Climate of Barcelona

Barcelona
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
41
 
13
4
 
 
29
 
15
5
 
 
42
 
16
7
 
 
49
 
18
9
 
 
59
 
21
12
 
 
42
 
24
16
 
 
20
 
28
19
 
 
61
 
28
19
 
 
85
 
26
17
 
 
91
 
22
13
 
 
58
 
17
8
 
 
51
 
14
6
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: WMO [1]

Barcelona and its metropolitan area has a Subtropical-Mediterranean climate[2] (Köppen climate classification: Csa),[3] with mild, humid winters and warm, dry summers. According to Troll-Paffen climate classification, Barcelona has warm-temperate subtropical climate (Warmgemäßigt-subtropisches Zonenklima).[4] According to Siegmund/Frankenberg climate classification, Barcelona has subtropical climate.[5] Barcelona is located on the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula, so Atlantic west winds often arrive in Barcelona with low humidity, producing no rain. The proximity of the Atlantic, its latitude, and the relief, are the reasons why the summers are not as dry as in most other Mediterranean Basin locations.

Contents

Temperature

General

Yearly max temp
20 °C (68 °F)
Yearly mean temp
15 °C (59 °F)
Yearly min temp
11 °C (52 °F)

Its average annual temperature is 20 °C (68 °F) during the day and 11 °C (52 °F) at night. In the coldest month – January, typically the temperature ranges from 8 to 17 °C (46 to 63 °F) during the day and 2 to 10 °C (36 to 50 °F) at night. In the warmest month – August, the typically temperature ranges from 25 to 31 °C (77 to 88 °F) during the day and about 20 °C (68 °F) at night. Large fluctuations in temperature are rare.[6]

Seasonal climate

Winter in Barcelona, mild temperatures and partly "green" flora

Winter

Winters in Barcelona are mild. December, January and February are the coldest months, with average temperatures around 14 °C (57 °F) during the day and 5 °C (41 °F) at night. Slight frost at night is more common on the hills around the city and in the depths of the metropolitan area (far from the sea). Frost during the day never happened in the city and metropolitan area. In winter the predominatingly temperature during the day is 10–17 °C (50–63 °F), only yearly about four days recorded temperature below 10 °C (50 °F).

Summer

Generally – "summer's" / "holiday" season lasts about six months, from May to October. July and August are the warmest months, with average temperatures around 27–28 °C (81–82 °F) during the day and 20 °C (68 °F) at night. In June and September the average temperature is around 25 °C (77 °F) during the day and 15 °C (59 °F) at night, however in May and October the average temperature is around 21 °C (70 °F) during the day and 13 °C (55 °F) at night. Heats with temperature above 32 °C (90 °F) are rate.

Transitional months

Two months – April and November – are transitional, sometimes temperature exceeds 20 °C (68 °F), with average temperature of 17–18 °C (63–64 °F) during the day and 8–9 °C (46–48 °F) at night.[6]

Sea

Average annual temperature of sea is about 18 °C (64 °F). In the coldest month – January, the average sea temperature is 13 °C (55 °F). In the warmest month – August, the average sea temperature is 25 °C (77 °F).[7]

Average sea temperature (°C)[7]
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
13 13 13 14 17 20 23 25 23 20 17 15

Sunshine

Sunshine duration is 2,524 hours per year, from 138 - average 4.5 hours of sunshine at day in December to 310 - average 10 hours of sunshine at day) in July.[6]

Daylight

Barcelona enjoys one of the most optimal number of hours of daylight in Europe. Days in winter are not as short as in the northern part of the continent, the average hours of daylight in December, January and February is 10 hours[7] (for comparison: London[8] or Moscow[9] or Warsaw[10] - about 8 hours).

Average hours of daylight[7]
Hours Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Day 10 11 12 13 15 15 15 14 12 11 10 9
Twilight/Night 14 13 12 11 9 9 9 10 12 13 14 15

Precipitation

Barcelona has on average only 55 precipitation days a year (≥ 1 mm). The average annual precipitation is less than 640 mm (25 inches).[6]

Humidity

Average relative humidity is 72%, from 69% in July to 75% in October.[6]

Temperature extremes

The highest temperature recorded during the day is 37.4 °C (99.3 °F) on the 27 August 2010. On the August 2003 reported record, the average maximum temperature during the day was 32.8 °C (91.0 °F). The coldest temperature recorded was −8 °C (17.6 °F) at night on 27 December 1962.[11]

Snow

Snowfalls are very rare, but slight frost at night is more common on the hills around the city and in the depths of the metropolitan area (far from the sea).[12][13] Two heavy snowfalls occurred in Christmas 1962,[14] and according to old news sources, in 1887. Snow, the most recent ones took place on 8 March 2010, 6 January 2009, 27 January 2006, 28 February 2005, 29 February 2004, 18 February 2003, 14 December 2001 and the 21st November 1999. February 1987 are recording two snow days in the month.[11]

Fog

Barcelona is generally a sunny city, however, some days of fog and spells of cloudy days are not rare. Sea fog is frequent in early spring, when the first warm African air masses come in over the cold sea water.

Thunderstorms

Thunderstorms, which occasionally reach severe limits, are common from mid August until November. The most recent major summer storm was on the 31 July 2002,[15] when over 200 mm (7.87 in) of rain were recorded at some observatories.

Winds

Though Barcelona is normally not a windy city, it is affected by sea breezes from May/June to September and winds from the west and northwest in winter. Eastern gales sometimes cause floods on the coastline. East and northeast winds can exceed 100 km/h (62.14 mph). In winter Barcelona is sometimes affected by the tramontana or mistral winds, like other places in the Northwestern Mediterranean Basin.

