Serbia under German occupation
Name of territory Serbia
Occupying power Nazi Germany Historical era 6 April, 1941 - October, 1944 Supreme authority German Military administration Puppet governments Commissary Government followed by Government of National Salvation Capital Belgrade Languages Serbian, German Religion Serbian Orthodox,
Population 3,810,000 (1941) Currency Serbian Dinar
Serbia under German occupation refers to an administrative area in occupied Yugoslavia established by Nazi Germany following the invasion and dismantling of Yugoslavia in April of 1941. The territory was placed under the authority of the German Military Administration in Serbia (German: Militärverwaltung in Serbien; Serbian: Vojna uprava u Srbiji, Војна управа у Србији), which set up Serbian Quisling civil governments: initially the short-lived Commissary Government (Komesarska vlada, Комесарска влада) under Milan Aćimović and subsequently the Government of National Salvation (Vlada Nacionalnog Spasa, Влада Националног Спаса) under Milan Nedić, which remained in power until 1944. The territory included most of present-day Central Serbia, the northern part of Kosovo (around Kosovska Mitrovica), and Banat, which was an autonomous region governed by its German minority.
In some sources, the territory is known as "Nedić's Serbia". Despite the ambitions of the Nedić government to establish an independent state, the area remained subordinated to the German military authorities until the end of its existence.
- 1 History
- 2 Internal affairs
- 3 German military commanders
- 4 Collaborationist armed forces
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Currency
- 7 Culture
- 8 Legacy
- 9 Concentration camps
- 10 Symbols
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 External links
In April 1941, Germany and its allies invaded and occupied Yugoslavia. The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was then carved up, the territory that was not annexed by Germany or given to the surrounding Axis neighbors, including the new Nazi-puppet Independent State of Croatia in the west, Italian-occupied territories in the south, Hungarian-occupied territories in the north-west, and Bulgarian-occupied territories in the south-east, became part of a German-created puppet state, governed by a Serbian collaborationist administration. The former Yugoslav King, the teenage Peter II headed the Pro-Allied Royal Yugoslav Government-In-Exile).
On 30 April, a pro-German Serbian administration was formed under Milan Aćimović. During the summer of 1941, two resistance factions were formed: Serb royalist Chetniks, and communist and unionist Partisans. They began small-scale operations and diversions against local loyalist forces and German military. The uprising became a serious concern for the Germans as most of their forces were deployed to Russia; only three divisions of which were in the country. On 13 August, 546 Serbs, including many of the country's most prominent and influential leaders, issued an appeal to the Serbian nation which called for loyalty to the Nazis and condemned the Partisan resistance as unpatriotic. Two weeks after the appeal, seventy-five prominent Serbs convened a meeting in Belgrade where it was decided to form a Government of National Salvation under Serbian General Milan Nedić to replace the existing Serbian administration. On 29 August, the German authorities installed General Nedić and his government in power. Real power resided with the German occupiers rather than under Nedić's government.
The Germans were short of police and military forces in Serbia, and as a result came to rely on armed Serbian formations to maintain order. By October, 1941, Serbian forces under German supervision had become increasingly effective against the resistance. They were armed and equipped by the Germans. Serbian collaborationist forces supported by the Serbian government included the Serbian State Guards, the Serbian Volunteer Corps (whose members were largely members of the Yugoslav National Movement "Zbor" (Jugoslovenski narodni pokret "Zbor") or ZBOR party of Dimitrije Ljotić), and the rogue Chetnik faction of Kosta Pećanac. Some of these formations wore the uniform of the Royal Yugoslav Army as well as helmets and uniforms purchased from Italy, while others from Germany. These forces were involved, either directly or indirectly, in the mass killings of Jews, Roma and those Serbs who sided with any anti-German resistance or were suspects of being a member of such.[page needed] According to one single source (Jasminka Udovički, James Ridgeway; Burn This House: The Making and Unmaking of Yugoslavia, 1997), these forces were also responsible for the killings of many Croats and Muslims, but this data is not confirmed by other sources. According to other source, the Croats who took refuge in Nedić's Serbia were not discriminated against. After the war, the Serbian involvement in many of these events and the issue of Serbian collaboration were subject to historical revisionism.
