Malolos


Malolos
This article is about the city. For the cathedral, see Malolos Cathedral. For the barangay, see Barili, Cebu or Malinao, Albay
City of Malolos
Lungsod ng Malolos
—  Urban Component City  —
The Barasoain Church in Malolos City, Bulacan.

Seal
Nickname(s): Cradle of the Philippine Republic
Motto: The Renaissance City of Malolos
Map of Bulacan showing the location of Malolos City.
Coordinates: 14°50′36″N 120°48′41″E / 14.84333°N 120.81139°E / 14.84333; 120.81139Coordinates: 14°50′36″N 120°48′41″E / 14.84333°N 120.81139°E / 14.84333; 120.81139
Country  Philippines
Region Central Luzon (Region III)
Province Bulacan
Congressional District 1st District of Bulacan
Barangays 51
Founded 11 June 1580
Independent Town 1673
Cityhood 8 October 2002
Government
 - Representative, 1st Congressional District Ma. Victoria R. Sy-Alvarado (Lakas-Kampi-CMD)
 - Governor Wilhelmino M. Sy-Alvarado (Lakas-Kampi-CMD)
 - Mayor Atty. Christian D. Natividad (Partido Del Pilar)
 - Vice Mayor Engr. Gilbert T. Gatchalian (Partido Del Pilar)
Area
 - Total 77.25 km2 (29.8 sq mi)
 - Land 67.25 km2 (26 sq mi)
Elevation 19.4 m (64 ft)
Population (2007)
 - Total 223,069
 - Density 3,314/km2 (1,280/sq mi)
Time zone PST (UTC+8)
Zip code 3000
Area code(s) 044
Annual Income
Classification 3rd Class Component City; Urban[1]
Website Official Website of the City Government of Malolos
Population Census of Malolos City
Census Pop. Rate
1995 147,414
2000 175,291 3.79%
2007 223,269 3.39%

City of Malolos (mälō'lōs) (Filipino: Lungsod ng Malolos) is a 3rd class[2] urban component city in the Republic of the Philippines. Malolos is considered as the 115th city in the country.[3] It is the capital city of the province of Bulacan as the seat of the provincial government. It is also the seat of the Bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Malolos.

The City is 45 kilometers north of Manila. It is one of the major suburbs conurbated to Metro Manila, situated in the southwestern part of Bulacan, in the Central Luzon Region (Region 3) in the island of Luzon and part of the Metro Luzon Urban Beltway Super Region. Bordering Malolos are the municipalities of Bulakan, Bulacan (the former capital of the province) to the southeast, Guiguinto to the east, Plaridel to the north, Calumpit to the northwest, and Paombong to the west. Malolos also lies on the north-eastern shore of Manila Bay.

Malolos was the site of the constitutional convention of 1898, known as the Malolos Convention, that led to the establishment of the First Philippine Republic, at the sanctuary of the Barasoain Church. The convent of the Malolos Cathedral served as the presidential palace at that time. Malolos gave birth to the first constitutional republic in Asia.

It is also one of the centers of education in Central Luzon region, it has several universities like the government-funded Bulacan State University, and privately owned Centro Escolar University at Malolos and University of Regina Carmeli. Malolos also houses the most populous high school in Central Luzon, Marcelo H. del Pilar National High School.

Contents

Demographics

Language and ethnicity

Majority of the Maloleños (or Malolenyo in Filipino) traces their roots to Tagalog ethnicity although there are also Kapampangan, Bisaya, Muslims and other ethnicities who migrated to the city. The vernacular language is Filipino in the form of Tagalog, while English is the language most widely used in education and business throughout the city. Although Malolos is the city where the Filipinos established the Spanish as their only official language in the first constitution, the native speakers of Spanish still alive are reduced to the very old members of a handful of families.

Population and Barangays

Based on the 2007 Census of Population and Housing, as of August 1, the city's population reached 223,069.[4] It had a population density of 3,317 persons per square kilometer. There are 47,362 households in the city. Malolos got the 42nd place among the most populated cities in the country,[5] and 2nd in the province. According to the census conducted by Malolos City Office as of late 2007, there are 255,543 permanent inhabitants in the city. Majority of the Malolos households usually lives along the major roads. It has an average crime rate of 6.28% and has a crime solution efficiency of 97.11%.

Malolos City is subdivided into 51 barangays that are spread over a land area of 7,725 hectares consisting of agricultural, commercial, industrial, residential, bodies of water, fishponds, marshes and roads.

Many of the name of the barangays were derived from the name of common Philippine trees, because Malolos was once a vast virgin land and forests, before the Spaniards came and Christianized the natives. While others were named in honor of their patron saints.

Map Barangay 1 1-May-20002 1-Aug-20073
Malolos Anilao.jpg
Anilao
2,339
4,520
Atlag
4,635
5,028
Malolos Babatnin.jpg
Babatnin
788
817
Malolos Bagna.jpg
Bagna
4,368
5,427
Bagong Bayan
3,055
3,528
Balayong
1,889
2,532
Balite
2,017
2,425
Bangkal
261
8,803
Barihan
4,587
5,660
Bulihan
10,235
12,732
Malolos Bungahan.jpg
Bungahan
1,983
2,461
Malolos Caingin.jpg
Caingin
5,804
7,874
Malolos Calero.jpg
Calero
988
1,131
Malolos Caliligawan.jpg
Caliligawan
211
342
Malolos Canalate.jpg
Canalate
3,560
3,719
Malolos Caniogan.jpg
Caniogan
5,039
5,158
Malolos Catmon.jpg
Catmon
1,961
1,828
Cofradia
3,183
4,853
Malolos Dakila.jpg
Dakila
4,851
4,288
Guinhawa
1,686
1,446
Malolos Ligas.jpg
Ligas
4,354
5,891
Malolos Liang.jpg
Liang
1,248
1,575
Malolos Longos.jpg
Longos
7,700
10,808
Malolos Look 1st.jpg
Look 1st
4,788
5,922
Look 2nd
1,877
2,485
Malolos Lugam.jpg
Lugam
3,012
3,966
Malolos Mabolo.jpg
Mabolo
4,870
6,202
Malolos Mambog.jpg
Mambog
2,384
2,748
Malolos Masile.jpg
Masile
790
744
Matimbo
5,685
6,254
Malolos Mojon.jpg
Mojon
12,559
15,541
Malolos Namayan.jpg
Namayan
738
856
Malolos Niugan.jpg
Niugan
456
556
Malolos Pamarawan.jpg
Pamarawan
2,660
2,861
Malolos Panasahan.jpg
Panasahan
6,874
8,024
Malolos Pinagbakahan.jpg
Pinagbakahan
1,617
3,816
Malolos San Agustin.jpg
San Agustin
1,821
2,090
Malolos San Gabriel.jpg
San Gabriel
1,947
2,578
Malolos San Juan.jpg
San Juan
2,897
3,439
Malolos San Pablo.jpg
San Pablo
4,958
4,954
Malolos San Vicente.jpg
San Vicente (Poblacion)
1,981
2,007
Malolos Santiago.jpg
Santiago
1,771
1,875
Malolos Santisima Trinidad.jpg
Santisima Trinidad
4,658
6,111
Malolos Santo Cristo.jpg
Santo Cristo
1,730
1,714
Malolos Santo Niño.jpg
Santo Niño (Poblacion)
641
453
Malolos Santo Rosario.jpg
Santo Rosario (Poblacion)
7,065
7,211
Malolos Santor.jpg
Santor
3,285
6,868
Malolos Sumapang Bata.jpg
Sumapang Bata
1,600
2,087
Malolos Sumapang Matanda.jpg
Sumapang Matanda
6,272
7,696
Taal
1,868
2,101
Malolos Tikay.jpg
Tikay
7,745
9,064

