Mitsubishi i-MiEV


Mitsubishi i-MiEV
Mitsubishi i-MiEV
IMiEV2009.jpg
Manufacturer Mitsubishi Motors
Also called Peugeot iOn
Citroën C-ZERO
Production 2009–present
Class Kei car
Body style 5–door hatchback
Electric motor 47 kW (63 hp) permanent-magnet motor[1]
Transmission Single speed reduction gear
Battery 16 kWh (Li-ion battery)
Range 160 km (99 mi) (Japanese cycle)
100 km (62 mi) (US EPA cycle)
Wheelbase 2,550 mm (100.4 in)
Length 3,395 mm (133.7 in)
3,680 mm (144.9 in)(US)[2]
Width 1,475 mm (58.1 in)
1,585 mm (62.4 in)(US)[2] (excluding side-mirrors)
Height 1,600 mm (63.0 in)
1,615 mm (63.6 in)(US)[2]
Curb weight 1,080 kg (2,400 lb)

The Mitsubishi i-MiEV (MiEV is an acronym for Mitsubishi innovative Electric Vehicle[3]) is a five-door hatchback electric car produced by Mitsubishi Motors, and is the electric version of the Mitsubishi i. According to the manufacturer, the i-MiEV all-electric range is 100 miles (160 km) on the Japanese test cycle. The range for the 2012 model year American version, called "i" for this market, is 62 miles (100 km) on the US EPA's cycle.

The i-MiEV was launched for fleet customers in Japan in July 2009, and on April 1, 2010, for the wider public. Retail sales began in the Japanese market at a price of ¥3,980,000 (~US$43,000). The electric car is eligible for government subsidies of ¥1,140,000, thus reducing the price to customers to ¥2,840,000 (~US$30,700). Sales to the public in Hong Kong began in May 2010 at a price of HK$395,000 (~US$50,631) and sales to fleet customers in Australia began in August 2010 via leasing. Cumulative global sales since July 2009 reached around 16,000 i-MiEVs by October 2011,[4] including 4,000 units rebadged and sold as Peugeot iOn and Citroën C-ZERO by September 2011.[5]

The i-MiEV was launched in Germany in December 2010 at a price of €34,990[6] (~US$51,000). Sales in the U.K. began in January 2011 at a price of GB£28,990 (~US$45,100) before the GB£5,000 Plug-in Car Grant. The i-MiEV was launched in Costa Rica in February 2011 and in Chile in May 2011. Sales in Canada are scheduled for late 2011[7] and U.S. sales for January 2012. The American-only version, called "i", is larger than the Japanese version and has several additional features.[8] Since November 2011 the 2012 model year American-spec i-MiEV ranks as the most fuel efficient EPA certified vehicle in the U.S. for all fuels ever.[9][10]

Contents

History

Mitsubishi i-MiEV, based on the Mitsubishi i kei car, was first exhibited at the 22nd International Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium & Exposition in Yokohama. Mitsubishi eschews the in-wheel motors (MIEV) in favour of a more conventional array of batteries, motor and inverter to replace the "rear midship" engine and fuel tank of the conventional car. Mitsubishi Motors provided three power companies with vehicles in 2006 and 2007 in order to conduct joint research to evaluate how fast-charge infrastructure may be developed for EVs. Fleet testing by five power companies was conducted in 2007. The car had a range of 130 kilometres (80 mi) for the 16 kW•h lithium-ion pack and 160 kilometres (100 mi) for the 20 kW•h pack. Top speed was 130 kilometres per hour (80 mph).[11] Plans were announced in 2008 to sell the i-MiEV in European markets as the Peugeot iOn and Citroën C-ZERO.[12]

Specifications

Mitsubishi i MiEV electric motor.