“ The apparatus of the German occupying forces in Serbia was supposed to maintain order and peace in this region and to exploit its industrial and other riches, necessary for the Germany war economy. But, however well organized, it could have not realized its plans successfully if the old apparatus of state power, the organs of state administration, the gendarmes, and the Police had not been at its service. ”
Several concentration camps were formed in Serbia and at the 1942 Anti-Freemason Exhibition in Belgrade the city was pronounced to be free of Jews (Judenfrei). On 1 April 1942, a Serbian Gestapo was formed. It is estimated that approximately 80,000 people were killed from 1941 to 1944 in the German-run concentration camps in Nedić's Serbia. Serbia was proclaimed one of the Judenfrei (free of Jews) countries in Europe.
History of Serbia
This article is part of a series
By century 9th · 10th Prehistory Starčevo · Vinča · Scordisci · Triballi Roman (Illyria; Moesia · Pannonia · Dacia) Middle Ages Principality (768-969) (Rascia · Doclea · Zachlumia · Travunia · Pagania) Catepanate · Theme (969–1043) Vojislavljević Doclea (998–1101) Grand Principality (1101–1217) Kingdom (1217–1346) Empire (1346–1371) Fall · Lazar's Serbia (1371–1402) Despotate (1402–1459) Early modern Ottoman (1402–1912) Habsburg Kingdom of Serbia (1718–1739) Great Serb Migrations Modern Serbia Revolution (1804–1815) Principality of Serbia (1817–1882) Kingdom of Serbia (1882–1918) Yugoslavia (1918–1990/2006) German Occupation (1941–1944) Socialist Republic (1944–1990) Federal Republic, then State Union (1990–2006) Republic of Serbia (since 2006) Timeline
In 1941, Harold Turner (1941–1942), Walter Uppenkamp (1942), Egon Bönner (1942–1943), and Franz Neuhausen (1943–1944) were the German military governors. Böhme was given emergency powers to govern the territory since July 1941 and served as a defacto governor of the region even before the administration was solidified in August. Böhme was relieved of the position later in 1941. Staatsrat (privy councillor) Harold Turner and SS Untersturmfuhrer Fritz Stracke handled most of the affairs of the administration while Nedić served as a nominal local leader and as a symbol of legitimization of the German presence there. The regime was unsuccessful in detracting Serbs from rebelling against the occupiers of Yugoslavia and had little support amongst Serbs. This was due to acts of extreme violence and ethnic persecution of Serbs by the German occupiers and Ustashe extreme nationalists in Croatia, most Serbs associated with opposition forces who fought against both the German occupation forces and the Ustashe regime of Croatia. The regime attempted to reduce the large Serbian resistance against the German military occupation of Yugoslavia, but continued atrocities by German occupation authorities.
The internal affairs of Serbia were affected by Nazi racial laws. These were introduced in all occupied territories with immediate effects on Jews and Roma people, as well as causing the imprisonment of those opposed to Nazism. The region of Banat was ruled by its local minority German population. Despite domination by the German occupiers across the military administration, it maintained its own currency, the Serbian dinar which replaced the Yugoslav dinar which existed until 1945, when the Germans and the collaboratists were defeated and replaced by the Yugoslav communist state, which scrapped the Serbian dinar and other currencies of the Independent State of Croatia and Montenegro in 1945.
The administration's first Serbian government leader was Milan Aćimović. In late August Aćimović stepped down and was replaced by Milan Nedić, who hoped that his collaboration would save what was left of Serbia and avoid total destruction by Nazi reprisals, he personally kept in contact with Yugoslavia's exiled King Peter, assuring the King that he was not another Pavelić (the Croatian Ustashe leader), and Nedić's defenders claimed he was like Philippe Pétain of Vichy France (who was claimed to have defended the French people while accepting the occupation), and denied that he was leading a weak Quisling regime. The Serbian collaborationist government failed to win the favour of Serbs, who largely associated with the two key opposition groups, the Serb nationalist Chetniks and the communist Yugoslav Partisans.
The real power rested with the administration's Military Commanders, who controlled both the German armed forces and Serb collaborationist forces in the administration. In 1941, the administration's Military Commander, Franz Böhme, responded to Serb attacks on German forces by ordering reprisal attacks in which 100 Serbs would be killed for each German killed and 50 Serbs killed for each wounded German. The first set of reprisals were the massacres in Kragujevac and in Kraljevo by the Wehrmacht. These proved to be counterproductive to the German forces in the aftermath, as it ruined any possibility of gaining any substantial numbers of Serbs to support the collaborationist regime of Nedić. Additionally, it was discovered that in Kraljevo, a Serbian workforce group which was building airplanes for the Axis forces had been among the victims. The massacres caused Nedić to urge that the arbitrary shooting of Serbs be stopped, Böhme agreed and ordered a halt to the executions until further notice. Approximately 14,500 Serbian Jews - 90 percent of Serbia's Jewish population of 16,000 - were murdered in World War II.
