- Circuit (administrative division)
Circuits originated in China in 627, when Emperor Taizong subdivided China into ten circuits. These were originally meant to be purely geographic and not administrative. Emperor Xuanzong further added five. Slowly, the circuits strengthened their own power, until they became powerful regional forces that tore the country apart during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period. During the Later Jin and Song dynasties, circuits were renamed from dao to lu (路), both of which literally mean "road" or "path". Dao were revived during the Yuan Dynasty.
At first, circuits were the highest of the three-tier administrative system of China; the next two were prefectures or zhou (州) and counties (縣, also translated as "districts"). They are simultaneously inspection areas (監察區 jiān chá qū). Circuits were demoted to the second-level after the Yuan Dynasty established provinces at the very top, and remained there for the next several centuries.
Circuits still existed as high-level, though not top-level, divisions of the Republic of China, such as Qiongya Circuit (now Hainan Province). In 1928, all circuits were replaced with committees or just completely abandoned.
- Tōkaidō (東海道) "East Sea Circuit": 15 provinces (kuni)
- Nankaidō (南海道) "South Sea Circuit": 6 provinces
- Saikaidō (西海道) "West Sea Circuit": 8 provinces
- Hokurikudō (北陸道) "North Land Circuit": 7 provinces
- San'indō (山陰道) "Mountain-north Circuit": 8 provinces
- San'yōdō (山陽道) "Mountain-south Circuit": 8 provinces
- Tōsandō (東山道) "East Mountain Circuit": 13 provinces
(For the mountain south-north reference with in and yō, see Yin Yang.)
In the mid-19th century, the northern island of Ezo was settled, and renamed Hokkaidō (北海道?, "North Sea Circuit"). However, Hokkaido was never a "circuit" in the classical sense. It was essentially a prefecture with a different name from the other prefectures.
Since the late 10th century, the do (“province”) has been the primary administrative division in Korea. See Eight Provinces, Provinces of Korea, Subdivisions of South Korea and Administrative divisions of North Korea for details.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Administrative division — For administrative division in the sense of a company department, see: administration (business). World administrative divisions An administrative division, subnational entity, or country subdivision is a portion of a country or other political… … Wikipedia
Parish (administrative division) — This article is about civil administration. For the ecclesiastical parish, see Parish. For other uses, see Parish (disambiguation). A parish is an administrative division used by several countries. In the British Isles it is known as a civil… … Wikipedia
Community (administrative division) — For the country subdivision of Wales, see Community (Wales). A community is an administrative division found in Belgium, Canada, Greece, Iceland, Wales, and the League of Nations Class A mandates See also Autonomous community Residential… … Wikipedia
Constituency (administrative division) — For other uses, see Constituency. Constituency is used as a term for an administrative division in Namibia and the Canton of St. Gallen in Switzerland. v … Wikipedia
Circuit — may mean: In science and technology Circuit theory, the theory of accomplishing work by routing electrons, gas, fluids, or other matter through a loop Pneumatic circuit Hydraulic circuit Boolean circuit circuit (computer theory) Integer circuit a … Wikipedia
Division (country subdivision) — A division is a type of administrative division of some Asian and African countries. Some have been dissolved or been renamed. Administrative divisions Group Continent Level Note divisions of Bangladesh South Asia 1st divisions of Cameroon (also… … Wikipedia
Circuit Court of Cook County — One of the Circuit Court s courthouses The Circuit Court of Cook County is the largest of the 22 circuits in Illinois as well as one of the largest unified court systems in the world. It was created by a 1964 amendment to the Illinois… … Wikipedia
Division of Fisheries and Wildlife (Massachusetts) — The Massachusetts Division of Fisheries and Wildlife, sometimes referred to as MassWildlife, is an agency of the Massachusetts Department of Fish and Game, within the Executive Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs. MassWildlife is overseen… … Wikipedia
List of administrative divisions of Shanghai — This article is part of the series: Administrative divisions of the People s Republic of China Provincial level Provinces (省; shěng) Autonomous regions (自治区; zìzhìqū) … Wikipedia
Illinois Circuit Court of Cook County — The Circuit Court of Cook County The Circuit Court of Cook County is the largest of the 22 circuits in Illinois as well as one of the largest unified court systems in the world. It was created by a 1964 amendment to the Illinois Constitution… … Wikipedia