Powertrain

The production version of the 2009 i-MiEV has a single permanent magnet synchronous motor mounted on the rear axle with a power output of 47 kW and torque output 180 N•m. The vehicle uses a single-speed reduction gear transmission and has a 16 kWh lithium-ion battery pack.[13] The car's top speed is 130 kilometres per hour (80 mph).[14]

Under its five-cycle testing, the United States Environmental Protection Agency rated the American 2012 model year Mitsubishi i with a combined fuel economy equivalent of 112 MPGe (2.1 L/100 km), with an equivalent 126 mpg-US (1.87 L/100 km; 151 mpg-imp) in city driving and 99 mpg-US (2.4 L/100 km; 119 mpg-imp) on highways.[15][16] This rating allowed the 2012 Mitsubishi i to get a higher MPG-e rating than the 2011 Nissan Leaf, which was rated at 99 MPGe (2.4 L/100 km) combined, but the Leaf rated a better range due to the Mitsubishi i's smaller battery pack.[16][17]

Battery

The 16-kilowatt-hour (58 MJ) lithium-ion battery pack that consists of 88 cells is placed under the base floor. The pack has 22 cell modules connected in series at the nominal voltage of 330 V. There are two 4-cell modules placed vertically at the center of the pack and ten 8-cell modules placed horizontally. It is developed by Mitsubishi and GS Yuasa for both high specific energy and high rate discharge and manufactured by Lithium Energy Japan, a joint venture of GS Yuasa Corporation, Mitsubishi Corporation and Mitsubishi Motors Corporation. The entire pack has a specific energy of 80 Wh/kg.[18]

Mitsubishi i-MiEV charging

In June 2011 Mitsubishi announced the introduction of lithium titanate oxide SCiB battery technology for its two new models of electric vehicles, the i-MiEV and Minicab MiEV. The SCiB technology was developed by Toshiba, which stated that its SCiB batteries can withstand 2.5 times more charge/discharge cycles than a typical lithium-ion battery. In addition, recharging via CHAdeMO takes much less time than charging at the AC Level 2 rate used by most electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE), allowing the SCiB battery to reach 80% capacity in 15 minutes, 50% in 10 minutes and 25% in 5 minutes. In terms of performance, the SCiB battery offers a higher effective capacity than a typical lithium-ion battery, which combined with more efficient regenerative charging during braking or coasting downhill, allows the SCiB battery to deliver 1.7 times the driving range per charge of a typical lithium-ion battery of the same size. Alternatively, the carmaker could install a smaller battery with less weight and keep the same range to contribute to lower the vehicle price as compared to lithium-ion batteries.[19]

Emergency power supply

In the aftermath of the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, Mitsubishi announced that the company decided to introduce one year ahead of schedule a device that enables the i-MiEV to supply power to home electric appliances in the event of a power outage or natural disasters. The device provides 100-volt outlets, converting the i-MiEV's direct current (DC) battery power into 100 volts alternating current (AC) to power up to 1,500 watts, which is enough to power most home electronics such as a basic rice cooker, a small heater, or any number of cellphones, laptops and radios. Mitsubishi estimates that the i-MiEV total battery capacity is enough to provide nearly 1.5 days of power to an average Japanese home. The device will be available by the end of 2011.[20][21]

EV Quick Charger (200V)

Range

The all-electric range is 100 miles (160 km) on the Japanese test cycle.[22] Two additional trim levels will be available in Japan beginning in late July 2011, the entry-level “M” with a 10.5 kWhbattery pack has a reduced range of 120 kilometres (75 mi), and the higher-level "G" with the same a 16.0 kWh battery as the original i-MiEV has a range of 180 kilometres (110 mi). The "G" trim will be available by mid August.[23]

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) official range for the 2012 model year American "i" version is 100 kilometres (62 mi) based on the five-cycle tests using varying driving conditions and climate controls. Under the LA4 driving cycle for city conditions, EPA's rated range is 98 miles (158 km).[15][16] According to the carmaker, the city range of the 2012 Mitsubishi i was improved as compared to the previous i-MiEV versions, through software upgrades and a revamped regenerative braking system.[15]

The Australian Government's Green Vehicle Guide estimated the i-MiEV's range to be 155 kilometres (96 mi).[24] Recharging is estimated to take 14 hours from a 110 volt power supply, 7 hours from a 220 volt power supply and as little as 30 minutes from a quick charging station.[25][26]