By late 1941, with each attack by Chetniks and Partisans, brought more reprisal massacres being committed by the German armed forces against Serbs. The largest Chetnik opposition group led by Colonel Dragoljub "Draža" Mihailović decided that it was in the best interests of Serbs to temporarily shut down operations against the Germans until the possibility of decisively beating the German armed forces looked possible. Mihailović justified this by saying "When it is all over and, with God's help, I was preserved to continue the struggle, I resolved that I would never again bring such misery on the country unless it could result in total liberation". Mihailović then reluctantly decided to allow some Chetniks to join Nedic's regime to launch attacks against Tito's Partisans. Mihailović saw as the main threat to Chetniks and, in his view, Serbs, as the Partisans who refused to back down fighting, which would almost certainly result in more German reprisal massacres of Serbs. With arms provided by the Germans, those Chetniks who joined Nedic's collaborationist armed forces, so they could pursue their civil war against the partisans without fear of attack by the Germans, whom they intended to later turn against. This resulted in an increase of recruits to the regime's armed forces. One of Mihailović's closest personal friends and collaborators, Pavle Đurišić, simultaneously held a command for Nedić, and in 1943 tried to exterminate the Muslims, Croats, and pro-Partisans of the Sandžak region. The massacres he carried out were compared to the Croatian Ustashe and Muslim massacres of Serbs in the Independent State of Croatia in 1941.
Prime Ministers of the puppet governments
Other key politicians were
Serbia was divided into 14 Okruzi (districts) and 101 Srezovi (municipalities). The Okrug of Veliki Bečkerek (also known as The Banat) was formally part of Serbia, but was effectively run as an autonomous state by the local ethnic German population.
German military commanders
Commanders of the German Military Administration were:
- Franz Böhme (1941)
- Harald Turner (1941-1942)
- Walter Uppenkamp (1942)
- Egon Bönner (1942-1943)
- Franz Neuhausen (1943-1944)
Collaborationist armed forces
Aside from German armed forces which were the dominant Axis military in the territory, there were two Serbian collaborationist military forces, the Serbian State Guards (Srpska Državna Straža) and the Serbian Volunteer Command both formed in 1941. In 1943, the Serbian Volunteer Command was renamed the Serbian Volunteer Corps (Srpski Dobrovoljački Korpus), with Kosta Mušicki as the operational leader.
Initially, the recruits were largely paramilitaries and supporters of the fascist Yugoslav National Movement "Zbor" (Jugoslovenski narodni pokret "Zbor", or ZBOR) party of Dimitrije Ljotić. In late 1941, troops from the Mihailović Chetnik formations dispersed following conflicts with Partisan and German forces, and many of those troops join Nedić's legalized Chetnik. Nedić's forces fought Communist Partisans as well as Royalist Chetniks who were not willing to sign an agreement of cooperation.
Recruits to the collaborationist forces increased in numbers following joining of Chetnik groups loyal to Kosta Pećanac. By their own postwar account, these Chetniks joined with the intention to destroy Tito's Partisans, rather than supporting Nedić and the German occupation forces, whom they later intended to turn against.
The Serbian Volunteer Corps were formed in the spring of 1943. At the end of 1944, the Corps and its German liaison staff were transferred to the Waffen-SS as the Serbian SS Corps and comprised a staff from four regiments each with three battalions and a training battalion.
In addition to Serbian collaborations forces, members of the Volksdeutsche (ethnic German minority) from Serbia and Banat were serving in the armed forces of the Reich, most of them in the Prinz Eugen Division. This division was responsible for war crimes committed against the peoples of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The population of this state was composed primarily of the Serbs (up to 3,000,000) and Germans (around 500,000). Other nationalities have been separated from Serbia and included within their respective ethnic states- f.e. the Croats, Bulgarians, Albanians, Hungarians etc. Most of the Serbs however ended up outside the nazi Serbian state, as they were forced to join other states.