Footnotes:

^1 Source: National Statistics Office

^2 From NSO 2000 Census.[6]

^3 From NSO 2007 Census.[7]

Religion

Majority of Malolenyos are Christians. Roman Catholic is the predominant religion in the City. Other religious groups include the Methodists, Aglipayans, Adventists, Baptists, Mormons, other Protestant churhes, and Nontrinitarian churches (like Church of God, Iglesia ni Cristo, and Jehovah's Witness). There also some Evangelical, Pentecostal, Charismatic churhes, ministries, fellowships and religious groups. Islam (Muslims) could also be found in the city.

History

Malolos, once the capital of the short-lived Philippine Republic, is linked to many patriots and heroes in the country's history. Names such as General Emilio Aguinaldo, Pedro A. Paterno, Dr. Jose P. Rizal, Marcelo H. del Pilar, Pio del Pilar, Gregorio del Pilar, Apolinario Mabini, Antonio Luna, Felipe Calderón, General Isidro D. Torres and a host of others are forever engraved and enshrined in the annals of Philippine History, all of whom share one commonality.

According to Blair and Robertson, the name "Li-han" or "Li Han" was the ancient Chinese name for Malolos, whose leaders bore the title of "Gat-Salihan" or Gatchalian (derived from "Gat sa Li-Han"). It was in 1225 that a "Li Han in the country of Mai" was mentioned in the account of Chao Ju Kua titled Chu-Fan-Chi.[8] The richness of the soil and the convenience of its location made Malolos an important trading post for the native inhabitants and the traders from Cathay. Ferdinand Blumentritt, a Czech Filipinologist and Jose Rizal's friend, and Wang Teh-Ming, a Chinese scholar, supported this historic development of commercial activities which continued undisturbed until the advent of the Spanish era in 1572. This centuries-long trade relations must have resulted in many generations of Sino-Tagalogs, whose descendants are still omni-present in Malolos. The innumerable Malolos families who bear Chinese-sounding surnames attest to these inter-marriages.[9]

In 1580, eight years after the Kingdom of Maynila (present day Manila) was captured by the Spaniards from Rajah Soliman and Rajah Matanda, Spanish missionaries discovered a small settlement called Li Han, with 4,000 unbaptized souls. The settlement was named and founded as "Malolos" by the Augustinians under the direction of Fray Diego Ordoñez de Vivar. Later, after clearing forests and virgin lands, the settlement grew, and the population increased. After the construction of a big church, the place was made into a town. From the very beginning, Tagalog made up the majority of the Malolos populace. They were led by prominent families, among them the Gatsalians (Gatchalian), and the Manahans.

The name of Malolos was presumably derived from the Tagalog word "Paluslos", meaning " downwards". But many claim that it was originally derived from Kapampangan word "Luslos" meaning many rivers toward the bay (which is the Manila Bay).[10] The name resulted from a misunderstanding among the first Spanish missionaries who reached the place. Searching for inhabited places along the Calumpit River, these priests came upon some natives of a riverside barrio (now Kanalate or Canalate). They asked for the name of the place. The natives, not knowing the Spanish tongue, answered that the flow of the river in that part was downstream "paluslos", which the Spaniards pronounced "Malolos" or "Malulos". Corruption of the word through the years led to present "Malolos".

Malolos was once a part of the old pueblo or town of Bulakan, and then became an independent pueblo in 1673.[11] On August 31, 1859, the town was divided into three districts; "Malolos", "Barasoain, and "Santa Isabel" with respective capitanes municipales and parish priests. With the beginning of American rule in 1903, these towns were again reunited into a single municipality. The two other districts became barangays under the political jurisdiction of Malolos..

To cite all the historical events that transpired in Malolos, one could very well fill a good-sized book. The major events especially those that revolved around the first Republic, cannot be left unmentioned. Some of these are the petition of the women of Malolos, the establishment of the Constitutional Convention, drafting and ratification of the Malolos Constitution, and the inauguration of the first Philippine Republic.

The wealth of Malolos lies not only in its more than four thousand hectares of fertile rice lands and more than two thousand hectares of fishponds, but in the character of its people as well. Its people have long been known for their diligence and ingenuity. In early days, farming and fishing were the town's main sources of livelihood. Later, they went into poultry and pigeon raising, carpentry and woodwork, and other profitable cottage industries and handicrafts. A major factor in Malolos' growth and development was the opening of the ManilaDagupan railways or Ferrocaril de Manila-Dagupan (Spanish) in April 1892. With the advent of the railroad came new ideas from Manila and other places. Another factor is Malolos proximity to industrial and business centers. Only 42 kilometers from Manila, the town and its people are inevitably subjected to an influx of metropolitan thoughts and commerce.