Safety

2010 i-MiEV's frontal view
2010 i-MiEV's rear view

The European New Car Assessment Programme (Euro NCAP) awarded the i-MiEV a four star car safety rating, earning the following ratings for each criteria. The tested model was a left hand drive 5-door hatchback registered in 2011:

Euro NCAP test results
Mitsubishi i-MiEV (2011)[27]
Test Points %
Overall: 4 / 5 stars
Adult occupant: 26 73%
Child occupant: 38 78%
Pedestrian: 17 48%
Safety assist: 6 86%


Euro NCAP also states that "accordingly, Euro NCAP believes that the star rating of the i-MiEV can also be applied to the Citroën C-Zero" because the agency was informed that the Citroën C-ZERO is structurally identical to the Mitsubishi i-MiEV and has the same interior fitting and levels of safety equipment.[28]

The Australasian New Car Assessment Program (ANCAP) rated the i-MiEV four out of five stars for crash safety, scoring 28.35 out of 37. This score takes into account the 10.95 out of 16 rating in the frontal offset crash test, and the score of 14.4 out of 16 received for the side impact test.[29]

Production

Full production of the i-MiEV started in July 2009 and Mitsubishi expected initial sales volume to be small, to sell up to 1,400 vehicles by March 2010, but expected sales to rise to 5,000 vehicles in the following twelve months, once retail sales had started.[30] Mitsubishi decided to target sales to corporate customers in Japan at first to allow local governments and businesses to set up recharging stations around the country. The company said initial sales were constrained by production capacity but expects production to ramp up quickly from 2,000 units in 2009/10 to 30,000 vehicles within three years as it expands production of lithium-ion battery through Lithium Energy Japan, a joint venture with GS Yuasa Corporation and Mitsubishi Corporation.[31][32][33] Production was projected to increase to 9,000 units in its fiscal year 2010/11, and to 18,000 in the following twelve months.[30]

Production of the left-hand drive European-spec i-MiEV began in October 2010.[34][35] By the end of November 2010 cumulative production had reached 5,000 units at Mitsubitshi's Mizushima Plant.[34] In May 2011 Mitsubishi announced a new production target of 25,000 i-MiEVs worldwide in fiscal year 2011. The carmaker also plans to export about 15,000 units overseas, mainly to Europe, where the company will promote sales to the European public sector, such as police departments and local governments.[36] Production of the American-spec i electric car began in late October 2011.[4] Worldwide sales since July 2009 reached around 16,000 i-MiEVs by October 2011.[4] This figure includes 4,000 units rebadged and sold as Peugeot iOn and Citroën C-ZERO in France.[5]

Markets and trials

Australia

Two i MiEVs in Sydney, Australia being leased by Better Place and Coulomb Technologies.

During early 2009 the i-MiEV was exhibited in Australia at the Melbourne International Motor Show, and afterwards was toured throughout the country. Beginning in mid 2009, Mitsubishi conducted a twelve month field trial with potential electric vehicle customers, such as local, state and federal government bodies, and major fleet operators.[37]

Sales for fleet customers began in Australia in August 2010 under leasing agreement at a price of A$1,740 a month for 36 months, for a cumulative total of A$62,640 after which the car has to be returned to the dealer.[38][39][40] The initial shipment included only 40 units, but Mitsubishi Motors Australia reported that just before the launch it had received applications for more than 100 vehicles from private companies and government departments.[41]

The City of Sydney council received its i-MiEV in September 2010, as part of a six month trial, comparing energy consumption to gasoline, diesel and hybrid electric vehicles. The council has subsequently built 240 solar panels on Sydney Town Hall to charge up to 17 electric vehicles at a time.[42]

As of May 2011, a total of 110 vehicles have been leased to government and corporate fleets. Retail sales to the public are scheduled to begin in August 2011. Currently, there are no government incentive or rebate schemes for purchasing fuel-efficient vehicles in the country. The new Australian i-MiEV version will be similar to the European-spec model released in 2011, with minor changes such as new three-spoke alloy wheels, a few minor exterior tweaks including dark tinted headlights and a revised front bumper with fog lights.[38] With an Australian Design Rules approved range of 155 km (96 mi), the Australian-spec i-MiEV will be sold for A$48,800 (US$51,444 as of July 2011) through specially equipped Mitsubishi dealerships (one in each capital city and two in Sydney). Mitsubishi anticipates 5 sales to the public per month.[43][44]

