Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid Combination of Amoxicillin Penicillin antibiotic Clavulanic acid Beta-lactamase inhibitor Clinical data Pregnancy cat. B(US) Legal status POM (UK) ℞-only (US) Routes oral, iv Identifiers CAS number ATC code J01 PubChem ChemSpider ChEMBL (what is this?)
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (INN) or co-amoxiclav (BAN) is a combination antibiotic consisting of amoxicillin trihydrate, a β-lactam antibiotic, and potassium clavulanate, a β-lactamase inhibitor. This combination results in an antibiotic with an increased spectrum of action and restored efficacy against amoxicillin-resistant bacteria that produce β-lactamase.
The combination was invented around 1977/78 by British scientists working at Beecham (now part of GlaxoSmithKline), which filed for US patent protection for the drug combination in 1979. A patent was granted in 1984. Augmentin is the original name used by its inventor.
Suspensions of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid are available for use in children. They must be refrigerated to maintain effectiveness.
Amongst the possible side-effects of this medication are diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, thrush, and a few other conditions. These do not usually require medical attention. However, if the patient experiences an allergic reaction to the medication, jaundice, fever, or severe diarrhea, it is necessary to contact a doctor immediately. As with all antimicrobial agents, pseudomembranous colitis has been associated with the use of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid. Amoxicillin is known to have caused liver failure in some patients. Amoxicillin is a member of the penicillin family of antibiotics, and therefore should not be taken by patients allergic to penicillin.
The amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combination is also used in the treatment of, among other infections, periodontitis and kennel cough in dogs; urinary tract infections, skin and soft tissue infections in cats; enteritis and navel ill in calves; respiratory tract infections, soft tissue infections, metritis and mastitis in cattle; respiratory tract infections, colibacillosis, mastitis, metritis and agalactia in pigs. In combination with prednisolone it is used for intra-mammary infusion for the treatment of mastitis in lactating cows. Trade names include Clavaseptin, Clavamox and Synulox.
Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid is banned from use in domestic-food animals (cattle, swine, etc.) in both the US and Europe, in the UK synulox can be used in "domestic-food animals" as long as a specified withdrawal period is adhered to.
Bacterial antibiotic resistance is a growing problem in veterinary medicine. Amoxicillin/clavulanic acid is reported to be effective against clinical Klebsiella infections, but is not efficacious against Pseudomonas infections.
- Amoksiklav (Romania, Serbia)
- AMOX/K CLAV (875mg, Sandoz; US)
- Amoxicilina-Clavulánico (Spain)
- Amoxycillin-clavulanate (US)
- Amoxicillin-clavulanate (rINN)
- Amoxicilline-clavulanique (France)
- Amoxiclav (Belgium)
- Amoxi Clav (Canada)
- Augmentin (GlaxoSmithKline; originally Beecham, 1981)
- Augmex (Singapore)
- Augpen (Zuventus; India)
- Clamoxyl Duo Oral Suspension (Australia)
- Co-amoxiclav (UK, KSA, Ireland, South Africa)
- Moxiclav Duo (Australia)
- Xcilan (Ovia Pharma Pvt. Ltd.; India)
- polyclav625 (India)
- Аугментин (Russia)
- ^ a b British National Formulary (54 ed.). September 2007.
- ^ "India Product List". Dr. Reddy's. http://www.drreddys.com/products/popups/gen_ind_productlist.html. Retrieved 2011-07-24.
- ^ US 4441609
- ^ "Augmentin -- Prescribing Information" (PDF). GlaxoSmithKline. December 2006. http://us.gsk.com/products/assets/us_augmentin.pdf. Retrieved 2008-01-28.
- ^ Davies BE, Boon R, Horton R, Reubi FC, Descoeudres CE (1988). "Pharmacokinetics of amoxycillin and clavulanic acid in haemodialysis patients following intravenous administration of Augmentin" (PDF & scanned). Br J Clin Pharmacol 26 (4): 385–90. PMC 1386558. PMID 3190988. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1386558.
- ^ , http://www.sheltermedicine.com/portal/is_infectious_tracheobronchitis_canine.shtml
- ^ , http://www.dogchatforum.com/kennel-cough2.htm
- ^ Federation of Veterinarians in Europe Position Paper: Antibiotic Resistance & Prudent Use of Antibiotics in Veterinary Medicine
Corporate Directors: Products: Antibacterials: cell envelope antibiotics (J01C-J01D) Intracellular Glycopeptide β-lactams/
(penams)Mecillinam (Pivmecillinam) • SulbenicillinPenemsCefixime# • Ceftriaxone# • antipseudomonal (Ceftazidime# • Cefoperazone) • Cefcapene • Cefdaloxime • Cefdinir • Cefditoren • Cefetamet • Cefmenoxime • Cefodizime • Cefotaxime • Cefpimizole • Cefpiramide • Cefpodoxime • Cefsulodin • Cefteram • Ceftibuten • Ceftiolene • Ceftizoxime • oxacephem (Flomoxef, Latamoxef ‡)4th (antips-)Ceftobiprole • Ceftaroline fosamilCombinations
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