In work methods and tools, it is not rare to find Malolos folk using a combination of the old and the new. Ramshackle shops shake to the whirl of modern electric-powered machines. Fishermen go out to sea in the same kind of dugouts or bancas their ancestors used. Many of these wooden bancas are now equipped with outboard motors. Handicraftsmen, woodworkers and weavers still follow the ageless artistic techniques of their forefathers.

By virtue of Public Law No. 88 of the Philippine Commission, Malolos became the capital of the province of Bulacan on February 27, 1901.

Malolos was the site of the inauguration of Joseph Estrada on June 30, 1998 in Barasoain Church as the President of the Republic of the Philippines. Estrada, whose real surname is Ejercito, traced his ancestry to the Ejercitos who were prominent in the history of Malolos

It was in summer of 2004, the construction of the Malolos flyover marks a new milestone in their flourishing history being the first in the city. The structure, part of the former Philippine President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo's Bridge Program, the construction was undertaken in a record-breaking 60 days only according to the Department of Public Works and Highways. The structure was built to solve the daily traffic jam at the place, which have become a bane to motorist and also to employees in both private and government offices in this city. This remarkable feat hastened not only the city's development in commerce and trade but its neighboring municipalities as well.

During 28–30 July 2008, the city was chosen to host the first National Conference for Philippine-Spanish Relations. The conference's theme was "Philippine-Spanish Relations: Sharing Common History and Culture." This is a project both of the Province of Bulacan's research arm, Center for Bulacan Studies of Bulacan State University and by the Samahang Pangkasaysayan ng Bulacan, Incorporated.

Revolt of Ladia

The inhabitants initially submitted docilely to the process of Hispanization and Spanish civil authority was soon in place. The Roman Catholic religion took root and spread rapidly and became part of the native culture. However, the innate desire for an unshackled existence and the desire for freedom continued to burn in the people. In 1643, barely sixty years after the civil nucleus of the Spanish local government was set up, Malolos townspeople revolted. The revolt was led by Pedro Ladia, a native of Borneo, who claimed to be a descendant of Rajah Matanda and who later proclaimed himself as "Rajah ng mga Tagalog" (Rajah of the Tagalogs). He instigated the people of Malolos to rise in arms against Spanish rule and was able to raise a substantial following. Even before Ladia could gather the support needed to fully carry out his plan, the parish priest, Friar Cristobal Enriquez, preempted the uprising by convincing most of the people to remain loyal to the Fatherland, Spain. The revolt died out for lack of enough popular support. Later, Pedro Ladia was arrested and sent to Manila to be tried and then executed.[12]

Malolos was first organized into a formal municipal unit in 1822 when the first "alcalde constitucional" or municipal head was appointed. He was Jorge de Victoria, a Filipino, who like all succeeding "alcaldes", served for one year. He was followed by 31 other "alcaldes", with Juan Dimagiba as the 31st. In 1859, Malolos was subdivided into three administrative districts; Malolos, Barasoain and Santa Isabel. Juan Dimagiba became the first "alcalde" of the down-scaled Malolos. There were 12 others who served as "alcaldes" from 1859 to 1879, the first one being Mariano C. Cristobal and the 12th Capitan Tomas Tanchanco, whose term marked the start of civil turmoil in the town .[13]

Simmering insurrections

The next 240 years following the Ladia Revolt passed without any sign of serious discontent against Spanish rule. Although armed uprisings and resistance occurred in other provinces, notably in the Ilocos and in Jolo, Malolos was largely unaffected. Economic development took precedence and the low-lying areas around Malolos were steadily converted into productive ricefields and fishponds. This must have entailed a great deal of capital, both financial and labor, and both were apparently available in Malolos. The mestizo descendants of the pre-Hispanic Chinese traders, who became the landlords, must have been the major source of the finances. The ordinary townfolk furnished the labor and became the tenants. This landlord-tenant relationship lasted until the middle of the 20th century.

However, the continuing high-handedness of the civil government bureaucrats compounded by the abuses of the church frailes became the sources of widespread unrest, which eventually reached Malolos in 1880. The enlightened and educated young ilustrados of Manila, having been exposed to European education, thoughts and political views, began to question the Philippines situation. These reformists, Jose Rizal, Marcelo del Pilar and Graciano Lopez Jaena among them, began to expose the weaknesses of the status and to give voice to the need for reform. In Malolos, Marcelo H. del Plar, whose wife Marciana was from Malolos, made the town a principal reformist and propaganda target. Due mainly to his efforts, Malolos by 1882 became known as a center of anti-Spanish propaganda. Things came to a head in 1884, when a liberal, Manuel Crisostomo, was elected a gobernadorcillo. Led by him, a group of town leaders, including past, present a future town alcaldes, collided head-on with the town's friar curate on the list of taxpayers. The curate wanted to bloat the list, a move meant for the parish's financial gain. In 1888, during a deadly cholera epidemic, the group again clashed with the friars. To limit the spread of the epidemic, the civil government had issued a ban against church wakes for cholera victims. The church defied the ban, purportedly because of the fees which the church earned from these wakes. The town leaders took the side of the civil authorities. The situation was further inflamed with the visit of Jose Rizal in 1888 to the house of Tomas Tanchangco, a former alcalde and member of the reformist group. Among the alcaldes in the group were Jose A. Bautista, Jose and Antonio Tiongson, Mateo Buizon, Anastacio de Leon, Vicente Gatmaitan, Francisco Bernardo, Antonio Chiong and Jose R. Tiongson.

The town had become such a hotbed that Marcelo H. del Pilar was compelled to leave for Spain, leaving the campaign in the hands of the local leaders. The authorities soon cracked down on these Malolos mestizos and exiled many of them to Jolo, Palawan, Davao and other distant places.[14]

Women of Malolos

A natural offshoot of the ferment gripping Malolos was the cry for the implementation in the town of a long-standing royal order for the teaching of the Spanish language to the "Indios" of the Philippines. This royal edict had not been obeyed, probably because the local friars and civil government believed that this would be against their interests. Knowledge of Spanish would give the natives and mestizos access to radical ideas of economic liberalism and political democracy already sweeping across Europe. Despite this opposition, Teodoro Sandico, a progressive teacher from Pandacan in Manila, succeeded in opening an Escuela de Latinidad for boys in Malolos.

