Salvia officinalis

Salvia officinalis
Flowers
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Lamiaceae
Genus: Salvia
Species: S. officinalis
Binomial name
Salvia officinalis
L.

Salvia officinalis (garden sage, common sage) is a small, perennial, evergreen subshrub, with woody stems, grayish leaves, and blue to purplish flowers. It is a member of the family Lamiaceae and is native to the Mediterranean region, though it has naturalized in many places throughout the world. It has a long history of medicinal and culinary use, and in modern times as an ornamental garden plant. The common name "sage" is also used for a number of related and unrelated species.

Contents

Taxonomy

Salvia officinalis was described by Carl Linnaeus in 1753. It has been grown for centuries in the Old World for its food and healing properties, and was often described in old herbals for the many miraculous properties attributed to it.[1] The specific epithet, officinalis, refers to the plant's medicinal use—the officina was the traditional storeroom of a monastery where herbs and medicines were stored.[2] S. officinalis has been classified under many other scientific names over the years, including six different names since 1940 alone.[3]

Description

Sage leaves

Cultivars are quite variable in size, leaf and flower color, and foliage pattern, with many variegated leaf types. The Old World type grows to approximately 2 ft (0.61 m) tall and wide, with lavender flowers most common, though they can also be white, pink, or purple. The plant flowers in late spring or summer. The leaves are oblong, ranging in size up to 2.5 in (6.4 cm) long by 1 in (2.5 cm) wide. Leaves are grey-green, rugose on the upper side, and nearly white underneath due to the many short soft hairs. Modern cultivars include leaves with purple, rose, cream, and yellow in many variegated combinations.[1]

History

Painting from Koehler's Medicinal Plants (1887)

Salvia officinalis has been used since ancient times for warding off evil, snakebites, increasing women's fertility, and more. The Romans likely introduced it to Europe from Egypt as a medicinal herb.[4] Theophrastus wrote about two different sages, a wild undershrub he called sphakos, and a similar cultivated plant he called elelisphakos. Pliny the Elder said the latter plant was called salvia by the Romans, and used as a diuretic, a local anesthetic for the skin, a styptic, and for other uses. Charlemagne recommended the plant for cultivation in the early Middle Ages, and during the Carolingian Empire, it was cultivated in monastery gardens.[4] Walafrid Strabo described it in his poem Hortulus as having a sweet scent and being useful for many human ailments—he went back to the Greek root for the name and called it lelifagus.[5]

The plant had a high reputation throughout the Middle Ages, with many sayings referring to its healing properties and value.[6] It was sometimes called S. salvatrix (sage the savior), and was one of the ingredients of Four Thieves Vinegar, a blend of herbs which was supposed to ward off the plague. Dioscorides, Pliny, and Galen all recommended sage as a diuretic, hemostatic, emmenagogue, and tonic.[5]

Uses

The top side of a sage leaf - trichomes are visible.
The underside of a sage leaf - more trichomes are visible on this side.

Common sage is grown in parts of Europe for distillation of an essential oil, though other species, such as Salvia fruticosa may also be harvested and distilled with it.

As a kitchen herb, sage has a slight peppery flavor. In British cooking, it is used for flavoring fatty meats, Sage Derby cheese, poultry or pork stuffing, Lincolnshire sausage, and in sauces. Sage is also used in Italian cooking, in the Balkans, and the Middle East. It is one of the major herbs used in the traditional turkey stuffing for the Thanksgiving Day dinner in the United States. Despite the common use of traditional and available herbs in French cuisine, sage never found favour there.

Salvia and "sage" are derived from the Latin salvere (to save), referring to the healing properties long attributed to the various Salvia species.[5] It has been recommended at one time or another for virtually every ailment by various herbals. Modern evidence shows possible uses as an antisweating agent, antibiotic, antifungal, astringent, antispasmodic, estrogenic, hypoglycemic, and tonic.[7] In a double blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial, sage was found to be effective in the management of mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease.[8]

The strongest active constituents of sage are within its essential oil, which contains cineole, borneol, and thujone. Sage leaf contains tannic acid, oleic acid, ursonic acid, ursolic acid, cornsole, cornsolic acid, fumaric acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, niacin, nicotinamide, flavones, flavonoid glycosides, and estrogenic substances.[7]

Investigations have taken place into using sage as a treatment for Alzheimer's disease patients.[8][9][10][11] Sage leaf extract may be effective and safe in the treatment of hyperlipidemia.[12]

Common names

Salvia officinalis has numerous common names. Some of the best known include sage, common sage, garden sage, golden sage, kitchen sage, true sage, culinary sage, Dalmatian sage, and broadleaf sage. Cultivated forms include purple sage and red sage. In Turkey, salvia officinalis is widely known as adaçayı, meaning "island sage".

