in Smolensk, took place on April 18th. Due to the disruptions in travel, several national leaders cancelled their plans to attend, including Barack Obama, Stephen Harper, Angela Merkel, and Nicolas Sarkozy. Presidential aide Jacek Sasin initially said a postponement until later that day or even the following day was a "very serious alternative", but it was later announced that the funeral would take place as planned. On April 17th, delegations from India, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, New Zealand and Pakistan confirmed they would not attend. President Barack Obama released a statement Saturday afternoon that he would not be able to attend the funeral due to the traffic disruptions. He stated, in a phone call to acting President Bronisław Komorowski, "Michelle and I continue to have the Polish people in our thoughts and prayers..."
Disruption to Royals
The travel plans of members of European royal families from countries such as the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and Spain were canceled — they had intended to travel to Copenhagen to celebrate the 70th birthday of Denmark's Queen Margrethe. The Dutch, Norwegian, and Swedish royal families changed their plans from air to car or rail.
The British Royal Family's travel plans were disrupted, including the cancellation of the Prince of Wales's attendance at the state funeral of the Polish president and first lady, and the Princess Royal's plan to visit Halifax, Nova Scotia for a Canadian Forces celebration, scheduled for 21 April.
Military and civil impact
The Forecasting Economic Support Group of ICAO's Committee on Aviation Environment Protection postponed a planned summit in Bern as North American and Scandinavian members would be unable to attend.
The repatriation of five German Bundeswehr soldiers wounded in action on 15 April 2010 in Afghanistan had to be postponed due to the closing of the German airspace. The MEDEVAC plane carrying them from Termez Airbase was rerouted to Istanbul where they are to be treated pending further developments.
On 20 April 2010, it was reported that around 160 Irish troops, mainly from Dublin and Dundalk and from the Eastern Brigade and due to return home on a chartered plane from a peacekeeping mission in Kosovo, were stranded in the Balkans due to the travel disruption. They remained at Camp Clarke outside Pristina.
The disruption had effects on the arts worldwide, with many events subject to cancellations.
One of the early widely reported incidents was the trouble of actor/comedian John Cleese, who spent 30,000 Norwegian kroner (roughly £3,300) on a taxi journey from Oslo to Brussels after his flight from Norway was cancelled. He had been appearing on Skavlan. The 1,500 kilometre journey lasted around 15 hours, and Cleese passed through Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium during his journey.
83-year old naturalist and television presenter Sir David Attenborough and his crew, who had reached the North Pole to film the upcoming BBC nature series The Frozen Planet, were stranded in the Norwegian Arctic territory of Svalbard when the volcanic ash forced air space closure. BBC executives expressed concern that Attenborough's crew would lack food and supplies if they were unable to leave the location, which they reached in a private plane.
Robert Downey Jr., Gwyneth Paltrow, Demi Moore and American band The Drums were unable to make their scheduled appearance on Friday Night with Jonathan Ross on 23 April due to the flight disruption, the Iron Man 2 World Premiere in the UK in relation to Downey Jr. and Paltrow's appearance was also moved to LA from London.
Some British musical acts scheduled to perform at the 2010 Coachella Valley Music and Arts Festival in California, including Bad Lieutenant, Gary Numan, Delphic, Frightened Rabbit, Talvin Singh and The Cribs and the American group Hypnotic Brass Ensemble (who were touring in Europe) have encountered flight cancellations, jeopardizing their scheduled slots, all of them eventually cancelling their performances.
The Yehudi Menuhin International Competition for Young Violinists, held in Oslo, Norway was also affected, it was scheduled to begin on 16 April but was postponed until 18 April due to traffic disruption.
The appearance of pop singer Annie Lennox on the special "Idol Gives Back" episode of American Idol on 21 April was affected. Originally, Lennox was to have appeared at the Pasadena Civic Auditorium, near Los Angeles, to perform "Universal Child" as part of the charity fundraiser. However, since she could not travel to LA, Lennox instead recorded the song at a television studio in London, and the tape was played back on the live broadcast. The orchestra accompanied the song live as if she was actually there.