It was at this point that the letter of the 21 Women of Malolos was written. On December 12, 1888, 21 young women from the Chinese-mestizo families of Malolos, Bulacan – the Reyeses, Tantocos, Tanchangcos, Tiongsons and Uitangcoys – petitioned the newly arrived Gov. Gen. Valeriano Weyler, then paying a visit to Malolos, to allow the opening of a night school, at their own expense, where they could learn to read and write Spanish, the language which would eradicate friar domination and put them in touch with liberal ideas current in Europe. With Weyler's blessing and over the objections of the friar curate, the school opened in early 1889. The school lasted for only a few months what with the steady and strong opposition and persecution of the friars and militarists. Teodoro Sandico, who wrote the letter for the women and presumably became the school's first teacher, was accused of subversion and, like Marcelo H. del Pilar, had to flee from the country.

The audacity and the success of these women did not go unnoticed but the women's greatest adulation came from Dr. Jose Rizal in his letter of February 22, 1889, "Sa Mga Kababayang Dalaga Sa Malolos." The Women of Malolos were of the breed who looked at far horizons and thought of country above self, who stood up for what is right and not for what is merely convenient, who planned and acted not only for the future and the next generation, who decisively acted on their mouthed good intentions.[15]

Balangay Apuy of the Katipunan

In the eve of 7 July 1892, the Katipunan was founded by Andres Bonifacio together with Ladislao Diwa, Deodato Arellano, Teodora Plata and Valentin Diaz in the house of Arellano on Azcarraga St. in Manila. The Katipunan fought against Spain for the Philippine independence. Many knew that there were many Katipuneros all over the country but few knew their names. Bulacan was one of the 8 provinces declared by Governor-General Ramon Blanco as in a state of war.

Balangay Apuy, chapter or "balangay" of Katipunan in Bulacan province was organized in March 1896. The earliest members of the Katipunan from Malolos were Isidoro Torres, Ramon Gonzalez de Leon and Luis Gatmaytan. They became members in March 1896 and, together with Doroteo Karagdag, they were authorized to organize chapters or "balangay" in Bulacan province.

As a result of their efforts, the "Balangay Apuy" was organized in Malolos with the following officials and members: Luis Gatmaytan, President; Ramon Gonzalez de Leon, Secretary; Victorino Gatmaytan, Treasurer; Isidoro Torres, Doroteo Karagdag, Damaso Kaluag, Vicente Villavicencio, Donato Teodoro, Dionicio Dimagiba, Maximino Borlongan, Agripino Buendia, members. Other members were Antonio Bautista, "Tagausig", Gregorio Santos, "Taliba" and Romualdo Concepcion, "Mabalasik."

In early 1896, there was also organized in the capital of Bulacan, a separatist organization affiliated with the Bonifacio-founded Katipunan. It was called Katipunan del Norte presided by Agustin Tantoko, coadjutor of Calumpit parish. It was most active in Bulacan province, especially around Malolos. Gabino Tantoko, a propietario from Malolos, was a member and so were Juan, Antonio, Ezequiel, all surnamed Tantoko, among others.

After the discovery of the Katipunan, the Malolos members were arrested and tortured, like the brothers Luis and Victorino Gatmaytan and Nicolas Buendia.

Later, the "Balangay Apuy" was reorganized and Isidoro became president. He headed the armed uprising in Malolos, and defeated the Spanish forces in the decisive Battle of Malolos on 1 June 1897.

Philippine Republic

Malolos is the historical site of the constitutional convention of 1898 that led to the establishment of the First Philippine Republic, the first republic in Asia, led by Emilio Aguinaldo. Malolos served as the capital of the short-lived republic from 1898–1899. In 1899, after the Malolos Constitution was ratified, the Universidad Literia de Filipinas was established in Malolos, Bulacan. It offered Law as well as Medicine, Surgery and Notary Public; Academia Militar which was established on October 25, 1898; and The Burgos Institute, an exclusive school for boys

Malolos Congress convened on September 15, 1898 at Barasoain Church. On the 18th, Aguinaldo proclaimed Malolos as the capital of the Philippines. The first important act of the Congress was the ratification on September 29, 1898 of the independence proclamation of June 12, 1898 at Kawit, Cavite. On October 19, 1898, by virtue of an act of Congress, the Universidad Literaria de Filipinas was established. It was in Malolos on December 20, 1898 when Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo declared December 30 of every year as a day of national mourning. The greatest achievement and for which the Malolos Congress was known was the framing of the Constitution, prepared by a committee headed by Felipe Calderón, was approved by the congress after amendments have been made on January 20, 1899, sanctioned by Aguinaldo the next day and promulgated on January 22. The last congressional act of the Malolos Congress was the inauguration of the Philippine Republic with Aguinaldo as the President on January 23, 1899, amidst the people's jubilation. American forces captured Malolos on March 31, 1899.

During the Philippine-American War, Malolos was captured by the Americans through a bloody battle that led to the escape of Aguinaldo to San Fernando, Pampanga.

Early governments of Malolos

Old Malolenos natives at the historical 1940 Malolos City Municipio or Pamahalaang-Bayan, December 28, 2010, 9:40 a.m., a typical busy day of commerce.

During the Philippine-American war, the Americans appointed a martial law administrator in the person of Jose Reyes Tiongson. He served as "presidente politico militar" from 1901 to 1902. With the capture of Pres. and Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo in Palanan, Isabela and the defeat of most of the Filipino armed forces all over the country, the Americans began to put up a network of local government units. The municipality of Malolos was organized, composed of the districts of Malolos, Barasoain and Santa Isabel. Appointed "presidente municipal" or town mayor was Ramon Gonzalez de Leon, one of the original members of the Katipunan Balangay Apuy. He was in the post for two years, 1903 to 1905. He and the nine others who followed him were all appointive officials. When the Philippines became a commonwealth, Leon Valencia was elected Mayor in 1937, the first ever elected. Diosdado Dimagiba succeeded him in 1940 but had to vacate the position because of the Japanese conquest.[16]

The Japanese appointed two "punong bayan" or mayors, Luis Peralta and Ignacio Tapang. After the joint US and Philippine Commonwealth armed forces liberated Malolos in March 1945, Adonis P. Maclang of the guerillas' Bulacan Military Area was appointed guerilla mayor of the town, before battle for the liberation of Bulacan, the local Filipino forces of the pre-war 32nd Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army and 3rd Infantry Regiment of the Philippine Constabulary was liberated in Malolos to helping the local guerrilla resistance fighters of the Bulacan Guerrilla Unit and American troops of the U.S. Army against the Japanese in 1945 at the end of World War II, followed by the appointment of Isberto Crisostomo as civilian town mayor in 1946. The first post-war election was held in 1946 and Carlos Maclang was elected mayor.