Of the 16,700 Jewish people in Serbia and the Banat, 15,000 were killed. In total, it is estimated that approximately 80.000 people were killed from 1941 to 1944 in concentration camps in Nedić's Serbia.
After the collapse of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, the Serbian civil government had the National bank of Kingdom of Yugoslavia. This was transformed into the Serbian National Bank. It introduced the Serbian Dinar as the only legal currency and disabled the circulation of other currencies in the territories of Serbia occupied by neighboring countries. The traditional Obrenović coat of arms was found on bills and coins minus the royal crown.
With the dissolution of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, many newspapers went out of print while new papers were formed. On 16 May 1941 the first new daily, Novo vreme (New Times), was formed. The weekly Naša borba (Our Struggle) was formed by the fascist ZBOR party in 1941, its title echoing Hitler's Mein Kampf (My Struggle). The regime itself released the Službene novine (Official Gazette) which attempted to continue the tradition of the official paper of the same name which was released in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.
The state of film in Serbia was somewhat improved compared to the situation in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. During that time, the number of cinemas in Belgrade was increased to 21, with a daily attendance of between 12,000 and 15,000 people. The two most popular films were 1943's Nevinost bez zaštite and Golden City which were watched by 62,000 and 108,000 respectively.
With the dissolution of the Yugoslav First League in the spring of 1940, Serbia had its own national football competition. Competing teams included BSK Belgrade, SK 1913 (SK Jugoslavija) and FK Obilić.
The Serbian National Theatre in Belgrade remained open during this time. Works performed during this period included La bohème, The Marriage of Figaro, Der Freischütz, Tosca, Dva cvancika and Nesuđeni zetovi.
The Serbian State Railways (Srpske državne železnice, SDŽ) was the national railway company of the state.
In 2008, the non-parliamentary Serbian Liberal Party launched a proposal to the County Court in Belgrade to rehabilitate the Serbian leader Milan Nedić. This has met no support from any political party and also met opposition from the Jewish community of Serbia.
- Sajmište concentration camp (Belgrade)
- Banjica concentration camp (near Belgrade)
- Crveni krst concentration camp (Niš)
- Topovske Šupe (Belgrade)
- Dulag 183 (Šabac)
Symbols used by the Serbian puppet government were the flag, the coat of arms, and the anthem Oj Srbijo, mila mati (Oh Serbia, dear mother).
- Banat (1941–1944)
- Republic of Užice
- Kingdom of Montenegro (1941-1944)
- Independent State of Croatia
- Military history of Hungary during World War II
- Military history of Bulgaria during World War II
- Military history of Albania during World War II
- World War II
- Anti-Freemason Exhibition
- Balkans Campaign
- People's Liberation War
- ^ a b Wolff, Robert Lee, (1956). Balkans in Our Time Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Harvard University Press. P. 204.
- ^ a b c d Bailey, Ronald H. 1980 (original edition from 1978). Partisans and guerrillas (World War II; v. 12). Chicago, Illinois, USA: Time-Life Books. P. 81.
- ^ Google Books search on "Nedić regime"
- ^ Wolff, Robert Lee, (1956). Balkans in Our Time Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Harvard University Press. p. 203-4.
- ^ a b Tomasević, Jozo. (2001). War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941-1945: Occupation and Collaboration. Stanford University Press.
- ^ http://beamte.freepage.de/cgi-bin/feets/freepage_ext/339483x434877d/rewrite/michaelaust/Texte/Zeitungsausschnitte/Serbien.htm
- ^ Cohen, Phillip J., p. 31.
- ^ Cohen, Phillip J., p. 32.
- ^ a b Cohen, Phillip J., p. 33.
- ^ War and Revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941-1945: Occupation and Collaboration by Jozo Tomasevich, published 2001 Stanford University Press pg 182 Quote: "Nedic thus headed a government whose powers were strictly limited, one that had no international standing even with the Axis powers. Like its predecessor, it was no more than a subsidiary organ of the German occupation authorities, doing part of the work of administering the country and helping to keep it pacified so that the Germans could exploit it with a minimum of effort, and bearing some of the blame for the harshness of the rule."
- ^ Cohen, Phillip J., p. 34.
- ^ Cohen, Phillip J., p. 35.
- ^ Cohen, Phillip J., p. 38.
- ^ Cohen, Phillip J., various pages.