Seasonal information

In winters, because of the mild temperatures, part of flora is "green" (green palms etc.) and part is "brown" (brown leaves on the trees). December and January is "colorful" months, like October in the northern half of Europe and USA. Leaves of the trees are falling around February. In March, leaves of the trees begin to grow again. Due to the fact, that in Barcelona snow falls on average once every two years, for residents are popular winter resorts in the Pyrenees. Is a good solution because it does not need to freeze in the winter, how they want the snow to go to the mountains. Winter resorts in the Pyrenees are situated about 100-150 km from the city, about 1-2 hour drive by car (exist a highways and motorways - mainly C-16, C-17 and AP-7)). Because of the climate and geographical location, the city - although it was the organizer of the 1992 Summer Olympics - aspires to organize the 2022 Winter Olympics. The opening, closing, medal ceremonies and indoor sports would be held in Barcelona, while outdoor sports would be held in ski resorts in the Pyrenees, mainly La Molina.[16] Summers in Barcelona area is long and warm. Summer temperatures - exceeds 20 °C (68 °F) - begin to appear as early as April, however, in this month the sea temperature is still cool - about 15 °C (59 °F). The real season is from May. Summer season ends in October, but also in November often temperatures exceeds 20 °C (68 °F) and the sea temperature is mild - 17 °C (63 °F). In the season (6 months), the average temperatures is 21–28 °C (70–82 °F) during the day and the average sea temperature is 22 °C (72 °F).

Climatic data

Climate data for Barcelona
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 13.4
(56.1)
14.6
(58.3)
15.9
(60.6)
17.6
(63.7)
20.5
(68.9)
24.2
(75.6)
27.5
(81.5)
28.0
(82.4)
25.5
(77.9)
21.5
(70.7)
17.0
(62.6)
14.3
(57.7)
20.0
Daily mean °C (°F) 8.9
(48.0)
10.0
(50.0)
11.3
(52.3)
13.1
(55.6)
16.3
(61.3)
20.0
(68.0)
23.1
(73.6)
23.7
(74.7)
21.1
(70.0)
17.1
(62.8)
12.6
(54.7)
10.0
(50.0)
15.6
Average low °C (°F) 4.4
(39.9)
5.3
(41.5)
6.7
(44.1)
8.5
(47.3)
12.0
(53.6)
15.7
(60.3)
18.6
(65.5)
19.3
(66.7)
16.7
(62.1)
12.6
(54.7)
8.1
(46.6)
5.7
(42.3)
11.1
Precipitation mm (inches) 41
(1.61)
39
(1.54)
42
(1.65)
49
(1.93)
59
(2.32)
42
(1.65)
20
(0.79)
61
(2.4)
85
(3.35)
91
(3.58)
58
(2.28)
51
(2.01)
640
(25.2)
humidity 73 71 71 71 73 72 69 72 73 75 74 73 72
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 5 4 5 5 5 4 2 4 5 6 5 5 55
Avg. snowy days 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Sunshine hours 149 163 200 220 244 262 310 282 219 180 146 138 2,524
Source: World Meteorological Organization (UN),[17] Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[6]

References

  1. ^ "Weather Information for Barcelona". World Weather Information Service. http://www.worldweather.org/083/c01232.htm. Retrieved 2010-08-02. 
  2. ^ "Servei Meteorològic de Catalunya". Meteo.cat. http://www.meteo.cat/mediamb_xemec/servmet/index.html. Retrieved 2009-05-22. 
  3. ^ "World Map of Köppen−Geiger Climate Classification". http://koeppen-geiger.vu-wien.ac.at/. 
  4. ^ Climatic map by Istituto Geografico De Agostini, according to Troll-Paffen climate classification
  5. ^ Die Klimatypen der Erde - Pädagogische Hochschule in Heidelberg
  6. ^ a b c d e f "Valores Climatológicos Normales. Barcelona / Aeropuerto". http://www.aemet.es/es/elclima/datosclimatologicos/valoresclimatologicos?l=0076&k=cat. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  7. ^ a b c d "Weather2Travel.com: Barcelona Climate Guide". http://www.weather2travel.com/climate-guides/spain/barcelona.php. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  8. ^ http://www.weather2travel.com/climate-guides/united-kingdom/london.php
  9. ^ http://www.weather2travel.com/climate-guides/russia-europe/moscow.php
  10. ^ http://www.weather2travel.com/climate-guides/poland/warsaw.php
  11. ^ a b "Valores Extremos for Barcelona" (pdf) (www version) – Agencia Estatal de Meteorología
  12. ^ "TETHYS". Tethys.cat. http://tethys.cat/. Retrieved 2009-05-22. 
  13. ^ "Barcelona es, o no, ciudad de nieves | Associació Catalana de Meteorologia". Acam.cat. http://acam.cat/node/90. Retrieved 2009-07-07. 
  14. ^ "Situacions extraodinaries | Associació Catalana de Meteorologia". Acam.cat. 1962-12-27. http://www.acam.cat/?q=taxonomy/term/18&page=3. Retrieved 2009-05-22. 
  15. ^ "Montgat". Geocities.com. Archived from the original on 2009-10-27. http://www.webcitation.org/query?url=http://www.geocities.com/capecanaveral/hangar/3283/Montgat.html&date=2009-10-26+20:55:00. Retrieved 2009-05-22. 
  16. ^ "Barcelona optará a los Juegos Olímpicos de Invierno 2022". Publico.es. http://www.publico.es/deportes/285155/barcelona/optara/juegos/olimpicos/invierno/ano. Retrieved March 5, 2011. 
  17. ^ "Weather Information for Barcelona". http://www.worldweather.org/083/c01232.htm. 

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