Cityhood

The charter of the City of Malolos was first passed through Republic Act 8754 in 1999. The bill's author was then Rep. Wilhelmino M. Sy-Alvarado. A plebiscite was conducted on December 18, 1999, where the votes "not" in favor of cityhood won.During the Plebiscite, the clash between the pro-cityhood groups and anti-cityhood groups reached the peak when the allegedly plebiscite fraud done by the anti-cityhood groups to manipulate the results in able to win the "No" votes.

Due to the electoral fraud regarding the Malolos Cityhood,the then Congressman Wilhelmino Alvarado and Malolos Mayor Restituto Roque filed an electoral protest at the Commission on Elections to recount the results of the plebiscite.[17]

The protest was granted by the Second Division of Commission on Elections, per Resolution No. Election Protest Case (EPC) 99-2, and paved the way for the town to become officially a city on 8 October 2002. The decision affirming the votes in favor of cityhood became final and executory on 8 November 2002.

Failed Attempt at Establishing Lone Congressional District of the City of Malolos

On December 19, 2007, Senator Manuel Araneta Roxas II introduced and filed Senate Bill 1986 that seeks to amend section 57 of Republic Act 8754, the component law converting Malolos from a municipality to a component city. The bill was read on First Reading and Referred to the Committee on Rules on the same day as it was filled. On 13 May 2008, it was referred to the Committee on Local Government, on motion of Senator Pangilinan. On 6 October 2008, the bill was sponsored by Senator Benigno S. Aquino III, and co-sponsored by Senators Richard J. Gordon and Mar Roxas.

In the House of the Representatives, House Bill 3693 was filed on 4 March 2008 by Ma. Victoria Sy-Alvarado, Representative of the first district of Bulacan. The Committee on Local Government, of the House of the Representatives, approved House Bill 3162, declaring Malolos City as a lone congressional district separate and distinct from the first congressional district of the province of Bulacan. The said House Bill was substituted by House Bill 3693, which had been approved by the House on 29 April 2008; transmitted on 5 May; and was received by the Senate on 6 May 2008.

The Republic Act 9591, entitled "An Act Amending Section 57 of Republic Act No. 8754, otherwise known as the Charter of the City of Malolos" was passed by the House of Representatives and the Senate on 29 April. 2008 and 16 February 2009 respectively. It was transmitted to the Office of the President on 31 March 2009. The Act Lapsed into law on 1 May 2009 without the signature of the President, in accordance with Article VI, Section 27 (1) of the Constitution.[18]

The Commission on Elections (COMELEC) created a resolution, Resolution No. 09-0544, in the matter of Republic Act No. 9591 on the allocation of one (1) legislative district for the City of Malolos.[19]

The Supreme Court declared the creation of the new legislative district as unconstitutional on 28 January 2010.[20] The Supreme Court further reaffirmed on 10 March 2010 its decision to declare the creation of the new legislative district as unconstitutional,[21] thus, the city will return to being part of the 1st District of Bulacan.

Economy

Commerce and industry

The City of Malolos is steadily becoming industrialized due to its proximity to Metro Manila. Many corporations put up industrial plants and site, and commercial and banking establishments in the key places in the city. Some of the businesses and industries include Agribusiness; Aquaculture; Banking; Cement Bag Making Ceramics; Construction; Courier; Education; Food/Food Processing; Furniture; Garments; Gifts, Housewares & Decorations; Hospitals; Hotels, Resorts & Restaurants; Information and Communications Technology; Insurance; Jewelry; leather & leather tanning; Manpower; Manufacturing; Marble; Printing Press; Realty/Real Property Development; Shoe Manufacturing; Textile; Trade; Transport Services; Travel & Tours; Other Services

Major Industries

  • Industrial Estates
  • Agriculture
  • Aquaculture
  • Banking
  • Bag Making
  • Flowers/Ornamental Plants
  • Food/Food Processing
  • Garments
  • Gifts/Houseware/Decors

Major Products

  • Bakeries Products (Enseymada Malolos, Otap Bread)
  • Processed Meat
  • Processed Food (Atsarang Kangkong, Bagoong Alamang)
  • Metallic products
  • Rice
  • Fishes and other Seafoods.

Others

  • Pabalat or pastillas wrapper making, an intricate art of paper cutting that turns ordinary pieces of Japanese paper into lace-like creations was once a prized skill amongst the old families of the province. It is a vanishing tradition in the province of Bulacan where it originated. Families proudly displayed tall dishes of this sweet treat for the benefit of visitors. With their fancy tails hanging down from the dish's rim and the light shining through the delicate paper, the wrapped candies looked like expensive handmade lace decorations, and were a welcome addition to the family's dining tables.
  • Sweetened Lime skin or Minatamis na Balat ng Dayap in Filipino

First Bulacan Industrial City

The First Bulacan Industrial City is located in MacArthur Highway in Barangay Tikay.

One town one product

The city has thirteen (13) One Town One Product (OTOP) Small and Medium Industries (SMEs).