Canada

The i-MiEV is scheduled for launch in Canada in December 2011[45] and pricing starts at CAD 32,998 (US$33,891) before any government incentives available in Ontario and Quebec.[7][46] Mitsubishi will sell the international i-MiEV version in Canada, not the U.S.-only version, and two trims will be offered, standard and premium. The premium package price is CAD 35,998 (US$36,972) and includes leather-wrapped steering wheel and shift knob, 15-inch alloy wheels, premium audio system, HDD Navigation system, Bluetooth 2.0 hands-free cellular phone interface with streaming audio and USB input with voice control.[7]

On January 14, 2009, in Canada, Hydro-Québec and Mitsubishi signed an agreement to test 50 i-MiEV, the largest pilot test of electric cars in Canada. This test will also allow a better understanding of winter usage of the technology. BC-Hydro and Mitsubishi had previously tested a three-vehicle fleet in British Columbia.[47] The first five i-MiEVs were delivered in December 2010 and will be assigned to staff from the city of Boucherville.[48]

On October 21, 2010, Transport Canada and Mitsubishi Motor Sales of Canada announced a partnership to test the Mitsubishi i-MiEV. Transport Canada’s ecoTECHNOLOGY for Vehicles (eTV) Program will test two i-MiEVs in government facilities and in a variety of real-world conditions. This program aim is to evaluate the i-MiEV road performance and range.[49]

Europe

The Citroën C-ZERO is a rebadged Mitsubishi i-MiEV.
Peugeot iOn is another rebadged version of the i-MiEV

The European version of the i-MiEV was introduced at the 2010 Paris Motor Show. Specific features of the European version include a new design to the front and rear bumpers to meet EU regulations, re-arranged center stack in the instrument panel, improved interior comfort and both active and passive safety features have been improved with the addition of Active Stability Control (ASC), as well as side and curtain airbags, all included as standard equipment.[50] The European MiEV achieves an all-electric range of 150 kilometres (93 mi) under the European NEDC driving pattern.[51]

Mass production of the European i-MiEV began in October 2010 at Mitsubishi's Mizushima plant, along with production of its siblings by PSA Peugeot Citroën, the Peugeot iOn and the Citroën C-ZERO.[51] In January 2011, Mitsubishi shipped 2,500 i-MiEVs from Japan and began sales in 15 countries: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom, and further expand the European roll out through 2011.[52] Mitsubishi is also running demonstration programs with the i-MiEV in the Principality of Monaco, Iceland, and Denmark.[53] The price of the European version will vary by country but will be set to around €33,000 to €35,000 (US$41,900 to US$44,400). The carmaker is aiming for a final cost to the customer of under €30,000 (US$38,000) or equivalent after government incentives.[50]

Estonia

On March 3, 2011, the government of Estonia confirmed the sale to Mitsubishi Corporation of 10 million carbon dioxide credits in exchange for 507 i-MiEV electric cars. The deal also includes funding to build 250 express charging stations in larger towns and main highways by 2013, and will subsidize the first 500 private buyers of any electric car approved by the European Union.[54][55] The first 50 i-MiEVs were delivered in October 2011 and this official fleet will be assigned for use by municipal social workers.[53][56] During the first round of allocations of the electric cars, municipalities requested only 336 of the 507 i-MiEVs available. Several local authorities have stated concerns about the electric car performance during harsh winter conditions, maintenance costs and the i-MiEV' reliability on difficult countryside roads.[57][58]

France

During 2010 a total of 184 electric cars were registered in France, of which 30 Peugeot iOns, 27 were Citroen C-Zeros, and 8 i-MiEVs. [59] In April 2011 out of the 187 electric vehicles sold, 106 were Citroen C-Zeros, 76 Peugeot iOns, and two i-MiEVs, with 41 iOns purchased by a car sharing service in Nice and 20 by a company in Lyon. The increase in sales of plug-in electric cars was attributed to the termination of France's incentive of €2,000 (US$2,860) for vehicles powered by autogas (LPG) and the availability of the €5,000 (US$7,150) government incentive for purchasing vehicles with CO2 emissions of 50 gr/km or less.[60] In September 2011, 62 Peugeot iOns and 39 Citroen C-Zeros were registered, out of a total 300 electric vehicles registered that month.[61]