The flight disruptions also led to a number of sporting fixtures being postponed or canceled as teams could not fly to their fixtures. The Japanese motorcycle Grand Prix, scheduled to be the second round of the Grand Prix motorcycle racing season was postponed until 2 October 2010, as the majority of teams were unable to travel to the circuit from their European bases.
Other events which were disrupted due to participants being unable to attend include:
- The French rugby league teams competing in the Challenge Cup
- In rugby union, the match was postponed between Switzerland and Lithuania in the third division of the European Nations Cup
- Many of the teams at the World Mixed Doubles Curling Championship and World Senior Curling Championships were delayed
- Several cyclists who reside in Spain were unable to make it to the Amstel Gold Race, including favorites Alejandro Valverde and Luis León Sánchez
- Professional wrestler Douglas Williams, who was to defend his TNA X Division Championship at the Total Nonstop Action Wrestling pay-per-view event Lockdown, was unable to fly out of the United Kingdom. This resulted in Williams being stripped of his title.
- Mixed martial arts fighter Jim Wallhead was due to fight in the Bellator season 2 welterweight tournament, but had to withdraw because he could not travel to the United States from England.
- The Boston Marathon, on 19 April, took place without many athletes who had been in the affected countries
- WWE Monday Night Raw, also on 19 April, was staged almost entirely with fill-in talent from the Friday Night Smackdown brand. The only Raw-brand "superstars" who made the show were Triple H, Vladimir Kozlov, Carlito as well as Commentators Michael Cole and Jerry Lawler , as the remaining stars were in Belfast following a European tour.
- The World Chess Championship was delayed by one day because the defending World Chess Champion Vishwanathan Anand was stranded in Frankfurt.
Some events were not disrupted but the participants had to make significant alternate travel plans to fulfill the fixture. The UEFA Champions League semi-final teams FC Barcelona and Olympique Lyonnais travelled by coach to their matches with Inter Milan and Bayern Munich respectively and in the Europa League both English travelling teams, Liverpool and Fulham had to make long journeys by coach, train and Eurostar to reach their destinations in Madrid and Hamburg.
The eruption impacted a record-breaking round-the-world flight led by Captain Riccardo Mortara. His private plane was due to land in Keflavik, Iceland, but with runways shut down was forced to abort at the last minute, costing his historic speed flight four to five hours.
Effect on the environment
The volcano released approximately 0.15 million tonnes of CO2 each day, but the massive reduction of air travel occurring over European skies caused by the ash cloud, saved an estimated 1.3 to 2.8 million tonnes of carbon dioxide from entering the atmosphere by 19 April 2010.
Residents of West London under the Heathrow Airport flight path have described the peace as 'bliss'. John Stewart of the Heathrow Association for the Control of Aircraft Noise said they had been inundated with emails and phone calls and said "The message is that this is what life should be like. The peace and quiet is absolutely wonderful." Christine Shilling, of the No Third Runway Action Group, who lives in nearby Harmondsworth, said: "I've lived here more than 40 years and I've never known such peace." Jenny Tonge, president of HACAN Clearskies, life peer and former Liberal Democrat MP for Richmond Park in London said "Dare we hope that it will finally lay the Third Runway at Heathrow to rest and concentrate government minds on more environmentally friendly and sustainable forms of transport?"
- ^ Wearden, Graeme (16 April 2010). "Ash cloud costing airlines £130m a day". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2010/apr/16/iceland-volcano-airline-industry-iata. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
- ^ "Flight disruptions cost airlines $1.7bn, says IATA". BBC News. 21 April 2010. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/8634147.stm. Retrieved 24-05-2011.
- ^ Jamieson, Alastair (25 April 2010). "Volcano ash cloud: winners and losers". The Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/travel/travelnews/7631576/Volcano-ash-cloud-winners-and-losers.html. Retrieved 24-05-2011.
- ^ "Ash cloud chaos: Airlines face huge task as ban ends". BBC News. 21 April 2010. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/8633892.stm. Retrieved 24-05-2011.
- ^ Bye, Bente Lilja (27 May 2011). "Volcanic eruptions: Science and Risk Management". Science 2.0. http://www.science20.com/planetbye/volcanic_eruptions_science_and_risk_management-79456. Retrieved 28 May 2011.
- ^ a b "British Airways seeks compensation for ash chaos". BBC News. 19 April 2010. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/8629674.stm. Retrieved 19 April 2010.