Tourism

Historical Sites and Landmarks

  • Barasoain Church, located in Paseo del Congreso. The site of inauguration of the First Philippine Republic and served as the site of proclamation of Emilio Aguinaldo and Joseph Estrada as Philippine presidents.
  • Malolos Cathedral, the seat of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Malolos.
  • Casa Real de Malolos, a large, old Spanish house, was built in 1580 and was the former residence and office of the gobernadorcillo and the site of the Imprenta Nacional, the printing press of the 1896 Constitution and the Heraldo de Revolucion. It became the seat of the American military government, a hospital in 1923, an annex to the Bulacan High School and was the Japanese Chamber of Commerce headquarters during the Japanese Occupation. Renovated during the tenure of President Diosdado Macapagal. It is now the Malolos City Library and Museum. It was restored and maintained by the National Historical Institute and now and contains priceless artifacts and memorabilia. Currently a museum holding relics of the 21 Women of Malolos.
2011 New Year's Day - A Malolos native waits for a jeep to ride in front of the historical Casa Real Museum & Shrine, at Paseo del Congreso, Plaza Rizal, Malolos, Bulacan.
  • Instituto Mujeres, is the site where Rizal addressed his famous letter to the 21 women of Malolos who petitioned Governor General Valeriano Weyler for a night school for women on December 12, 1888.
  • Gregorio del Pilar's Tomb, located at the front plaza of Bulacan Provincial Capitol, containing the remains of the young general,topped with equestrian statue of the hero of Tirad Pass.
  • The Kalayaan Tree, a 12-m. high Siar tree, during the First Philippine Republic. President Aguinaldo and other of his Officials,holds some important meetings under this tree located in front of the Malolos Church. Kalayaan is the Filipino word for freedom.
  • The Camestisuhan District, the Enclave of Malolos Ilustrado, mostly located along streets of Santo Niño and Pariancillo, near the Basilica, typify the intricate architectural design of Spanish buildings. The name came from the word mestizo, the typical residents of the area during the Spanish period. Several mansions are located here:
    • Adriano Mansion, a magnificent old house once housed Aguinaldo's Gobierno Militar de la Plaza. It now houses the Malolos Meralco office. It has a filigreed cast iron staircase that wind up to the balustered rampart.
A Malolos native waiting for a jeep to ride in front of the Jose Cojuangco Mansion, at Paseo Del Congreso near Barasoain Church, the old and original house of Jose Chichioco-Cojuangco, Sr.
    • Bautista Mansion, along Sto. Niño St., behind the Adriano House, has ornately sculpted Neo-Classic touches and was built in the 1850s and redecorated in 1877 in the French Art Nouveau style. It was the Secretaria de Fomento and home of Antonio Bautista, Aguinaldo's Secretary of the Interior. It contains heirloom memorabilia including the original KKK flag and here, Jose Rizal and Marcelo H. del Pilar spoke to the 21 women of Malolos on June 27, 1892.
    • The Cervantes Mansion, the office of the First Philippine Republic's Department of the Interior.
    • The Ejercito Mansion, at the corner of the streets of Estrella and Pariancillo, office of the First Philippine Republic's Department of War.
    • The Lino and Maria Reyes Mansion, along Estrella Street, across the cathedral. This house served as the office of Apolinario Mabini when he was appointed as chief adviser to President Aguinaldo. It was said that Mabini and Aguinaldo were often heard arguing from this house. It once housed Aguinaldo's Secretary of Exterior. It has an octagonal rose window and a weather vane on top of the roof.
    • The Tiongson Mansion, with its intricate balustered windows, once served as Aguinaldo's War Commission.
    • The Lomotan House, located at the Sto. Niño street.
    • The Fortunato Limpo Residence and Compound, located at Paseo del Congreso Street.
  • Casa Tribunal de Malolos, the Original and First Municipal Hall of Malolos, converted into a jailhouse during the First Philippine Republic.
  • Santa Isabel Church, located in Barangay Sta. Isabel (an independent parish together with the Santa Isabel District from 1859 until its reintegration to Malolos in 1903), was built in 1865 made of Mamposteria rubblework bricks, heavily damaged during the 1880 earthquake and repaired in 1885.
  • Jose Cojuangco Mansion, located at Paseo Del Congreso near Barasoain Church, the old and original house of Jose Cojuangco.

Feasts and Festivals

Dubbed as the city of festivals, Malolos City boasts with many feasts and festivals every year. Some festivals are social festivities and others are religious festivals.

  • Singkaban Festival (Sining at Kalinangan ng Bulacan), a festival of arts and culture in honor of Capitol's patron saint, "Our Lady of Victory", showcasing the traditional arts of "Balagtasan," "Kundiman" and folk dances amidst of the "Singkaban" arches. The festival is celebrated in every second week of September which is in conjunction with the "Linggo ng Bulakan". Linggo ng Bulacan (Held during September 8–15), A province-wide, week-long celebration consisting of various colourful cultural presentations, art and culinary exhibits, arts and skills contests, and the prestigious annual Dangal ng Lipi Awards Night. Yearly, its activities vary depending upon the chosen theme for the year.This festival is named after the special "BAMBOO ART" abundantly known to the Bulacan province especially in Malolos and Hagonoy.
  • Santo Niño de Malolos – this is held during the last Sunday of January, The biggest expression of devotion of the Holy Child Jesus in the Luzon island, celebrated every last Sunday of January. The festivities begin with an exhibit of "Santo Niño" (Holy Child) and culminate in a grand procession of hundreds of folk, antique and new statues of the Holy Child different manifestations, e.g., as shepherd boy, as keeper of the world, as a sleeping child, etc.
  • Pista ng Santisima Trinidad - held annually on Trinity Sunday, it is commonly called Pista ng Barihan because the barangays of Santisima Trinidad and Pinagbakahan were once annexed to Barangay Barihan. This fiesta features the procession of three, highly-venerated antique icons of the Holy Trinity, together with other holy images from across the province.

The three images are:

    • Santíssima Trinidád de Mayór - oil on canvas, the back of the canvass exposed a date of 10 January 1500, and is thus the oldest Catholic relic in the Philippines. It is considered miraculous.
    • Santíssima Trinidád na Batâ - oil on rosewood icon, the 1762 image is the second-oldest in the group, it is enclosed in an intricately carved wooden frame.
    • Santíssima Trinidád de Triságio - the last and youngest of the three holy icons.

A fourth venerated icon, the Santíssima Trinidád de Antígo, was formerly enshrined in the Chapel's main altar. It was stolen on October 27, 1981, and has never been recovered.

  • Pabukang Puso - held every 19 March in Panasahan, commemorates the death of St. Joseph the Worker, Foster-father of Jesus. It is annually held at the front house of Roxas clan in Panasahan, whose patriach, Valentin Roxas, started it in 1975. This tradition still continue until present day where the younger generations of the clan organising it.
  • Pag-akyat Festival one of the celebrated feasts in the city, held in Barangay Atlag.