The C-Zero is available for rental starting at €35 (US$51) for half a day. The electric car is rented by the MultiCity vehicle rental service in selected French cities. The C-Zero is available in the Paris region at six locations: the Gare Montparnasse, Gare de Lyon and Gare du Nord train stations, Paris-Orly Airport, Porte Maillot and Nanterre.[62]

In 2011 PSA Peugeot Citroen was awarded a contract to supply 3,900 electric cars to the French Government, to be used by government officials in Paris.[63]

Norway

Since deliveries began in early 2011, the i-MiEV became the best selling electric car in the country.[64][65] From January to September 2011, a total of 1,425 electric cars were sold in Norway, of which, 804 were i-MiEVS, 151 were Citroen C-Zeros, and 140 Peugeot iOns, representing together 77% of all cars sold in that period.[64]

A Mitsubishi i MiEV in Spain.
Spain

Retail sales began in December 2010 and the i-MiEV price is €29,153 before sales tax or any government incentives.[66][67]

United Kingdom

In December 2009 Mitsubishi began an electric vehicle trial in the UK with a fleet of 25 i-MiEVs. The i-MiEV demonstration is part of the project Coventry and Birmingham Low Emission Vehicle Demonstrators (CABLED), which is running in the English Midlands with a variety of vehicles including plug-in hybrids and the extended range electric Jaguar XJ.[68] In March 2010, the company reported that after the first three-month period the trial fleet ran an average of 23 miles (37 km) a day, have been parked 97% of the time, and most of the individual trips were under 5 miles (8 km). Another key finding in the test report is that the vehicles were driven in temperatures as low as −10 °C (14 °F) during the winter period, and it was observed a drop-off in usage during extremely cold weather, when only essential journeys are made.[68]

In March 2010, Mitsubishi announced that the i-MiEV would be sold at a price of GB£38,699 (~US$55,870),[69][70] but in August 2010 the company reduced the price to GB£28,990 (~US$45,100).[71] Sales to the public in the U.K. began on January 2011, which coincided with the date the GB£5,000 Plug-in Car Grant came into effect.[69][72][73] Mitsubishi authorized 13 sales centres with two in London and the rest spread across England, Scotland and Northern Ireland.[73] In April 2011 Hertz Rent-a-Car added two i-MiEVs to its fleet of vehicles in London and intends to add more across the UK later in 2011. The i-MiEVs are offered as rental vehicles to Connect by Hertz members and these electric cars will be supported by 16 Hertz-installed quick-charge stations located in and around London.[74]

Japan

Mitsubishi i-MiEV recharging from an on-street charging station in Japan.

The i-MiEV was launched for fleet customers in Japan in late July 2009, after Mitsubishi's more than 40 years in development of electric vehicles.[75] Initial price was set at ¥4,590,000 (US$46,500). The Japanese government is offering subsidies of up to ¥1,390,000, and some local governments are also offering additional subsidies that could bring the price down to as low as ¥2,200,000.[26][76][77] Mitsubishi reduced the price of the vehicle by ¥619,000 (US$6,700) to just below ¥4,000,000 two days before it went for retail sales in Japan in April 2010 to compete with the Nissan Leaf. As of early 2010 there were 60 charging stations in Japan.[3][25][26]

On June 2010 Mitsubishi Motors announced that is aiming to cut the price of its electric vehicles to ¥2 million(US$21,890) by fiscal year 2012 to obtain price parity in the showrooms with hybrid electric vehicles. Mitsubishi is expecting that mass production of lithium ion batteries from its battery plant coming online in April 2012 will allow to reduced battery cost from its current ¥2.5 million to less than ¥1 million.[78]

On March 2010, the company said it had received about 2,000 advance orders in Japan for the vehicle.[25] Mitsubishi reported that it had sold about 3,000 units in Japan as of October 2010,[34] and around 4,000 i-MiEVs by July 2011, two years after its introduction.[23]

