Conidae

Cone snails
A group of shells of various species of cone snails
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
(unranked): clade Caenogastropoda
clade Hypsogastropoda
clade Neogastropoda
Superfamily: Conoidea
Family: Conidae
Fleming, 1822[1]
Subfamilies and genera

See text

Conidae is a taxonomic family of minute to quite large sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the superfamily Conoidea.

The snails within this family are sophisticated predatory animals.[2] They hunt and immobilize prey using a modified radular tooth along with a venom gland containing neurotoxins; the tooth is launched out of the snail's mouth in a harpoon-like action.

Until fairly recently, the family Conidae contained only Conus species, but then the family was split into several subfamilies, including many which were previously in the family Turridae. As a result of that change, the Conus species were moved to the subfamily Coninae. Current taxonomic changes as of 2011, based upon molecular phylogeny (see below), have elevated the subfamilies which were previously in the family Turridae to the status of families in their own right, leaving the family Conidae once again containing the species which were traditionally placed in that family.

Contents

List of Conus species

The family Conidae contains well over 600 recognized species, which traditionally have all been placed in the genus Conus.

Taxonomy

1993 taxonomy

According to Taylor, et al. (1993) and the taxonomy of the Gastropoda by Bouchet & Rocroi, 2005),[3] this family consisted of seven subfamilies.[4]

  • Coninae Fleming, 1822 - synonyms: Conulinae Rafinesque, 1815 (inv.); Textiliinae da Motta, 1995 (n.a.)
  • Clathurellinae H. Adams & A. Adams, 1858 - synonyms: Defranciinae Gray, 1853 (inv.); Borsoniinae A. Bellardi, 1875; Pseudotominae A. Bellardi, 1888; Diptychomitrinae L. Bellardi, 1888; Mitrolumnidae Sacco, 1904; Mitromorphinae Casey, 1904; Lorinae Thiele, 1925 sensu Opinion 666
  • Conorbiinae de Gregorio, 1880 - synonym: Cryptoconinae Cossmann, 1896
  • Mangeliinae P. Fischer, 1883 - synonym: Cytharinae Thiele, 1929
  • Oenopotinae Bogdanov, 1987 - synonym: Lorinae Thiele, 1925 sensu Thiele
  • Raphitominae A. Bellardi, 1875 - synonyms: Daphnellinae Casey, 1904; Taraninae Casey, 1904; Thatcheriidae Powell, 1942; Pleurotomellinae F. Nordsieck, 1968; Andoniinae Vera-Pelaez, 2002
  • † Siphopsinae Le Renard, 1995

2011 taxonomy

In 2011 several subfamilies have been raised to the rank of family:[5]

  • Clathurellinae has been split up into three families: Borsoniidae (also including species from Turridae), Mitromorphidae and Clathurellidae (all previously lumped under the Turridae).[5]
  • Conorbiinae has been raised to the rank of family Conorbidae, consisting of three genera: Artemidiconus da Motta, 1991, Benthofascitis Iredale, 1936, and Conorbis Swainson, 1840.[5]
  • Mangeliinae and Oenopotinae have been raised together to the rank of family Mangeliidae (previously lumped in the Turridae).[5]
  • Raphitominae has been raised to the rank of family Raphitomidae (also previously lumped in the Turridae).[5]

The classification by Bouchet et al. (2011)[5] based on mitochondrial DNA and nuclear DNA testing builds on the prior work by J.K. Tucker & M.J. Tenorio (2009), but does not include fossil taxa.[5]

Molecular phylogeny, particularly with the advent of nuclear DNA testing in addition to the mDNA testing (testing in the Conidae initially began by Christopher Meyer and Alan Kohn) is continuing on the Conidae. Recognized genera of Conidae up through J.K. Tucker & M.J. Tenorio (2009), and Bouchet et al. (2011), include:

  • Africonus Petuch, 1975,
  • Asprella Schaufuss, 1869,
  • Austroconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009,
  • Bathyconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009,*
  • Calamiconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009,
  • Calibanus da Motta, 1991,
  • Californiconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009,
  • Chelyconus Mörch, 1852,
  • Conasprella Thiele, 1929,*
  • Conasprelloides Tucker & Tenorio, 2009,
  • Conus Linnaeus, 1758,
  • Cornutoconus Suzuki, 1972 : synonym of Taranteconus Azuma, 1972
  • Cylindrus Batsch, 1789
  • Dalliconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009,*
  • Darioconus Iredale, 1930,
  • Dauciconus Cotton, 1945,
  • Dendroconus Swainson, 1840,
  • Ductoconus da Motta, 1991,
  • Dyraspis Iredale, 1949,
  • Endemoconus Iredale, 1931,
  • Eremiconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009,
  • Eugeniconus da Motta, 1991,
  • Floraconus Iredale, 1930,
  • Fulgiconus da Motta, 1991,
  • Fusiconus da Motta, 1991,*
  • Gastridium Modeer, 1793,
  • Genuanoconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009,
  • Gladioconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009,
  • Globiconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009,*
  • Gradiconus da Motta, 1991,
  • Harmoniconus da Motta, 1991,
  • Hermes Montfort, 1810,
  • Jaspidiconus Petuch, 2004,*
  • Kalloconus da Motta, 1991,
  • Kenyonia Brazier, 1896,
  • Ketyconus da Motta, 1991,
  • Kioconus da Motta, 1991,
  • Kohniconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009,*
  • Kurodaconus Shikama & Habe, 1968,
  • Lamniconus da Motta, 1991,
  • Lautoconus Monterosato, 1923,
  • Leporiconus Iredale, 1930,
  • Leptoconus Swainson, 1840,
  • Lilliconus Raybaudi Massilia, 1994,*
  • Lindaconus Petuch, 2002,
  • Lithoconus Mörch, 1852,
  • Lividoconus Wils, 1970,
  • Miliariconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009,
  • Monteiroconus da Motta, 1991,
  • Nataliconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009,
  • Parviconus Cotton & Godfrey, 1932,*
  • Perplexiconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009,*
  • Phasmoconus Mörch, 1852,
  • Pionoconus Mörch, 1852,
  • Plicaustraconus Moolenbeek, 2008,
  • Profundiconus Kuroda, 1956,*
  • Protoconus da Motta, 1991,
  • Protostrioconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009,
  • Pseudoconorbis Tucker & Tenorio, 2009,*
  • Pseudolilliconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009,
  • Pseudonoduloconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009,
  • Puncticulis Swainson, 1840,
  • Purpuriconus da Motta, 1991,
  • Pyruconus Olsson, 1967,
  • Quasiconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009,*
  • Rhizoconus Mörch, 1852,
  • Rhombiconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009,
  • Rolaniconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009,
  • Sciteconus da Motta, 1991,
  • Seminoleconus Petuch, 2003,
  • Stellaconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009,
  • Stephanoconus Mörch, 1852,
  • Strategoconus da Motta, 1991,
  • Taranteconus Azuma, 1972,
  • Textilia Swainson, 1840,
  • Trovaoconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009,
  • Turriconus Shikama & Habe, 1968,
  • Varioconus da Motta, 1991,
  • Viminiconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009,*
  • Virgiconus Cotton, 1945,
  • Virroconus Iredale, 1930,
  • Vituliconus da Motta, 1991,
  • Ximeniconus Emerson & Old, 1962,*
  • Yeddoconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009.*

[ * Genera deemed within the family Conilithidae by Tucker & Tenorio 2009.]

Despite what appears to be an accepted generic classification scheme for the Conidae some experts are still holding (in 2011) to the traditional classification system and lump all species in a single family Conidae within the Linnean genus Conus, apparently waiting for a complete molecular phylogeny of the entire family to be completed. According to the World Registry of Marine Species all species within the family Conidae are in the genus Conus and the genera recognized by Tucker & Tenorio 2009 are deemed an "alternate representation." [6] Debate within the scientific community regarding this issue continues.

Genera (before 2011)

At some point in time before 2011 the following genera were included within the family Conidae: [1]. Following molecular phylogeny studies in 2011 many genera in the family Conidae have been moved to new families within the superfamily Conoidea. The following list of genera is maintained for historical reasons.