- ^ http://www.insideireland.ie/index.cfm/section/news/ext/icelandvolcanoireland004/category/1084
- ^ Kanter, James; Clark, Nicola (2 May 2010). "European Union Agrees to Accelerate Joint Control of Skies". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/05/world/europe/05ash.html.
- ^ a b c The Daily Mail, "How we could ALL be victims of the volcano... and why we must hope for rain to get rid of the ash" Mail Online, Michael Hanlon, 19 April 2010 Retrieved 19 April 2010
- ^ UPI, "Ash disrupts deliveries to British shops" UPI.com, 17 April 2010 Retrieved 19 April 2010
- ^ "Volcanic ash cloud causes economic concern" BBC News, 18 April 2010
- ^ "Volcano's eruption beginning to hurt Europe's economy" The Star, 17 April 2010
- ^ "UPS Flying Some Europe-Bound Asian Freight To Istanbul". Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/BT-CO-20100418-703103.html?mod=WSJ_World_MIDDLEHeadlinesEurope. Retrieved 21 April 2010. [dead link]
- ^ "Air crisis: Limited European flights given go-ahead | Post & Parcel". Postandparcel.info. 16 April 2010. http://postandparcel.info/32787/human-resources/industry-left-counting-cost-as-air-crisis-continues/. Retrieved 21 April 2010.
- ^ "Volcano disruption costing TUI £5m a day" BBC News, 19 April 2010
- ^ "Travel chaos persists despite easing of air lockdown". BBC News. 21 April 2010. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/8633451.stm. Retrieved 21 April 2010.
- ^ Kiss Flights travel company ceases trading
- ^ "Iceland volcano cloud: The economic impact" BBC News, 19 April 2010
- ^ Volcanic flight ban hits Kenya farm workers BBC News, 19 April 2010
- ^ "Zambia flower and food exports hit by ash flight ban". BBC News. 20 April 2010. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/8631439.stm. Retrieved 21 April 2010.
- ^ "Ash disruption causes Nissan to suspend some production". BBC News. 20 April 2010. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/8631676.stm. Retrieved 21 April 2010.
- ^ Voight, Kevin (20 April 2010) "Volcano impact: As Dutch orchids wilt, New Zealand business blooms " CNN, Retrieved 20 April 2010
- ^ Iceland volcano causes flight chaos Al Jazeera 15 April 2010
- ^ Buan, Vibeke, (16 April 2010). "Statsministeren i bil fra Sveits" (in Norwegian). Aftenposten. http://www.aftenposten.no/nyheter/iriks/article3610161.ece. Retrieved 17 April 2010.
- ^ Segundo dia de caos aéreo no Continente Europeu PAIS; Retrieved 16 April 2010
- ^ McGivern, Mark Icelandic volcano could bring chaos to British skies for a YEAR Daily Record, 16 April 2010
- ^ Volcanic ash cloud: Tony Blair stranded in Israel Daily Telegraph, 18 April 2010
- ^ "Emir’s state visit to Germany postponed". The Peninsula (newspaper). 20 April 2010. http://www.thepeninsulaqatar.com/Display_news.asp?section=Local_News&month=April2010&file=Local_News20100420278.xml. Retrieved 18 April 2010. [dead link]
- ^ Government narrowly avoids Dáil vote defeat HARRY McGEE Political Correspondent, The Irish Times, 21 April 2010
- ^ a b Boyes, Roger Funeral of Polish president Lech Kaczynski faces delay over ash cloud The Times, 16 April 2010
- ^ "Ash stops Charles, Miliband attending Kaczynski funeral". AFP. 17 April 2010. http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5gkxIpKRIMod1M5iJlnofIi4YQl4A. Retrieved 18 April 2010.
- ^ Robin, Henry Poland marks minute of president's plane crash The Times, 17 April 2010
- ^ The President's Statement on Poland The White House; Retrieved 17 April 2010
- ^ Volcanic eruption clouds Danish queen's birthday E-Taiwan News, 15 April 2010
- ^ "Vulkaan verstoort koninklijk feest (Dutch) 15 April 2010" (in (Dutch)). Rtl.nl. http://www.rtl.nl/(/actueel/rtlnieuws/entertainment/)/components/actueel/rtlnieuws/2010/04_april/15/entertainment/vulkaan-verstoort-koninklijk-feest.xml. Retrieved 21 April 2010.