- ^ Udovički, Jasminka; Ridgeway, James (1997). Burn This House: The Making and Unmaking of Yugoslavia. Duke University Press. p. 133. ISBN 0822319977.
- ^ Milan Deroc, British Special Operations explored: Yugoslavia in turmoil, 1941-1943, and the British response, East European Monographs, 1988, page 157.
- ^ Cohen, Phillip J. Serbia's Secret War: Propaganda and the Deceit of History
- ^ Cohen, Phillip J., p. 61.
- ^ a b Serbien und Montenegro: Raum und Bevölkerung, Geschichte, Sprache und Kultur by Walter Lukan, Ljubinka Trgovcevic, Dragan Vukcevic
- ^ Tasovac, Ivo (1999). American foreign policy and Yugoslavia, 1939-1941. Texas A&M University Press. p. 161. ISBN 0890968977, 9780890968970. http://books.google.hr/books?id=l5IiW36KWbAC&printsec=frontcover&dq=American+foreign+policy+and+Yugoslavia&hl=hr&ei=5flrTdeRNMrz4QaUrP3eCQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCcQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
- ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=Fz1PW_wnHYMC&pg=PA83&dq=belgrade+judenfrei+first&client=firefox-a
- ^ Final Solution (New York, 1985), p. 77; Walter Manoschek, "Serbien ist judenfrei".
- ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=U765FGDfbPoC&pg=PA93&dq=serbia+judenfrei&client=firefox-a#PPA93,M1
- ^ http://books.google.com/books?id=tnoARDLDYNAC&pg=PA86&dq=serbia+judenfrei&client=firefox-a
- ^ http://chgs.umn.edu/histories/otherness/otherness2.html
- ^ Wolff, Robert Lee, (1956). Balkans in Our Time Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Harvard University Press. P. 324.
- ^ a b Dobrich, Momcilo. 2001. Belgrade's Best: The Serbian Volunteer Corps, 1941-1945, Axis Europa Books. P. 21.
- ^ a b Browning, Christopher H. 2004. The Origins of the Final Solution: The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939-March 1942 (Comprehensive History of the Holocaust) Jerusalem, Israel: Yad Vashem, the Holocaust Martyrs' and Heros' Remembrance Authority. P. 344.
- ^ Encyclopedia of the Holocaust, Macmillan Publishing Company New York 1990.
- ^ Bailey, Ronald H. 1980 (original edition from 1978). Partisans and guerrillas (World War II; v. 12). Chicago, Illinois, USA: Time-Life Books. P. 80.
- ^ a b c Wolff, Robert Lee, (1956). Balkans in Our Time Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Harvard University Press. P. 213.
- ^ Tomasevich, Jozo (1975). The Chetniks: war and revolution in Yugoslavia, 1941-1945. Stanford University Press. p. 200. http://books.google.com/books?id=yoCaAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA226&dq=chetniks+collaboration#v=onepage&q=at%20their%20disposal%20for%20fighting%20communism&f=false.
- ^ Valdis O. Lumans, Himmler's auxiliaries: the Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle and the German National Minorities of Europe 1933-1945, page 235.
- ^ Howard Margolian, Unauthorized entry: the truth about Nazi war criminals in Canada, 1946-1956, page 313.
- ^ Pavlovic International Bank
- ^ a b http://www.atsnotes.com/catalog/banknotes-pictures/serbia/serbia-22.JPG
- ^ Worldcoingallery.com
- ^ Serbia also had a Nazi puppet regime headed by Milan Nedic @ The Balkanization of the West: The Confluence of Postmodernism and Postcommunism - Page 198
- ^ "Serbien ist judenfrei": militärische Besatzungspolitik und Judenvernichtung 
- ^ a b c Olivera Milosavljević - POTISNUTA ISTINA
- ^ Miroslav Savković, Kinematografija u Srbiji tokom Drugog svetskog rata 1941-1945. Ibis, Belgrade 1994 (p. 59).
- ^ Miroslav Savković, Kinematografija u Srbiji tokom Drugog svetskog rata 1941-1945. Ibis, Belgrade 1994 (p. 46).
- ^ History of FC Obilić
- ^ Serbian National Theatre, Belgrade
- ^ Srpske Drzavne Zeleznice, 1941-1945
- ^ a b Milan Nedić and Prince Paul again dividing Serbia
- Bailey, Ronald H. 1980 (original edition from 1978). Partisans and guerrillas (World War II; v. 12). Chicago, Illinois, USA: Time-Life Books.