  • Abyssobela Kantor & Sysoev, 1986
  • Acamptodaphne Shuto, 1971
  • Agathotoma Cossman, 1899
  • Aliceia Dautzenberg & Fischer, 1897
  • Antimitra Iredale, 1917
  • Asperdaphne Hedley, 1922
  • Asprella (considered a synonym of Conus by some authors)
  • Austrodaphnella Laseron, 1954
  • Bactrocythara Woodring, 1928
  • Bathybela Kobelt, 1905
  • Bathytoma Harris & Burrows 1891
  • Bela Gray, 1847
  • Belaturricula Powell, 1951
  • Benthomangelia Thiele, 1925
  • Borsonella Dall, 1908
  • Brachycythara Woodring, 1928
  • Buccinaria Kittl, 1887
  • Cenodagreutes E.H. Smith, 1967
  • Chelyconus (synonym of Conus)
  • Clathromangelia Monterosato, 1884
  • Clathurella Carpenter, 1857
  • Cleobula (synonym of Conus)
  • Clinura Bellardi, 1875
  • Clinuropsis Vincent, 1913
  • Columbarium Martens, 1881
  • Conasprella (considered a synonym of Conus by some authors)
  • Conopleura Hinds, 1844
  • Conorbis Swainson,, 1840
  • Conospirus Gregorio, 1890
  • Conus Linnaeus, 1758
  • Crockerella Hertlein & Strong 1951
  • Cryoturris Woodring, 1928
  • Cryptodaphne Powell, 1942
  • Curtitoma Bartsch, 1941
  • Daphnella Hinds 1844
  • Daphnellopsis Schepman, 1913
  • Darioconus (considered a synonym of Conus by some authors)
  • Dauciconus (considered a synonym of Conus by some authors)
  • Dendroconus (considered a synonym of Conus by some authors)
  • Diaugasma Melvill, 1917
  • Drilliola Locard, 1897
  • Endemoconus (considered a synonym of Conus by some authors)
  • Eubela Dall, 1889
  • Eucyclotoma Boettger, 1895
  • Euryentmema Woodring, 1928
  • Exomilus Hedley, 1918
  • Fehria van Aartsen, 1988
  • Fusidaphne Laseron, 1954
  • Gastridium (considered a synonym of Conus by some authors)
  • Glyphostoma Gabb, 1872
  • Glyphostomops Bartsch, 1934
  • Glyphoturris Woodring, 1928
  • Glyptaesopus Pilsbry & Olsson 1941
  • Granoturris Fargo, 1953
  • Gymnobela Verrill, 1884
  • Isodaphne Laseron, 1954
  • Ithycythara Woodring, 1928
  • Jaspidiconus Clench, 1942
  • Kermia Oliver, 1915
  • Kuroshiodaphne Shuto, 1965
  • Kurtzia Bartsch, 1944
  • Kurtziella Dall, 1918
  • Leufroyia Monterosato 1884
  • Lithoconus (considered a synonym of Conus by some authors)
  • Mangelia Risso, 1826
  • Microdaphne McLean, 1971
  • Microgenia Laseron, 1954
  • Mioawateria Vella, 1954
  • Mitramorpha Adams, 1865
  • Mitrolumna Bucquoy, Dautzenberg & Dollfus 1883
  • Mitromorpha Adams, 1865
  • Nannodiella Dall, 1918
  • Neopleurotomoides Shuto, 1971
  • Nepotilla Hedley, 1918
  • Nipponaphera Habe, 1961
  • Obesotoma Bartsch, 1941
  • Oenopota Mörch, 1852
  • Ophiodermella Bartsch, 1944
  • Pagodidaphne Shuto, 1983
  • Perplicaria Dall, 1890
  • Phymorhynchus Dall, 1908
  • Platycythara Woodring, 1928
  • Pleurotomella verrill, 1873
  • Pontiothauma E.A. Smith, 1895
  • Propebela Iredale, 1918
  • Pseudodaphnella Boettger, 1895
  • Puncticulis Swainson, 1840
  • Pyrgocythara Woodring, 1928
  • Raphitoma Bellardi, 1847
  • Rhizoconus (considered a synonym of Conus by some authors)
  • Rimosodaphnella Cossmann, 1915
  • Rocroithys Sysoev & Bouchet, 2001
  • Rubellatoma Bartsch & Rehder 1939
  • Rugobela Finlay, 1924
  • Scalptia Jousseaume 1887
  • Spergo Dall, 1895
  • Stephanoconus (considered a synonym of Conus by some authors)
  • Stilla Finlay, 1926
  • Suavodrillia Dall, 1918
  • Taranidaphne Morassi & Bonfitto, 2001
  • Taranis Jeffreys, 1870
  • Tasmadaphne Laseron, 1954
  • Teleochilus Harris, 1897
  • Tenaturris Woodring, 1928
  • Teretia Norman, 1888
  • Teretiopsis Kantor & Sysoev, 1989
  • Thatcheria Angas, 1877
  • Thatcheriasyrinx Powell, 1969
  • Thatcherina Vera-Pelaez, 1998
  • Thelecythara Woodring, 1928
  • Thesbia Jeffreys, 1867
  • Theta A.H. Clarke, 1959
  • Tritonoturris Dall, 1924
  • Truncadaphne McLean, 1971
  • Tuskaroria Sysoev, 1988
  • Typhlodaphne Powell, 1951
  • Typhlomangelia Sars G.O., 1878
  • Veprecula Melvill, 1917
  • Vepridaphne Shuto, 1983
  • Virgiconus (considered a synonym of Conus by some authors)
  • Virroconus (considered a synonym of Conus by some authors)
  • Xanthodaphne Powell, 1942
  • Zenepos Finlay, 1928
  • Zierliana Gray, 1847