Cultivars

There are a number of cultivars, with the majority grown as ornamentals rather than for their herbal properties. All are valuable as small ornamental flowering shrubs, and for their use as a low ground cover, especially in sunny dry environments. They are easily propagated from summer cuttings, and some cultivars are produced from seeds. Named cultivars include:

  • 'Alba', a white-flowered cultivar
  • 'Aurea', golden sage
  • 'Berggarten', a cultivar with large leaves, which rarely blooms, extending the useful life of the leaves
  • 'Extrakta', has leaves with higher oil concentrations
  • 'Icterina', a cultivar with yellow-green variegated leaves
  • 'Lavandulaefolia', a small leaved cultivar
  • 'Purpurascens' ('Purpurea'), a purple-leafed cultivar
  • 'Tricolor', a cultivar with white, yellow and green variegated leaves

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Clebsch, Betsy; Carol D. Barner (2003). The New Book of Salvias. Timber Press. p. 216. ISBN 9780881925609. http://books.google.com/books?id=NM0iwB8GrQYC&pg=PA216. 
  2. ^ Stearn, William T. (2004). Botanical Latin. Timber Press (OR). p. 456. ISBN 0-88192-627-2. http://books.google.com/books?id=w0hZvTFJUioC&pg=PA456. 
  3. ^ Sutton, John (2004). The Gardener's Guide to Growing Salvias. Workman Publishing Company. p. 17. ISBN 9780881926712. 
  4. ^ a b Watters, L. L. (1901). An Analytical Investigation of Garden Sage (Salvia officinalis, Linne). New York: Columbia University. 
  5. ^ a b c Kintzios, Spiridon E. (2000). Sage: The Genus Salvia. CRC Press. pp. 10–11. ISBN 9789058230058. 
  6. ^ An Anglo-Saxon manuscript read "Why should man die when he has sage?" Kintzios, p. 10
  7. ^ a b "Sage". OBeWise Nutriceutica. Applied Health. http://www.appliedhealth.com/nutri/page8453.php. Retrieved 2008-02-04. 
  8. ^ a b Akhondzadeh S, Noroozian M, Mohammadi M, Ohadinia S, Jamshidi AH, Khani M. (2003). "Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial". J Clin Pharm Ther 28 (1): 53–9. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2710.2003.00463.x. PMID 12605619. 
  9. ^ Dos, Santos-Neto, Ll; De, Vilhena, Toledo, Ma; Medeiros-Souza, P; De, Souza, Ga (December 2006). "The use of herbal medicine in Alzheimer's disease-a systematic review" (Free full text). Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM 3 (4): 441–5. doi:10.1093/ecam/nel071. PMC 1697739. PMID 17173107. http://ecam.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=17173107. 
  10. ^ Perry, Ek; Pickering, At; Wang, Ww; Houghton, P; Perry, Ns (Winter 1998). "Medicinal plants and Alzheimer's disease: Integrating ethnobotanical and contemporary scientific evidence". Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.) 4 (4): 419–28. doi:10.1089/acm.1998.4.419. ISSN 1075-5535. PMID 9884179. 
  11. ^ Iuvone, T; De, Filippis, D; Esposito, G; D'Amico, A; Izzo, Aa (June 2006). "The spice sage and its active ingredient rosmarinic acid protect PC12 cells from amyloid-beta peptide-induced neurotoxicity" (Free full text). The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics 317 (3): 1143–9. doi:10.1124/jpet.105.099317. PMID 16495207. http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=16495207. 
  12. ^ Kianbakht S, Abasi B, Perham M, Hashem Dabaghian F"Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Salvia officinalis L. Leaf Extract in Patients with Hyperlipidemia: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. Phytother Res. 2011 Apr 19;

Further reading

  • The Herb Society of America New Encyclopedia of Herbs & Their Uses, Deni Bown (New York: DK, 2001)

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Salvia officinalis —   Salvia …   Wikipedia Español

  • Salvia officinalis — Sauge officinale Sauge officinale …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Salvia officinalis — ? Шалфей лекарственный Научная классификация Царство: Растения Отдел: Покрытосеменные …   Википедия

  • Salvia officinalis — Echter Salbei Heilsalbei (Salvia officinalis) Systematik Unterklasse: Asternähnliche (Asteridae) …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Salvia officinalis — vaistinis šalavijas statusas T sritis vardynas apibrėžtis Notrelinių šeimos dekoratyvinis, prieskoninis, vaistinis augalas (Salvia officinalis), paplitęs Europos pietuose. Naudojamas maisto priedams (kvėpikliams) gaminti. atitikmenys: lot. Salvia …   Lithuanian dictionary (lietuvių žodynas)

  • Salvia officinalis — Sage Sage, n. [OE. sauge, F. sauge, L. salvia, from salvus saved, in allusion to its reputed healing virtues. See {Safe}.] (Bot.) (a) A suffruticose labiate plant ({Salvia officinalis}) with grayish green foliage, much used in flavoring meats,… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Salvia officinalis — vaistinis šalavijas statusas T sritis augalininkystė apibrėžtis Daugiametis, stipriai kvepiantis, prieskoninis, medingas, vaistinis notrelinių (Lamiaceae) šeimos puskrūmis. Mėgsta šiltą ir sausą klimatą. Dauginamas sėklomis, kerus dalijant,… …   Žemės ūkio augalų selekcijos ir sėklininkystės terminų žodynas

  • Salvia officinalis — ID 74942 Symbol Key SAOF2 Common Name kitchen sage Family Lamiaceae Category Dicot Division Magnoliophyta US Nativity Introduced to U.S. US/NA Plant Yes State Distribution AL, CA, CT, GA, ID, KY, ME, MI, NY, OH, OR, PA, RI, TN, UT, VA, VT, WA, WV …   USDA Plant Characteristics

  • Salvia officinalis — noun shrubby plant with aromatic greyish green leaves used as a cooking herb • Syn: ↑common sage, ↑ramona • Hypernyms: ↑sage, ↑salvia • Part Meronyms: ↑sage …   Useful english dictionary

  • Salvia officinalis L. — Symbol SAOF2 Common Name kitchen sage Botanical Family Lamiaceae …   Scientific plant list


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