- ^ "No Halifax visit for Princess Anne" CBC News, 20 April 2010
- ^ Verletzte Soldaten müssen nach Istanbul fliegen FOCUS Online, 16 April 2010
- ^ Irish troops stranded in Balkans Irish Examiner, 20 April 2010
- ^ Irish soldiers stranded by ash cloud The Belfast Telegraph, 20 April 2010
- ^ a b c d e Whitney Houston, John Cleese, Coachella, Opera & More: How The Volcanic Ash Has Affected Entertainment Huffington Post, 17 April 2010
- ^ a b Erskine, Carrole. Taxi For Cleese: Stranded Star's 30,000 Krone Fare Sky News, 16 April 2010
- ^ Cleese splashes out on taxi journey RTÉ, 16 April 2010
- ^ O'Brien, Tim Disruption forces Houston on to ferry and Cleese into cab The Irish Times, 17 April 2010
- ^ a b "David Attenborough trapped in Arctic after Iceland volcano grounds all flights (but he did reach the North Pole at the age of 83)". The Daily Mail. 17 April 2010. http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-1266686/David-Attenborough-trapped-Arctic-Iceland-volcano-grounds-flights.html. Retrieved 18 April 2010.
- ^ Friday Night with Jonathan Ross Radio Times
- ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/8630813.stm
- ^ British bands' Coachella Festival slots in doubt as volcanic ash shuts UK airports NME, 15 April 2010
- ^ Icelandic Volcano Casts a Shadow Over Indio, Calif. The New York Times: Artsbeat, 15 April 2010
- ^ Volcano Forces Coachella Cancellations Pitchfork Media, 16 April 2010
- ^ Icelandic US shows postponed Gary Numan's MySpace blog: 18 April 2010
- ^ Hollywood vs. The Volcano: Ash disrupts celebs The Associated Press, 18 April 2010
- ^ a b c d Volcano's ash cloud still causing sporting chaos BBC Sport, 21 April 2010
- ^ "Nine place gains for Sri Lanka and Malaysia". International Rugby Board. 19 April 2010. http://www.irb.com/rankings/news/newsid=2036973.html#nine+place+gains+sri+lanka+malaysia. Retrieved 19 April 2010.
- ^ World Seniors and World Mixed Doubles gets underway this weekend Royal Caledonian Curling Club
- ^ "Valverde, Sanchez miss Amstel Gold due to Volcano Eyjafjallajökull". Cyclingnews.com. 17 April 2010. http://www.cyclingnews.com/news/valverde-sanchez-miss-amstel-gold-due-to-volcano-eyjafjallajokull. Retrieved 21 April 2010.
- ^ Caldwell, James (18 April 2010). "Caldwell's TNA Lockdown Results 4/18: Ongoing "virtual time" coverage of PPV – Styles vs. The Pope, Team Hogan vs. Team Flair, Angle vs. Anderson". Pro Wrestling Torch. http://pwtorch.com/artman2/publish/PPV_Reports_5/article_40725.shtml. Retrieved 18 April 2010.
- ^ Stupp, Dann. "Volcanic ash grounds Jim Wallhead, Ryan Thomas takes vacant Bellator 15 tourney slot". MMAjunkie.com. http://mmajunkie.com/news/18794/volcanic-ash-grounds-jim-wallhead-ryan-thomas-takes-vacant-bellator-15-tourney-slot.mma. Retrieved 21 April 2010.
- ^ Anand v Topalov 1 Day Postponement Chess.com, 21 April 2010
- ^ Liverpool arrive in Madrid after marathon journey BBC Sport, 21 April 2010
- ^ Liew, Jonathan (21 April 2010). "Hamburg v Fulham: Roy Hodgson's side to play Europa League tie after 12-hour trip". The Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/football/leagues/premierleague/fulham/7611880/Hamburg-v-Fulham-Roy-Hodgsons-side-to-play-Europa-League-tie-after-12-hour-trip.html. Retrieved 21 April 2010. [dead link]
- ^ "Pilot Riccardo Mortara sets world record despite Icelandic eruption | News | Armor Journal". Flight Journal. 21 March 2010. http://flightjournal.com/ME2/Sites/dirmod.asp?sid=&nm=&type=news&mod=News&mid=9A02E3B96F2A415ABC72CB5F516B4C10&tier=3&nid=D101AC44AC384DAEB7068A8F8728A1C6&SiteID=20EB32E87F7D4A9C98F2980F81E922D1. Retrieved 18 April 2010.
