name = Troms
alt_names_last = Romssa fylka
idnumber = 19
governor_date = 2006
governor_party = Høyre
mayor = Terje Olsen
mayor_date = 2007
mayor_party = Høyre
region = Nord-Norge
arearank = 4
area = 25877
arealand = 24884
areapercent = 8.18
population_as_of = 2008
populationrank = 15
population = 155,061
populationpercent = 3.33
populationdensity = 6
populationincrease = 2.0
gdp_as_of = 2001
gdprank = 15
gdppercent = 2.11
gdpcapita = 211,955
incomecapita = 133,300
munwebpage = www.tromsfylke.no
language = Neutral
demonym = TromsværingAudio|Troms.ogg|Troms or Romsa (
Sami language) is a county in North Norway, bordering Finnmarkto the northeast and Nordlandin the southwest. To the south is Norrbotten Länin Swedenand further southeast is a shorter border with Lapland Provincein Finland. To the west is the Norwegian Sea( Atlantic ocean). The entire county is located north of the Arctic circle.Until 1919 the county was formerly known as " Tromsø amt". On 1 July 2006, the Northern Sami name for the county, "Romsa", was granted official status along with Troms. [ [http://www.stedsnavn.org/ Offisielt samisk namn for Troms] , "Statens navnekonsulenter, retrieved 9 January 2006. no icon]
The county is, like the city of Tromsø, named after the island
Tromsøya( Old Norse"Trums"). For discussion of the name see under Tromsø.
Troms has a very rugged and indented coastline facing the
Norwegian Sea. However, the large and mountainous islands along the coast provide an excellent sheltered waterwayon the inside. Starting in the south, the largest islands are: northeastern part of Hinnøya(the southern part is in Nordland), Grytøya, Senja, Kvaløya, Ringvassøya, Reinøy, Vannøyand Arnøy. Some of these islands, most noteworthy here are several large fjords that stretch quite far inland. Starting in the south, the largest fjords are Vågsfjord, Andfjord(shared with Nordland), Malangen, Balsfjord, Ullsfjord, Lyngen(the municipality has its name from the fjord) and Kvænangen(fjord). The largest lake is Altevatnetin the interior of the county. There are mountains in all parts of Troms; the most alpine and striking are probably the Lyngen Alps("Lyngsalpene"), with several small glaciers and the highest mountain in the county, Jiekkevarre(1833 m). Several glaciers are located in Kvænangen, including parts of the Øksfjordjøkelen, the last glacier in mainland Norway to drop icebergs directly into the sea (this ended around 1900), and Jøkelfjord, where this happened, still is a spectacular landscape. The largest river in Troms (waterflow) is Målselva(in Målselv), and the largest (not the highest) waterfall is Målselvfossen(600 m long, 20 m high).
Located at a latitude of nearly 70°N, Troms has short, cool summers, but fairly mild winters along the coast due to the temperate sea; Torsvåg lighthouse in
Karlsøyhas 24 January-hr average of -1°C. Tromsø averages -4°C in January with a daily high of -2°C, while July averages 12°C with high of 15°C. Temperatures are typically below freezing for about 5 months (8 months in the mountains), from early November to the beginning of April, but coastal areas are moderated by the sea: with more than 130 years of official weather recordings, the coldest winter temperature ever recorded in Tromsø is -18.4°C. Thaws can occur even in mid-winter. There is often snow in abundance, and avalanches are not uncommon in winter. With the prevailing westerlies, lowland areas east of mountain ranges have less precipitation than areas west of the mountains. Skibotn(46 m) in Storfjordis the location in Norway which has recorded the most days/year with clear skies (no clouds). Precipitation in Skibotn is only 300 mm/year ( [http://met.no/observasjoner/troms/normaler_for_kommune_1939.html?kommuner ] ); while Tromsø, west of the Lyngen Alps, gets 1000 mm. However, Dividalen (228 m) in Målselvis the driest in Troms, with only 282 mm/year, and nearby Bardufoss(76 m) is one of the coldest locations in winter; January and 24 July-hr averages are -10.4°C (13°F) and 13°C (56°F). ( [http://met.no/observasjoner/troms/normaler_for_kommune_1924.html?kommuner ] ). Winter temperatures in Målselv and Barducan get down to -35°C (-32°F), while summer days can reach 30°C in inland valleys and the innermost fjord areas, but 16 - 22°C (65°F) is much more common. Along the outer seaboard, a summer day at 15°C is considered fairly warm. The mildest climate is in the south, Borkenes(36 m) in Kvæfjord(near Harstad) has January, July and year 24-hr averages -2.8°C (28°F), 12.6°C (55°F) and 4°C (39°F), with precipitation 820 mm/year ( [http://met.no/observasjoner/troms/normaler_for_kommune_1911.html?kommuner ] ).
