Commer TS3 Manufacturer Commer Configuration three-cylinder, six-piston opposed piston engine with rocker drive to a single crankshaft. Displacement 3.261 litres (200 cu in) Cylinder bore 3 ¼ inch (83 mm) Piston stroke 4 inch (102 mm) Fuel type Diesel Oil system Wet sump Cooling system Water-cooled Power output 105 brake horsepower (78 kW) at 2,400 rpm Torque output 270 lb.ft at 1,200 rpm
The Commer TS3 was a diesel engine fitted in Commer trucks built by the Rootes Group in the 1950s and 1960s. It was largely the product of Tilling-Stevens, but was developed by Rootes Group when they bought out Tilling-Stevens. The engine was the first diesel engine used by Rootes Group and was of unorthodox design.
It was unusual in being an opposed piston engine, an engine where each horizontal cylinder contains two pistons, one at each end, that move in opposition to each other. Even more unusually, both sets of pistons drove only a single crankshaft; most opposed piston engines have a separate crankshaft at each end of the cylinder. The TS3 engine used a single crankshaft beneath the cylinders, each piston driving it through a connecting rod, a rocker bellcrank and a second connecting rod. The crankshaft had six crankpins and there were six rockers.
The engine was a two-stroke, compression-ignition diesel engine with uniflow-ported cylinders. Scavenging was performed by a Roots blower. and was mounted on the front of the engine and driven by a long quill shaft from a chain drive at the rear of the engine. Although the engines gained a reputation for good performance, this quill shaft was somewhat prone to breaking if over-worked.
Rootes' intention for the engine was to produce a new range of Commer trucks with the modern "cab forward" design, which required an engine low enough to mount under the driver's cab rather than in front of it as previously. Eric W Coy, Rootes' Chief Engineer, was responsible for the development of the engine by a core team of only seven people, at the Humber plant at Stoke Aldermoor. "TS" in the engine's name derives from its Tilling-Stevens, acquired by Rootes in 1950. From 1954 Rootes diesel production was moved to the Tilling-Stevens plant in Maidstone, Kent.
Data from 
- Type: Three cylinders, opposed pistons. Uniflow ports.
- Bore: 3 ¼ inch (83 mm)
- Stroke: 4 inch (102 mm)
- Displacement: 3.261 litres (200 cu in)
- Power output: 105 brake horsepower (78 kW) at 2,400 rpm
- torque: 270 lb.ft at 1,200 rpm
- BMEP: 105 lb.sq.in
The TS3 was used in both the Commer and Karrier range of trucks. As the horizontal cylinders were lower than a vertical engine, the engine was mounted beneath the floor of the cab. The bonnet (hood) of the truck could be dispensed with, moving the windscreen and driver forward to give one of the first of the now common cab forward trucks. The engine's distinctive exhaust bark was always apparent, leading to their popular name of "Knockers".
Rootes Group, Commer's parent company, entered into a partnership with Lister to market the engines as industrial stationary engines through a joint company Rootes-Lister Ltd. The venture was not a success for industrial engines, although some were sold as marine engines by Lister Blackstone Marine Ltd. Many of these marine engines survive today.
There are very few similar engines. Opposed-piston diesel engines are rare enough at this size, the bellcrank arrangement was almost unheard of. Probably the only engine using a similar arrangement was the pre-war Sulzer ZG9. This was an opposed-piston engine with a choice of two, three and four cylinders (2ZG9, 3ZG9, 4ZG9); the two-cylinder version developed 120 bhp. Its layout was very similar to the Commer engines, but it used a piston scavenge pump rather than a Roots blower. This was mounted vertically above one rocker, driven by another bellcrank from the main rockers. This engine is sometimes cited as an inspiration for the Commer design.
Data from 
- Type: Two cylinders, four opposed pistons.
- Bore: 90 mm
- Stroke: 120 mm
- Power output: 120 brake horsepower (89 kW) at 1,500 rpm
- BMEP: 84 lb.sq.in
- Early French cars, circa 1900, using opposed pistons driven from a single crankshaft by a long overhung yoke.
- Junkers Jumo 204
- An opposed-piston aircraft engine of the 1930s, using twin crankshafts.