Parks and museums

  • Hardin ng mga Bayani at Sining also known as Capitol Mini-Forest and Children's Park, in Provincial Capitol Compound
  • Bulacan Heroes Park in Bulacan State University
  • Mini Rizal Park in Bulacan State University
  • Museo ng Bulacan, Hiyas ng Bulacan Museum Complex, located 500 m. from Barasoain Church, is a cultural center and museum that houses the works, artifacts, relics and manuscripts of Francisco Balagtas, Marcelo H. del Pilar, Gregorio del Pilar, Mariano Ponce and other famous men of Bulacan.
  • Casa Real Shrine, also known as the Malolos City Library and Museum
  • Barasoain Museum, located across the hall of the Barasoain Convent, is managed by the National Historical Institute. Its corridors are hung with historical photographs of Bulacan and different rooms relate how democracy was established in the country. Open daily, 8am-5pm. Admission is free. The church and convent were declared as a National Landmark on August 1, 1973 under Presidential Decree No. 260 and both underwent a thorough restoration under the supervision of the National Historical Commission.
  • Museo Diocesano de Malolos, also at the Barasoain Convent, is managed by the Malolos Diocese. It houses relics and religious items such as original 19th century baptismal records of Marcelo Hilario (a.k.a. Marcelo H. del Pilar), Francisco Baltazar (a.k.a. Francisco Balagtas) and Gregorio del Pilar; a bone fragment of San Vicente Ferrer encased in glass; priestly robes embroidered with gold-plated silver threads, antique prayer cards and altar frontals from different churches.

Social services

Housing

  • The city hosts more than 50 residential subdivisions and the Northville 8 Resettlement Project of the Philippine government.

Education

Malolos is hailed as one of the centers of education in Central Luzon region. The city is host to numerous schools in the primary, secondary and tertiary level. Here are the partial list of schools, academies, institutes, colleges, and universities in Malolos.

Colleges and universities

  • Bulacan State University (BSU) (Main Campus)
  • Centro Escolar University (CEU) (Malolos Campus)
  • La Consolacion University Philippines (formerly University of Regina Carmeli) (Catmon and Barasoain Campus)
  • Bulacan Polytechnic College (BPC) (Malolos Campus)
  • STI College
  • AMA Computer College (AMACC)
  • AMA Computer Learning Center (AMACLC)
  • ABE International College of Business & Accountancy
  • St. Augustine College of Nursing
  • Syllabus Technology Institute (STI) College
  • Divine Colleges of Malolos City, Inc. (formerly Divine Arts & Sciences Computer College, Inc.)
  • Collegio De San Jose (Veritas Technical School)
  • Datacase Computer Technology Inc.
  • Manila Montessori College International – Malolos Campus
  • Corinthian International College
  • Technical Skills Development Authority – Bulacan Provincial Training Center

High schools, elementary, and pre-schools

Public or Government-Subsidized Schools

  • Bulacan State University Laboratory High School (BulSU-LHS), in barangay Guinhawa
  • Cong. Teodulo C. Natividad High School, in barangay Bangkal
  • Malolos City High School, in barangay Bungahan
  • Malolos Marine Fishery School & Laboratory, in brgy Balite
  • Marcelo H. del Pilar National High School (MHPNHS), in barangay Bagong Bayan (Santa Isabel)
  • Pamarawan High School (MHPNHS Annex), in barangay Pamarawan

Malolos has 38 public Elementary Schools under the authority of Department of Education Division of City Schools of Malolos, the city schools are divided into two educational district (EDDIS) for repr Elementary Schoolentation purpos Elementary School. The office of DEPED Division of City Schools of Malolos is currently located at the Malolos Elementary School (also known as Malolos Central School).

Malolos North

  • Balite Elementary School
  • Barasoain Memorial Elementary School (Mojon)1
  • Barihan Elementary School
  • Bulihan Elementary School
  • Bungahan Elementary School
  • Caingin Elementary School
  • Catmon Elementary School
  • Dakila Elementary School
  • Ligas Elementary School
  • Longos Elementary School
  • Look 2nd Elementary School
  • Lugam Annex Elementary School
  • Look 1st Lugam Elementary School
  • Mabolo Elementary School
  • San Pablo PS
  • Santor Elementary School
  • Sta. Isabel Elementary School
  • Stma. Trinidad Elementary School
  • Sumapa (Bata) PS
  • Sumapa Elementary School
  • Tikay Elementary School

Malolos South

  • Anilao Elementary School
  • Atlag Elementary School
  • Babatnin Elementary School
  • Bagna Elementary School
  • Balayong Elementary School
  • Bangkal Elementary School
  • Caliligawan Elementary School
  • Canalate Elementary School
  • Caniogan Elementary School
  • Gen. Isidoro Torr Elementary School Memorial Elementary School
  • Malolos Elementary School (Sto. Rosario)23
  • Mambog Elementary School
  • Masile Elementary School
  • Namayan Elementary School
  • Pamarawan Elementary School
  • Panasahan Elementary School
  • San Juan Elementary School
  • Taal Elementary School

Footnot Elementary School:

  • ^1 serv Elementary School as the central school for Malolos North District
  • ^2 serv Elementary School as the central school for Malolos South District
  • ^3 the Central School offers Special Education (SPED)

Private Schools
There are many privately owned and church-operated schools Elementary Schooltablished in the city. Private Schools are member of Malolos City Private Schools Association (MACIPRISA)

  • AVM Mot Elementary Schoolsori Center
  • Bible Baptist Academy
  • Bulacan Ecumenical School
  • Busy Bodi Elementary School Active Minds Learning
  • Community Elem. Sch. SDA (Seventh-Day Adventist)
  • Centro de Malolos Institute or CMI (formerly Children of Mary Immaculate School)
  • Darwin International School
  • DANS' Learning Center
  • Garnets Pre-School
  • Holy Family School of Malolos
  • Holy Infant School
  • Holy Rosary Learning Center
  • Holy Spirit Academy of Malolos
  • Holy Trinity Academy of Malolos
  • Immaculate Conception School for Boys
  • Immaculate Conception School of Malolos
  • International Mont Elementary Schoolsori Center
  • J. E. Mont Elementary Schoolsori School (for. St. John Academy)
  • Keyserian Mont Elementary Schoolsori School
  • Levi's Angels Learning Center, Malolos
  • Liceo delos Apostol Elementary School
  • LKBP Mont Elementary Schoolsori School
  • Lord's Angels Mont Elementary Schoolsori School
  • Ma. Ther Elementary Schoole Mont Elementary Schoolsori School
  • Malolos Adventist Elementary School
  • Malolos Christian School
  • Malolos Ecumencal School (formerly Malolos Ecumenical Kindergarten)
  • Mary the Queen School of Malolos
  • Merr-C Academy (Inside Villa Rosalinda)
  • Mont Elementary Schoolsori de Natividad
  • Mont Elementary Schoolsori School of Malolos
  • North Hills Academy of Malolos
  • People of Praise Christian Academy
  • St Clement Academy
  • St. Ezekiel School
  • St. Joseph Parochial School
  • St. Thomas Aquinas Academy
  • St. Vicent Kiddie School (formerly Angel of God Kiddie Sch. & Special LC)
  • Stella maris academy of malolos
  • Stella Orientis School
  • STI Prep School of Malolos, Inc.
  • La Consolacion University Philippin Elementary School Basic Education Department (High School & Grade School)