red fox, hare, stoatand small rodents are common in all Troms, and brown bears are sighted in the interior in the summer. Other animals are reindeer(interior mountain areas, with sami owners), wolverine(interior mountain areas) otter(along the coast and rivers), lynx(in the forests), and harbour porpoisein the fjords. Some of the common birds are ptarmigan, sea eagles, seagulls and cormorants (coast). The sheltered valleys in the interior of Troms have the highest tree line(summer warmth and length is the limiting factor), with Downy birchreaching 700 m on the southern slope of Njunis; in all Troms birch forms the tree line, often 200 m above other trees. Rowan, aspen, willow, grey alder, and bird cherryare common in the lower elevations. Scots Pinereaches an elevation of almost 400 m in Dividalen, where some of the largest trees are 500 years old. The upper part of the valley is protected by Øvre Dividal National Park( [http://www.dirnat.no/dividal/ ] ), which was enlarged in 2006 ( [http://www.dirnat.no/content.ap?thisId=500026850&language=0 ] ).
The inland valleys, like Østerdalen (with Altevatnet), Kirkesdalen, Dividalen, Rostadalen, Signaldalen and Skibotndalen, are perfect for summer
hiking, with their varied nature, mostly dry climate and not too difficult terrain, although there are many accessible mountains for energetic hikers. Reisadalen ( [http://www.dirnat.no/content.ap?thisId=3014 ] , [http://www.aftenposten.no/forbruker/reise/article192030.ece ] ) is one of the most idyllic river valleys in Norway; from Storslettin Nordreisathe valley stretches south-southeast, covered with birch, pine, grey alder, and willow. The northern part of the valley is 5 km wide, with 1200 m high mountains on both sides; the southern part of the valley narrows to a few hundred metres (canyon), with increasingly dry climate. The valley floor is fairly flat with little height difference for 70 km (to Bilto); the Reisa rivercan be navigated by canoe or river boat for much of this distance. The salmon swim 90 km up the river, and some 137 different species of birds have been observed. Several rivers cascade down into the valley; the "Mollisfossen" waterfall is 269 m ( [http://www.mollis.no/Reisadalen/Mollis_mue_vann.htm ] ). The valley ends 120 km southeast of Storslett, as the vast and more barren Finnmarksvidda plateau takes over. Reisa National Park( [http://www.dirnat.no/reisa/ ] ) protects the upper part of the valley.
The city of
Tromsø, in the north central part, is the county seat and an Arcticseaport, and seat of the world's northernmost university, renowned for research about the aurora borealis. The University of Tromsø has an astrophysical observatory located in Skibotn ( [http://www.phys.uit.no/fysikk/astro/skibotn_main.htm ] ). Tromsø is the only municipality with a strong population growth; most of the smaller municipalities experience decreasing populations as the young and educated move to the cities, often in the southern part of Norway. Harstadis a commercial centre for the southern part of the county. Along the coast and on the islands, fishing is dominant. Important ports for the fishing fleet are Skjervøy, Tromsø and Harstad. There is also some agriculture, especially in the southern part, which has a longer growing season(150 days in Harstad). Balsfjordis often regarded to be the most northern municipality with substantial agricultural activity in Norway, although there is also agriculture further north.