- A much larger multi-bank engine, reducing the number of crankshafts by sharing them between cylinder banks.
- ^ "Original brochure cover". http://www.flickr.com/photos/kingtonian/4248595390/. "The Commer 'TS3' Diesel Engine. Precision built by the Rootes Group."
- ^ "The TS3". http://www.commer.org.nz/Commer_Connections/Other.html. Retrieved 2009-01-26. "The engine was a direct injection, high-speed diesel engine with three horizontal cylinders, each containing two pistons, facing head-to-head. Each cylinder had specially designed ports to control the inlet of air and outlet of the exhaust which are controlled by the pistons. The pistons that control the inlet ports are known as the air pistons (left-hand side of the engine), the others being the exhaust pistons."
- ^ a b c Chapman, C.W. (1956). Modern High-Speed Oil Engines. Vol II (2nd ed.). Caxton. pp. 46–47.
- ^ Roots is a different company to Rootes. The blower was actually made by Wade in Birmingham
- ^ a b "The TS3". http://www.commer.org.nz/Commer_Connections/Other.html. Retrieved 2009-01-26. "The TS3 was initially designed by Rootes Power Units Chief Engineer Eric W Coy (and under him, designers Bennett and Mileluski) at the Humber plant (Stoke-Aldermore) in 1948. It was designed solely to meet Rootes production planning requirements for an underfloor 105 hp diesel engine for the new forward- control Commer range of heavy trucks."
- ^ "Working inside Rootes". http://www.commer.org.nz/Commer_Connections/Inside_Rootes.html.
- ^ Brian Vogt. "Commer TS3 Truck and Engine at the Greenock Aviation Museum". http://www.sa.hillman.org.au/CommerTS3.htm.
- ^ a b "Rootes-Lister TS3". oldengine.org. http://www.oldengine.org/members/diesel/Rootes-ListerTS3/TS3.htm.
- ^ "The TS4 Prototype". http://www.commer.org.nz/Commer_Connections/TS4_Motor.html. Retrieved 2009-01-26. "All the 14 prototype TS4s were test bed run initially. Eight were then put in trucks for road evaluation before going into production, running up to 1.2 million miles between them, trouble free. They were then pulled out and scrapped on instructions from Chrysler to protect Chrysler’s joint venture in England with Cummins."
- ^ a b Chapman, C.W. (1956). Modern High-Speed Oil Engines. Vol I (2nd ed.). Caxton. pp. 222–223.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Commer — For the town in France, see Commer, Mayenne. For various meanings, see comma. Commer Fate Discontinued Founded 1905 Headquarters Luton, England Products Commercial vehicles … Wikipedia
Opposed piston engine — An opposed piston engine is one in which the cylinders are double ended, with a piston at each end and no cylinder head.ConfigurationsSome variations of the Opposed Piston or OP designs use a single crankshaft like the Doxford ship enginesCite… … Wikipedia
Opposed-piston engine — This article is about existing engine designs. For the quite different concept proposed by Frank Stelzer, see Stelzer engine. Fairbanks Morse opposed piston diesel engines on the submarine USS Pampanito An opposed piston engine is a reciprocating … Wikipedia
Audi R10 TDI — Racing car Car name = Audi R10 TDI Category = Sports car racing Le Mans Prototype LMP1 Constructor = Audi AG (with Dallara) Designer = Team = flagicon|DEU Audi Sport Team Joest flagicon|USA Audi Sport North America Drivers = Frank Biela, Marco… … Wikipedia
Two stroke diesel — A two stroke diesel is a diesel engine that works in two strokes. A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle. Invented in 1892 by German engineer Rudolf Diesel, it was based on the hot bulb engine… … Wikipedia
Rootes — The Rootes Group was a British automobile manufacturer, which was based in the Midlands and south of England. Rootes was the parent company of many well known British marques, including Hillman, Humber, Singer, Sunbeam, Talbot, Commer and Karrier … Wikipedia
Architecture des moteurs à pistons — L architecture des moteurs à piston définit, entre autres, la position des cylindres. Il peut s agir de moteurs à explosion, de moteurs hydrauliques ou de systèmes pneumatiques. Illustration d un moteur en L et de deux moteurs en V, avec… … Wikipédia en Français