Health

Hospitals, Medical Center and Large Clinics

  • Bulacan Medical Center (formerly Bulacan Provincial Hospital)[22]
  • Sacred Heart Hospital
  • Santos General Hospital of Malolos
  • Malolos San Vicente Hospital
  • Malolos San Ildefonso County Hospital
  • Mary Immaculate Maternity Hospital
  • Romel Cruz Hospital
  • Ofelia Mendoza Maternity and General Hospital
  • San Roque Hospital
  • Santisima Trinidad Hospital
  • Malolos Maternity Hospital
  • Malolos EENT Hospital
  • Saint Michael Clinic & Maternity Hospital
  • Malolos Eye Center
  • Santos Clinic, Inc.
  • St. Vincent Polymedic Clinic
  • EAQ Malolos Clinic and Laboratory
  • Maunlad Medical Laboratory

Health Centers

  • Malolos Rural Health Unit (RHS) I
  • Malolos RHU II
    • Malolos Healthy Lifestyle and Fitness Center
  • Malolos RHU III
  • Malolos RHU IV
  • Estefania J. Aldaba Memorial Health Center and School Clinic
  • Bulihan BHS (Malolos RHU II)
  • Catmon BHS (Malolos RHU)
  • Mojon BHS (Malolos RHU II)

References

  1. ^ http://nscb.gov.ph/activestats/psgc/municipality.asp?muncode=031410000&regcode=03&provcode=14
  2. ^ http://nscb.gov.ph/activestats/psgc/municipality.asp?muncode=031410000&regcode=03&provcode=14
  3. ^ NSCB – 2003 Factsheet – One City and Eleven Barangays Created
  4. ^ [1]
  5. ^ GeoHive: Philippines Statistics – Main Cities
  6. ^ "Total Population, Household Population and Number of Households by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay: as of May 1, 2000". National Statistics Office. May 1, 2000. http://www.census.gov.ph/census2000/p031400.html. Retrieved June 14, 2009. 
  7. ^ "Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay as of August 1, 2007". National Statistics Office. August 1, 2007. http://www.census.gov.ph/data/sectordata/2007/region%203.pdf. Retrieved June 14, 2009. 
  8. ^ The Philippine Islands, 1493–1898, by Emma Helen Blair and James A. Robertson, Manila, 1903–1909
  9. ^ Malolos Historical Digest, March 2000, Marcial C. Aniag, editor
  10. ^ KAPAMPANGAN_KE_RING_BULAKENYU..._KAPAMPANGAN_DIN_KAMING_MGA_BULAKENYO...
  11. ^ Municipality of Bulacan
  12. ^ For the accounts of the attempted revolt, see Blair and Robertson, Vol.XXXVIII, p.98-99
  13. ^ Malolos Historical Digest, June 2000
  14. ^ Malolos Historical Digest, March 2000 issue, Marcial C. Aniag, editor; Book on the 21 Women of Malolos by Nicanor G. Tiongson
  15. ^ Welcome to the official webpage of Women of Malolos
  16. ^ Malolos Historical Digest, June 2000
  17. ^ Former Mayor Roque to Donate Cityhood Documents
  18. ^ Republic Act 9591, entitled "An Act Amending Section 57 of Republic Act No. 8754, otherwise known as the Charter of the City of Malolos"
  19. ^ Minutes Resolution No. 09-0544
  20. ^ [2]
  21. ^ [3]
  22. ^ Newly built Bulacan hospital inaugurated

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Malolos — Lungsod ng Malolos Ciudad de Malolos Sello oficial de Ciudad de M …   Wikipedia Español

  • Malolos — Malọlos,   Stadt auf den Philippinen, 50 km nördlich von Manila, Verwaltungssitz der Provinz Bulacan, 104 200 Einwohner. Hier trat nach Ausrufung der Unabhängigkeit der Philippinen (12. 6. 1898 in Cavite) im September 1898 ein Kongress zur… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Malolos — ▪ Philippines  town, south central Luzon, Philippines. It lies at the head of the Pampanga River delta, near the northern shore of Manila Bay. During a revolt against U.S. administration, the insurgent congress met there in the Barasoain Church,… …   Universalium

  • Malolos — Original name in latin Malolos Name in other language Malalos, Malolas, Malolos State code PH Continent/City Asia/Manila longitude 14.8443 latitude 120.81039 altitude 9 Population 198748 Date 2012 07 04 …   Cities with a population over 1000 database

  • Malolos — ► C. de Filipinas, en la isla de Luzón, cap. de la prov. de Bulacan; 95 699 h …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Malolos Congress — Type Type …   Wikipedia

  • Malolos railway station — Malolos Station Station statistics Address Malolos, Bulacan Lines █ PNR Northrail Other information Code …   Wikipedia

  • Malolos City — This article is about the city. For the cathedral, see Malolos Cathedral. For the barangay, see Barili, Cebu or Malinao, AlbayInfobox Settlement official name = City of Malolos other name = Li Han (ancient Chinese name) native name = Lungsod ng… …   Wikipedia

  • Malolos Cathedral — Minor Basilica of Our Lady of Immaculate Conception (Malolos Cathedral) Basic information Location Malolos City, Bulacan …   Wikipedia

  • Malolos Constitution — The Malolos Constitution was enacted on January 20, 1899 by the Philippine Malolos Congress, and established the First Philippine Republic. The original was written in Spanish, which became the first official language of the Philippines. Contents …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.