Biotechnological uses of cone snail venom

As stated previously, cone snails (and many species in the superfamily Conoidea) immobilize prey by using venom, consisting of a mixture of peptides, called conopeptides. The venom of these snails is made up of 10 to 30 amino acids, but occasionally as many as 60. The venom of each cone snail species may contain as many as 200 pharmacologically active components. It is estimated that more than 50,000 conopeptides can be found because every species of cone snail is thought to produce its own specific venom.

Cone snail venom, in more recent years, has come to interest biotechnologists and pharmacists because of its potential medicinal properties. Production of synthetic conopeptides has started, using solid-phase peptide synthesis.

W-conopeptide, from the species Conus magus was used in the analgesic drug Prialt, an approved treatment for pain said to be 1000 times as powerful as morphine. Conopeptides are also be looked at as anti-epileptic agents and to help stop nerve-cell death after a stroke or head injury. Conopeptides also have possibilities in helping spasms due to spinal cord injuries, and may be helpful in diagnosing and treating small cell carcinomas in the lung.

The biotechnology surrounding cone snails and their venom has promise for medical breakthroughs; with more than 50,000 conopeptides to study, the possibilities are numerous.[7]

References

  1. ^ Fleming J. (June 1822). The philosophy of zoology, a general view of the structure, functions and classification of animals 2. Constable & Co., Edinburgh, 618 pp., Conidae is on the page 490.
  2. ^ Piper R. (2007). Extraordinary Animals: An Encyclopedia of Curious and Unusual Animals, Greenwood Press.
  3. ^ Bouchet P., Rocroi J.-P., Frýda J., Hausdorf B., Ponder W., Valdés Á. & Warén A. (2005). "Classification and nomenclator of gastropod families". Malacologia: International Journal of Malacology (Hackenheim, Germany: ConchBooks) 47 (1-2): 1–397. ISBN 3925919724. ISSN 0076-2997. http://www.archive.org/details/malacologia47122005inst. 
  4. ^ Taylor J. D., Kantor Y. I. & Sysoev A. V. (1993). "Foregut anatomy, feeding mechanisms, relationships and classification of Conoidea (Toxoglossa) (Gastropoda)". Bull. Nat. Hist. Mus. (Zool.) 59: 125–169.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Bouchet P., Kantor Yu.I., Sysoev A. & Puillandre N. (2011). "A new operational classification of the Conoidea". Journal of Molluscan Studies 77: 273-308. doi:10.1093/mollus/eyr017.
  6. ^ http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=14107 Classification: Traditionally, all cone shells have been included in the Linnean genus Conus. Tucker & Tenorio (2009) have recently proposed an alternative shell- and radula-based classification that recognizes 4 families and 80 genera of cones. In WoRMS, we currently still recognize a single family Conidae (following Puillandre et al. 2011), but Tucker & Tenorio's 80 genera classification is presented as "alternative representation". [P. Bouchet, 14 Aug. 2011]
  7. ^ Becker S. & Terlau H. (2008). "Toxins from Cone Snails: Properties, Applications and Biotechnological Production." Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 79(1): 1-9. doi:10.1007/s00253-008-1385-6.

Further reading

  • Kohn A. A. (1992). Chronological Taxonomy of Conus, 1758-1840". Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London.
  • Monteiro A. (ed.) (2007). The Cone Collector 1: 1-28.
  • Taylor, J. D., Kantor Yu. I. & Sysoev A. V. (1993). "Foregut anatomy, feeding mechanisms, relationships and classification of Conoidea (Toxoglossa) (Gastropoda)". Bull. Nat. Hist. Mus. (Zool.) 59: 125-169.
  • Tucker J.K. & Tenorio M.J. (2009), Systematic Classification of Recent and Fossil Conoidean Gastropods, ConchBooks, Hankenheim, Germany, 295 pp.
  • Berschauer D. (2010). Technology and the Fall of the Mono-Generic Family The Cone Collector 15: pp. 51–54
  • Puillandre N., Meyer C.P., Bouchet P., and Olivera B.M. (2011), Genetic divergence and geographical variation in the deep-water Conus orbignyi complex (Mollusca: Conoidea), Zoologica Scripta 40(4) 350-363.

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