The Norwegian armed forces is a vital employer in Troms, having the seat of the 6th army division,
Bardufoss Air Station, helicopter wings and radar stations in the county.
The busiest airport is
Tromsø Airport, Langnes. The southern part of Troms is served by Harstad/Narvik Airport, Evenes. The E6 cuts through the county from Nordland into Gratangenin the south to Kvænangenin the north and then into Finnmark. The E8 road runs from Tromsø to Finland via Nordkjosbotnand the Skibotn valley. There are several large bridges; some of the largest are Tjeldsund Bridge, Mjøsund Bridge, Gisund Bridge, Tromsø Bridgeand Sandnessund Bridge. There are several undersea road tunnels; Rolla to Andørja (in Ibestad), Tromsøya to the mainland (Tromsø), Kvaløya to Ringvassøya and Skjervøy to the mainland.
Troms has been settled since the early
stone age, and there are prehistoric rock carvingsat several locations (for instance Ibestadand Balsfjord). These people made their living from hunting, fishing and gathering.
The first of the current ethnic groups to settle in the county were the
Sami people(inhabiting Finnmorkan area much larger than today's Finnmarkcovering most of Troms). Archeologicalevidence has shown that a Norse iron-based culture in the late Roman Iron Age(200 - 400 AD), reaches as far north as Karlsøy(near today's Tromsø), but not further northeast. lived in the same fjord areas (usually just slightly further into the fjord Fact|date=August 2007) and in the interior.Fact|date=August 2007 From the 10th century, Norse settlements start to appear along the coast further north, reaching into what is today the county of Finnmark.Fact|date=August 2007
Southern and mid-Troms was a
petty kingdomin the Viking age, and considered part of Hålogaland. Ottar from Hålogalandmet King Alfred the Greataround 890. The Viking leader Tore Hund, who according to the sagas spearedKing Olav Haraldssonat the Battle of Stiklestadand traded and fought in Bjarmaland, had his seat at Bjarkøy. The nearby Trondenes(today's Harstad) was also a central Viking power centre, and seems to have been a gathering place.
The county was established in 1866.
Kven" residents of "Troms" are largely descendants of Finnish immigrants who arrived in the area before the 19th century from Finlandbecause of war and famine. They settled mainly in the northeastern part of Troms, in the municipalities of Kvænangen, Nordreisa, Skjervøy, Gáivuotna - Kåfjordand Storfjord, and some also reached Balsfjordand Lyngen.
Coat of arms
The coat of arms is from modern times (1960), but it has old roots: the nobleman
Bjarne Erlingssonof Bjarkøy(died 1313) had a griffin in his coat of arms. (See also the coat of arms of Bjarkøy.)
Troms County has a total of 25 municipalities:
Bjarkøy Dyrøy Gratangen Harstad Ibestad Gáivuotna - Kåfjord Karlsøy Kvæfjord Kvænangen Lavangen Lenvik Lyngen Målselv Nordreisa Salangen Skånland Skjervøy Sørreisa Storfjord Torsken Tranøy Tromsø
*Tollefsrud, J.; Tjørve, E.; Hermansen, P.: "Perler i Norsk Natur - En Veiviser". Aschehoug, 1991.
*Moen, A. 1998. "Nasjonalatlas for Norge: Vegetasjon." Statens Kartverk, Hønefoss.
*Norwegian Meteorological Institute ( [http://met.no/met/vanlig_var/index.html ] ).
* [http://www.visitnorway.com/templates/NTRDestinationArticle.aspx?id=192914 Visitnorway.com Troms]
* [http://www.visittroms.no/index.php?option=com_content&task=blogcmecategory&id=198&Itemid=162&lang=en Troms touring association]
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