Two new trims levels will be available in the Japanese market in the second half of 2011. Beginning in July 25, the lower-level "M" trim will be sold for ¥1,880,000 (US$23,200) after the government subsidy. The "M" trim has a 10.5 kWh battery and its equipment and trim specification were adjusted to allow a more accessible price. The "M" trim range is 120 km (75 mi) on the JC08-cycle. The higher-level "G" trim will be available by mid-August at a price varing from ¥2,600,000 (US$32,100) to ¥3,800,000 (US$47,000). The "G" trim has the same 16.0 kWh battery as the original i-MiEV, but the new trim realizes around a 20% increase in its single charge range on the J08-cycle, offering 180 km (110 mi). The "G" has LED headlamps and rear combination lamps, 15-inch alloy road wheels, leather-wrapped steering wheel and shifter knob and other high-grade equipment, such as a navigation system and heated seats for the driver and front passenger as standard.[23][79]

United States

Sales of the i-MiEV in the U.S. are scheduled to begin in January 2012. Mitsubishi initially announced a base price of US$27,990, but on September raised the base price to US$29,125 plus the destination charge and prior to the federal tax credit and other incentives available in California and other states.[8][80] The American version of the Mitsubishi i-MiEV was unveiled at the November 2010 Los Angeles Auto Show.[81] During the LA show several sources reported that Mitsubishi decided to drop the "MiEV" from the name and the US version will be named simply as "i electric vehicle".[82][83]

i-MiEV test drive event in Washington, D.C.

The U.S.-only version is enlarged, has redesigned front and rear bumpers[84], and includes more features than the Japanese and European versions in order to meet crash standards, government mandates, and the preferences of the U.S. consumers. The American version is 285 millimetres (11.2 in) longer than the Japanese version, 110 millimetres (4.3 in) wider[2], and slightly taller. It also has advanced airbags and the mandated tire-pressure monitoring system (TPMS), an upgraded interior and features more accessories.[85][86][87]

The entry-level ES trim starts at US$29,125, the SE trim at US$31,125, and the SE Premium version is priced at US$33,915 that includes DC fast charging, an HDD nav system and better entertainment and audio options. These prices do not include destination charge. For any of the models, the Cold Zone package, which includes a battery warming system and heated outside mirrors, is available for an extra US$150.[8][80] The reservation process for the U.S. began on April 22, 2011, and customers have to pay two deposits: US$299 for the car and US$99.99 for a required home inspection. The carmaker will waive the US$100 fee for the first 2,000 people who place an order and then buy the car. Mitsubishi is only accepting PayPal as the method of payment for these online transactions.[8] Mitsubishi began sending order confirmation emails and offering optional accesories by early September 2011.[88]

The first i-MiEV demo units are scheduled to be available in November 2011, and sales are expected to begin in January 2012.[8] The roll-out is scheduled to start in California, Oregon, Washington and Hawaii, followed by the Northeast, and nationwide availability by the end of 2012.[85] On November 2010 Mitsubishi announced partnerships with Eaton and Best Buy for sales and home installation of recharging units.[81]

Other countries

Mitsubishi i-MiEV sales price by market
(without any government tax credits or grants)
Country Sales
price
Equivalent
US$(1)
Launched/
scheduled
 Japan[25] ¥4.0 million US$49,880 Apr 2010
 Hong Kong[89] HK$395,000 US$50,715 May 2010
 Australia(2) A$62,240
(2011)[40]
US$65,860 Jul 2010
A$48,800
(2012)[43]
US$51,444 Aug 2011
 Germany[90] €34,990 US$50,270 Dec 2010
 Spain[66] €29,153 US$41,890 Dec 2010
 United Kingdom[71] GB£28,990 US$47,040 Jan 2011
 Costa Rica[91] ¢30.5 million US$61,050 Feb 2011
 Chile[92] CLP27.7 million US$60,000 May 2011
 Russia[93] руб.1,799,000 US$64,330 June 2011
 New Zealand[94] NZ$59,990 US$51,325 Jul 2011
 Canada[7] CAD 32,998 US$33,785 Dec 2011
 United States[80] US$29,125 Jan 2012
Notes (1): Exchange rates as of June 22, 2011.
(2) The 2011 i-MiEV is available for leasing only, at a price of A$1,740/month
during 36 months totaling A$62,240. Retail sales only for the 2012 i-MiEV
Chile

