Adamsite

Adamsite
Identifiers
Abbreviations DM
CAS number 578-94-9 YesY
PubChem 11362
ChemSpider 10884 YesY
EC number 209-433-1
MeSH Phenarsazine+chloride
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Image 2
Properties
Molecular formula C12H9AsClN
Molar mass 277.58 g mol−1
Exact mass 276.963948417 g mol-1
Appearance Yellow-green crystals
Melting point

195 °C, 468 K, 383 °F

Boiling point

410 °C, 683 K, 770 °F

Solubility in water 0.064 g dm-3
 YesY (verify) (what is: YesY/N?)
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)
Infobox references

Adamsite or DM is an organic compound; technically, an arsenical diphenylaminechlorarsine, that can be used as a riot control agent. DM belongs to the group of chemical warfare agents known as vomiting agents or sneeze gases.[1] First synthesized in Germany by Heinrich Otto Wieland in 1915, it was independently developed by the US chemist Roger Adams (for whom it is named) at the University of Illinois in 1918. DM was produced and stockpiled by the Americans at the end of World War I, but never deployed on the battlefield. It was, however, used against the Bonus Army who demonstrated in Washington, DC, during the spring and summer of 1932, reportedly causing the death and serious injury of several children who had accompanied their parents on the protests.

DM is an odourless crystalline compound with a very low vapour pressure. The colour of the crystals ranges from bright yellow to dark green depending on the purity. It is readily soluble in some organic solvents (e.g., acetone, dichloromethane), but nearly insoluble in water. In vaporous form it appears as a canary yellow smoke.[2]

Adamsite is usually dispersed as an aerosol, making the upper respiratory tract the primary site of action. Although the effects are similar to those caused by typical riot control agents (e.g. CS), they are slower in onset and longer in duration, often lasting several hours.[1] After a latency period of 5–10 minutes irritation of the eyes, lungs and mucous membranes develops followed by headache, nausea and persistent vomiting.[1]

DM is now regarded as obsolete. It has been widely replaced by riot control agents such as CS which are less toxic and more rapid in onset of symptoms. Early battlefield use was intended to be via "Adamsite candles". These were large metal tubes containing a smoke composition made of Adamsite plus a slow burning pyrotechnic composition. A series of candles were lit and the Adamsite-laden smoke allowed to drift towards the enemy.

North Korea has been accused of producing Adamsite at its Aoji-ri Chemical Complex for stockpiling.[3]

References

  1. ^ a b c Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Materiel Disposal Program, U.S. National Research Council. Disposal of Chemical Agent Identification Sets, (Google Books), p. 15, National Academies Press, 1999, (ISBN 0-309-06879-7).
  2. ^ Adamsite (DM) Vomiting Agent. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. August 22, 2008. Retrieved December 22, 2008.
  3. ^ Chemical Agents: Adamsite. Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI). March 2003.

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Adamsite-(Y) — (or IMA1999 020) NaY(CO3)2·6H2O is a mineral of sodium, yttrium, carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen. It is named after Prof. Frank Dawson Adams, a Canadian geologist. Its Mohs scale rating is 3.External links* [http://www.mindat.org/min 7088.html… …   Wikipedia

  • adamsite — [ad′əmz īt΄] n. a yellow, odorless, crystalline compound, C6H4 (AsCl)(NH)C6H4, developed for use, in a vaporous form, in chemical warfare …   English World dictionary

  • Adamsite — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. L adamsite peut désigner trois substances chimiques différentes l adamsite (Y) Espèce minérale de la famille des carbonates de formule NaY[CO3]2· 6H2O[1] …   Wikipédia en Français

  • adamsite — /ad euhm zuyt /, n. Chem., Mil. a yellow irritant smoke, containing a poisonous form of arsenic and used as a harassing agent. Also called phenarsazine chloride, diphenylaminechlorarsine. [1920 25; named after R. ADAMS; see ITE1] * * * ▪ gas… …   Universalium

  • adamsite — A vomiting agent that has been used in military training and in riot control. [Roger Adams, Am. chemist] * * * ad·ams·ite ad əm .zīt n a yellow crystalline arsenical C12H9AsClN used as a respiratory irritant in some forms of tear gas called also …   Medical dictionary

  • adamsite — adamsitas statusas T sritis chemija apibrėžtis Kovinė nuodingoji medžiaga. formulė C₆H₄(AsCl)(NH)C₆H₄ atitikmenys: angl. adamsite rus. адамсит ryšiai: sinonimas – 10 chlor 5,10 dihidrofenarsazinas …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • adamsite — adamsitas statusas T sritis apsauga nuo naikinimo priemonių apibrėžtis Dirginamoji nuodingoji medžiaga, masinių neramumų malšinimo cheminė medžiaga; žali arba geltoni bekvapiai kristalai; lydymosi temperatūra 195 °C, virimo temperatūra 410 °C.… …   Apsaugos nuo naikinimo priemonių enciklopedinis žodynas

  • adamsite — noun An organic compound, diphenylaminechlorarsine, used as a riot control agent. Syn: DM …   Wiktionary

  • adamsite — ad·ams·ite …   English syllables

  • adamsite — /ˈædəmzaɪt/ (say aduhmzuyt) noun a yellow irritant smoke, containing a form of arsenic that is poisonous, used as a poison gas. Symbol: DM {named after Major Roger Adams, US soldier and chemist, 1889–1971, who invented it. See ite1} …   Australian English dictionary


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