- ^ Leach, Robin. "Around-the-world flight makes pit stop in Las Vegas — Tuesday, 23 March 2010 | 6:13 p.m.". Las Vegas Sun. http://www.lasvegassun.com/news/2010/mar/23/around--world-flight-makes-pit-stop-las-vegas/. Retrieved 18 April 2010.
- ^ "Swiss pilots set new flight record | Video | Reuters.com". Reuters. 9 February 2009. http://uk.reuters.com/news/video?videoId=60415758&videoChannel=1. Retrieved 18 April 2010.
- ^ Iron Man 2 premiere switches from UK to US BBC News, 19 April 2010
- ^ Webster, Ben (19 April 2010). "Europe counts saved carbon emissions as flights stay grounded". London: Times Online. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/environment/article7101517.ece#cid=OTC-RSS&attr=1185799. Retrieved 21 April 2010.
- ^ Adam, David (19 April 2010). "Iceland volcano causes fall in carbon emissions as eruption grounds aircraft". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2010/apr/19/eyjafjallajokull-volcano-climate-carbon-emissions. Retrieved 21 April 2010.
- ^ "Icleand volcano chaos: Heathrow residents say peace is blissful". The Mirror. 17 April 2010. http://www.mirror.co.uk/news/top-stories/2010/04/17/heathrow-residents-say-peace-is-blissful-115875-22191663/. Retrieved 19 April 2010.
- ^ Tonge, Jenny (16 April 2010). "Volcano's shadow may fall on UK economy, but not Heathrow flight path". Daily Mail (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/blog/2010/apr/16/volanco-heathrow. Retrieved 19 April 2010.
- ^ "Baroness Tonge". They Work for You. http://www.theyworkforyou.com/peer/baroness_tonge. Retrieved 19 April 2010.
- News related to Ash-triggered flight disruptions cost airlines $1.7 billion at Wikinews
- News related to Europe's airline chaos: in depth at Wikinews
- News related to European airspace closed by volcanic ash at Wikinews
- News related to Ash from Iceland volcano could affect UK flights at Wikinews
- News related to Volcanic eruption starts on top of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland at Wikinews
- News related to Icelandic volcanic eruption prompts evacuation, flight diversions at Wikinews
2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruptions Geography EffectsAir travel disruption · Consequences of the eruption
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Éruption de l'Eyjafjöll en 2010 — Vue du panache volcanique s élevant au dessus du volcan le 17 avril 2010 au cours de la seconde phase éruptive. Localisation Pa … Wikipédia en Français
Vulkankatastrophe — Unter einer Vulkankatastrophe versteht man einen sehr starken Vulkanausbruch, i. A. VEI 4 5 und stärker, der bedeutenden Einfluss auf das Weltklima bzw. das Leben der in der Umgebung des Vulkans befindlichen Menschen hat. Inhaltsverzeichnis… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Volcano — This article is about the geological feature. For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation) … Wikipedia
Merpati Nusantara Airlines Flight 836 — Merpati Nunsantara Airlines B737 300, similar to the accident aircraft Runway overrun/bad weather summary … Wikipedia
Évacuation de Dunkerque — L évacuation de Dunkerque, communément appelé le miracle de Dunkerque, ou sous le nom de code Opération Dynamo par les Britanniques, a été l évacuation des soldats alliés des plages et du port de Dunkerque, en France, entre le 26 mai et les… … Wikipédia en Français
Cruise ship — MS Majesty of the Seas, completed in 1992 A cruise ship or cruise liner is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, where the voyage itself and the ship s amenities are part of the experience, as well as the different destinations along the… … Wikipedia
Lava dome — Image of the rhyolitic lava dome of Chaitén Volcano during its 2008–2009 eruption … Wikipedia