The i-MiEV was launched in May 2011 at a price of CLP27,7 million (US$60,000). Initial availability is limited to 25 units.[92][95] The first public quick charging station in the country was opened in April 2011 in preparation for the arrival of the first i-MiEV electric cars.[96]

Costa Rica

The i-MiEV was launched in February 2011 at a price of US$61,500.[97][98] Costa Rica does not have any government incentives for electric cars. According to Mitsubishi, Costa Rica was selected at the first market launch in the Americas due to its environmental record. Initial availability will be limited to 25 to 50 units.[99][91] Sales are oriented to supply mainly fleet customers including government agencies and electric companies.[100]

Hong Kong

On December 2009, the Hong Kong Government and other corporation began testing the i-MiEV, totaling 30 vehicles tested until May 2010.[101] Sales to the public in Hong Kong began in May 2010 at a price of HK$395,000 (~US$50,631).[89]

New Zealand

Between January and March 2009 the i-MiEV was brought to New Zealand as part of an electric vehicle trial, during which the i-MiEV travelled the entire country, testing infrastructure and demonstrating the vehicle to the public.[102] As of March 2011 there were 8 i-MiEV in use in Wellington, as a field trial sponsored by the Wellington City Council, New Zealand Post, Meridian Energy, The Wellington Company and Mitsubishi Motors. Sales to the public are scheduled for July 2011 at a price of NZ$59,990 (~US$51,325), and the number of units will be limited.[94]

Russian Federation

The i-MiEV was launched in June 2011 at a price of руб.1,799,000 (~US$64,946).[93]

Singapore

In November 2010 Mitsubishi signed an agreement with the Singaporean government to introduce electric vehicles in the country. Mitsubishi will supply 25 i-MiEVs in 2011 to the Economic Development Board, the Energy Market Authority and the Land Transport Authority, which are part of a multi-agency EV task force. This agreement is part of a three-year US$20 million test program that will deploy charging infrastructure for electric vehicles and evaluate the cost benefits of EVs for future adoption.[103][104] The delivery of the first batch of 10 i-MiEV electric cars is scheduled for May 2011.[104]

Thailand

In December 2010, Mitsubishi Motors and the government of Thailand agreed to start fleet testing electric vehicles for a possible launch of i-MiEV.[105] In July 2011, a new agreement was signed to begin the trials with the participation of the Metropolitan Electricity Authority (MEA) and PEA ENCOM International (PEA), two of Thailand's electricity distribution companies.[106]

Awards and recognition

  • "2009 Japan Automotive Hall of Fame Car Technology of the Year" award in October 2009.[107]
  • "Japanese Car of the Year Most Advanced Technology" awarded during the 41st Tokyo Motor Show in October 2009.[108]
  • "Ecobest 2009" by AUTOBEST in January 2010.[109]
  • "Environment Special Grand Prize" awarded during the 25th International Automobile Festival, Paris, France on February 2010.[110]
  • The i-MiEV was one of the five finalists to the 2011 Green Car Vision Award.[111]
  • The 2012 model year American-spec i-MiEV was one of the five finalists for the 2012 Green Car of the Year.[112]
  • The 2012 model year American-spec i-MiEV ranks first in EPA’s Annual Fuel Economy Guide, and since November 2011 ranks as the most efficient EPA certified vehicle in the U.S. for all fuels ever.[9][10]

See also

References

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  2. ^ a b c d MITSUBISHI MOTORS' NORTH AMERICAN VERSION OF I-MIEV TO MAKE WORLD PREMIERE AT THE LOS ANGELES AUTO SHOW. . Mitsubishi Motors. 2010-11-08. http://media.mitsubishicars.com/releases/7ec82605-55bd-7a51-fc05-40504cd8a323. 
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