Information and communications technology
Information and communications technology or information and communication technology, usually abbreviated as ICT, is often used as an extended synonym for information technology (IT), but is usually a more general term that stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals), computers, middleware as well as necessary software, storage- and audio-visual systems, which enable users to create, access, store, transmit, and manipulate information. In other words, ICT consists of IT as well as telecommunication, broadcast media, all types of audio and video processing and transmission and network based control and monitoring functions. The expression was first used in 1997 in a report by Dennis Stevenson to the UK government and promoted by the new National Curriculum documents for the UK in 2000.
The term ICT is now also used to refer to the merging (convergence) of audio-visual and telephone networks with computer networks through a single cabling or link system. There are large economic incentives (huge cost savings due to elimination of the telephone network) to merge the audio-visual, building management and telephone network with the computer network system using a single unified system of cabling, signal distribution and management. This in turn has spurred the growth of organizations with the term ICT in their names to indicate their specialization in the process of merging the different network systems.
Some of the dangers of ICTs include cyberbullying, phishing as well as masquerading.
Trends and new concepts in the ICT roadmap
ICT is often used in the context of "ICT roadmap" to indicate the path that an organization will take with their ICT needs.
In an increasingly interconnected world, the interactions among devices, systems, and people are growing rapidly. Businesses need to meet the demands of their employees and customers to allow for greater access to systems and information. All of these communications needs must be delivered in a unified way. By offering a scalable infrastructure, cloud computing models enable companies to work smarter through more agile and cost-effective access to technology and information. This unified platform reduces costs and boosts productivity across a business and beyond. Part of an information and communications technology roadmap should involve consolidating infrastructures, while providing added benefits to users in collaboration, messaging, calendaring, instant messaging, audio, video, and Web conferencing. Cloud computing is driving more efficient IT consumption and delivery and taking ICT to the next level.
Standards are very important for ICT, since they define the language that enables the technologies to understand each other. This is especially relevant because the key idea behind ICT is that information storage devices can communicate in media-frictionless manner with communication networks and computing systems. Open standards play a special role, as well as standards organizations such as the Telecommunications Industry Association in the United States and ETSI in Europe.
Campaigns and Projects
Recently, many companies are coming up with campaigns to promote ICT and how it can be used to protect nature. Wipro was a leading company that organized Earthian, wherein students came up with ideas to use technology to benefit society.
- Global e-Schools and Communities Initiative
- Information Age
- Information and Communication Technologies for Development
- Information and Communication Technologies for Environmental Sustainability
- Market Information Systems
- Mobile Web
- ^ Sometimes used with technologies in the plural. Originally, only information and communications technology (with communications in the plural) was considered correct since ICT refers to communications (in the sense of a method, technology, or system of sending and receiving information, specifically telephone lines, computers, and networks), not communication (the act of sending or receiving information by speaking, writing, phoning, emailing, etc. or a message containing such information), and the older form (information and communications technology) is still the only one recorded in professionally edited reference works (e.g. Oxford Dictionaries Online, Computer Desktop Encyclopedia, Webopedia, and Encarta® World English Dictionary) and preferred by many style guides (e.g. Editorial Style Guide of the Republic of South Africa. Nevertheless, the form information and communication technology is becoming increasingly common and is now used in about half the books that can be searched using Google Books and is for example also used by the International Telecommunication Union.
- ^ http://foldoc.org/Information+and+Communication+Technology
- ^ http://specials.ft.com/lifeonthenet/FT3NXTH03DC.html
- ^ The Independent ICT in Schools Commission (1997) Information and Communications Technology in UK Schools, an independent inquiry. London, UK. Author: chair Dennis Stevenson
- ^ http://www.microsoft.com/education/MSITAcademy/curriculum/roadmap/default.mspx
- ^ https://www-304.ibm.com/businesscenter/cpe/html0/190102.html
- Caperna A., Integrating ICT into Sustainable Local Policies. ISBN13:9781615209293
- Carnoy, Martin. "ICT in Education: Possibilities and Challenges." Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, 2005.
- "Good Practice in Information and Communication Technology for Education." Asian Development Bank, 2009.
- Grossman, G. and E. Helpman (2005), "Outsourcing in a global economy", Review of Economic Studies 72: 135-159.
- Oliver, Ron. "The Role of ICT in Higher Education for the 21st Century: ICT as a Change Agent for Education." University, Perth, Western Australia, 2002.
- Walter Ong, Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word (London, UK: Routledge, 1988), in particular Chapter 4
- Measuring the Information Society: The ICT Development Index. International Telecommunication Union. 2009. pp. 108. ISBN 9261128319. http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/publications/idi/2009/material/IDI2009_w5.pdf.
- Information and Communication Technologies for Development and Poverty Reduction: The Potential of Telecommunications
- ICT in Education - UNESCO
- Web 2.0
- Information Technology and the Dream of Democratic Renewal
- The Roadmap for Open ICT Ecosystems: A Guide for Policymakers and Technologists
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
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