- Browning, Christopher H. 2004. The Origins of the Final Solution: The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939-March 1942 (Comprehensive History of the Holocaust). Jerusalem, Israel: Yad Vashem, the Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority.
- Cohen, Philip J.; David Riesman (1996). Serbia's Secret War: Propaganda and the Deceit of History. New York: Texas A&M University Press. ISBN 0890967601. http://www.amazon.com/Serbias-Secret-War-Propaganda-European/dp/0890967601.
- Dobrich, Momcilo. 2001. Belgrade's Best: The Serbian Volunteer Corps, 1941-1945, Axis Europa Books. ISBN 1-891227-38-6
- Kostić, Boško N. Za istoriju naših dana, Lille, France, 1949.
- Kostić, Lazo M. Armijski đeneral Milan Nedić, Novi Sad, 2000.
- Wolff, Robert Lee. 1956. Balkans in Our Time. Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Harvard University Press.
- Valter Manošek, Holokaust u Srbiji, Beograd, 2007.
- Аleksandar Nedić, Milan Nedić - majka ili maćeha, Beograd, 2009.
- Venceslav Glišić, Užička republika, Beograd, 1986.
- Dr Rajko Đurić - mr Antun Miletić, Istorija holokausta Roma, Beograd, 2008.
- Miloslav Samardžić, Krvavi vaskrs 1944 - Saveznička bombardovanja srpskih gradova, Beograd, 2011.
- Bojan Đorđević, Srpska kultura pod okupacijom, Beograd, 2008.
- Simo C. Ćirković, Ko je ko u Nedićevoj Srbiji: 1941-1944, Beograd, 2009.
- Olivera Milosavljević, Potisnuta istina - Kolaboracija u Srbiji 1941-1944, Beograd, 2006.
- War in the Balkans - 5
- Politička propaganda u okupiranoj Srbiji (in Serbian)
- History of Serbian Volunteer Corps
- Serbia at WorldStatesmen.org
- German Occupation of Serbia 1941-1944
Collaborationism in Yugoslavia Collaborationist states Political organizations Collaborators Military organizationsMilitary Administration in Serbia Timeline of Yugoslav statehood Timeline Prior to 1918 Creation
1918 – 1941
World War II
1938 – 1945
1943 – 1992
Breakup & Yugoslav Wars
Slovenia territories controlled by Austria-Hungary
(1867 – 1918)
Included Bay of Kotor
Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia
(1868 – 1918)
Kingdom of Dalmatia
(1815 – 1918)
Condominium of BIH
(1878 – 1918)
Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes
(1918 – 1929)
↓ renamed ↓
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
(1929 – 1943)
State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs
Banat, Bačka and Baranja (1918-1919)
Free State of Fiume
(Free 1920 – 1924;
Italy 1924 – 1947)
annexed by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany
(1941 – 1943/1945)
Prekmurje annexed by Hungary
Democratic Federal Yugoslavia
(DFY, 1943 – 1946)
↓ renamed ↓
Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia
(FPRY, 1946 – 1963)
↓ renamed ↓
Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
(SFRY, 1963 – 1992)
Constituent federal subjects to the right
(1944 – 1991)
Republic of Slovenia
(since 1991; see Ten-Day War)
Dalmatia Independent State of Croatia
(1941 – 1945)
puppet of Nazi Germany, parts annexed by Fascist Italy
Međimurje and Baranja annexed by Hungary
(1943 – 1991)
Republic of Croatia
(since 1991; see Croatian War of Independence)
SAO Kninska Krajina (1990) → SAO Krajina (1990 – 1991)
SAO Western Slavonia (1990 – 1991)
SAO Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western Syrmia (1990 – 1991)
↳ Republic of Serbian Krajina ↲ (1990 – 1995)
Slavonia Croatia Bosnia SR Bosnia and Herzegovina
(1943 – 1992)
Bosnia and Herzegovina
(since 1992; see Bosnian War); Consists of:
Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (since 1995)
Republika Srpska (since 1995)
Brčko District (since 2000)
See also: Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatian Republic of Herzeg-Bosnia
SAO Bosanska Krajina, SAO North-Eastern Bosnia, SAO Romanija, SAO Herzegovina (1991 – 1992)
↳ Serbian Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina ↲ (1992 – 1995)
Herzegovina Vojvodina Autonomous Banat (formally part of Nedić's Serbia)
Bačka annexed by Hungary (1941 – 1944)
Syrmia annexed by Independent State of Croatia (1941 – 1944)
(1943 – 1990)
SAP Vojvodina &
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
(1992 – 2003)
↓ renamed ↓
State Union of Serbia and Montenegro
(2003 – 2006)
Consisted of until 2006:
Republic of Serbia (1990)
Republic of Montenegro (1992)
Republic of Kosova
(1990 – 2000)
Republic of Serbia
(2006 – 2008)
Kosovo and Metohija
(under UN administration)
Republic of Serbia
Includes AP Vojvodina
Serbia Kingdom of Serbia
(1882 – 1918)
(1941 – 1944)
puppet of Nazi Germany
See also: Republic of Užice
Kosovo Kingdom of Serbia
(1912 – 1918)
mostly annexed by Albania
(1941 – 1944)
along with western Macedonia and south-eastern Montenegro
Republic of Kosovo
Declared unilateral independence, which is since then only partially recognised
Metohija Kingdom of Montenegro
(1910 – 1918)
Metohija controlled by Austria-Hungary
(1915 – 1918)
Montenegro Protectorate annexed by Fascist Italy (1941 – 1943) and Nazi Germany
(1943 – 1944)
Smaller part annexed by Independent State of Croatia (1941 – 1944)
(1943 – 1992)
Macedonia Kingdom of Serbia
(1912 – 1918)
annexed by Kingdom of Bulgaria
(1941 – 1944)
(1944 – 1991)
Republic of Macedonia
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
German occupation of Luxembourg in World War I — The German occupation of Luxembourg in World War I was the first of two military occupations of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg by Germany in the twentieth century. From August 1914 until the end of World War I in November 1918, Luxembourg was… … Wikipedia
Occupation of Vojvodina, 1941–1944 — Map showing occupation zones in Vojvodina from 1941 to 1944. The Occupation of Vojvodina (a province of modern Serbia) from 1941 to 1944 was carried out by Nazi Germany and its client states / puppet regimes: Horthy s Hungary and Independent… … Wikipedia
German war crimes — The government of Germany ordered, organized and condoned several war crimes in both World War I and World War II. The most notable of these is the Holocaust in which millions of people were murdered or died from abuse and neglect, 60% of them… … Wikipedia
Serbia — /serr bee euh/, n. a former kingdom in S Europe: now, with revised boundaries, a constituent republic of Yugoslavia, in the N part; includes the autonomous provinces of Kosovo and Vojvodina. 9,660,000; 34,116 sq. mi. (88,360 sq. km). Cap.:… … Universalium
Serbia — Infobox Country native name = Република Србија Republika Srbija conventional long name = Republic of Serbia common name = Serbia| p1 = Yugoslavia flag p1 = Flag of Serbia and Montenegro.png s1 = flag s1 =| demonym = Serbian map caption = map… … Wikipedia
Serbia (1941-1944) — Infobox Former Subdivision native name = Militärverwaltung in Serbien (de) Војна Управа у Србији (sr (cyrillic)) Vojna Uprava u Srbiji (sr (latin)) conventional long name = Military Administration in Serbia common name = Serbia continent = Europe … Wikipedia
Serbia in the Middle Ages — Тhe medieval history of Serbia begins in the 5th century AD with the Slavic invasion of the Balkans, and lasts until the Ottoman occupation of 1540. Contents 1 Early Middle Ages 1.1 Slavic invasion 1.2 First Serbian Principality … Wikipedia
Serbia — Estimated population (including Voivodina and Kosovo but excluding Montenegro): 600,000. It is likely that the first Gypsies to reach Serbia were shoemakers who lived in Prizren some time around 1348. Under the Ottoman Empire (from 1459), the… … Historical dictionary of the Gypsies
German Empire — This article is about the unified German monarchy existing from 1871 to 1918. For Germany before 1806, see Holy Roman Empire. For Germany between 1918 and 1933, see Weimar Republic. For Germany between 1933 and 1945, see Nazi Germany. For German… … Wikipedia
Occupation of Estonia by the German Empire — For World War II occupation, see Occupation of Estonia by Nazi Germany. See also: Operation Albion German troops landing at Ösel The occupation of Estonia by the German Empi … Wikipedia