Prince Ernest Augustus, 3rd Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale


Prince Ernest Augustus, 3rd Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale
Ernest Augustus
Crown Prince of Hanover
Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale
Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale
Predecessor George V
Successor Titles revoked
Head of the House of Hanover
Pretence 12 June 1878 – 14 November 1923
Predecessor George V
Successor Ernest Augustus III
Spouse Princess Thyra of Denmark
Issue
Marie Louise, Princess Maximilian of Baden
Prince George William
Alexandra, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg-Schwerin
Princess Olga
Prince Christian
Ernest Augustus III, Duke of Brunswick
Full name
Ernest Augustus William Adolphus George Frederick
German: Ernst August Wilhelm Adolphus Georg Friedrich
House House of Hanover
Father George V of Hanover
Mother Marie of Saxe-Altenburg
Born 21 September 1845(1845-09-21)
Hanover
Died 14 November 1923(1923-11-14) (aged 78)
Gmunden

Ernst August, Crown Prince of Hanover, Heir of Brunswick, 3rd Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale, 3rd Earl of Armagh, (Ernest Augustus William Adolphus George Frederick; 21 September 1845 – 14 November 1923), was the eldest child and only son of George V of Hanover and his wife, Marie of Saxe-Altenburg. Ernst August was deprived of the thrones of Hanover upon its annexation by Prussia in 1866 and later the Duchy of Brunswick in 1884. Although he was the senior male-line great-grandson of George III, the Duke of Cumberland was deprived of his British peerages and honours for having sided with Germany in World War I.

Contents

Early life

Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover, Duke of Brunswick and Lunenburg, Prince of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, was born at Hanover during the reign of his paternal grandfather, Ernest Augustus I. He became the Crown Prince of Hanover upon his father's ascension as George V in November 1851. William I of Prussia and his minister-president Otto von Bismarck deposed George V for having sided with the defeated Austria in the 1866 Austro-Prussian War. During that war, the Crown Prince saw action at the Battle of Langensalza.

Exile

After the war, the exiled Hanoverian royal family took up residence in Hietzing, near Vienna, but spent a good deal of time in Paris. George V never abandoned his claim to the Hanoverian throne and maintained the Guelphic Legion at his own expense. The former Crown Prince travelled during this early period of exile. While visiting his second cousin Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII) at Sandringham in 1875, he met Princess Thyra of Denmark (29 September 1853 – 26 February 1933), the youngest daughter of King Christian IX and a sister of the Princess of Wales (later Queen Alexandra).

Succession

When King George V died in Paris on 12 June 1878, Prince Ernst August succeeded him as Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale in the Peerage of Great Britain and Earl of Armagh in the Peerage of Ireland. Queen Victoria created him a Knight of the Garter on 1 August 1878.

Marriage

On 21 December/22 December 1878, he married Princess Thyra of Denmark at Copenhagen.

Duchy of Brunswick

Queen Victoria appointed the Duke of Cumberland a major general in the British Army in 1886 and promoted him to lieutenant general in 1892 and general in 1898. Although he was a British peer and a prince of Great Britain and Ireland, he continued to consider himself an exiled monarch of a German realm, making his home in Gmunden, Upper Austria. He refused to disclaim his succession rights to Hanover. In 1884, the reigning Duke William of Brunswick, a distant cousin, died and the Duke of Cumberland was hereditary heir and first in line of succession to the Duchy. Bismarck, however, managed to exclude him from this inheritance, as he had also from his father's throne, declaring the throne vacant and putting the Duchy under Prussian administration.

Reconciliation

The Duke of Cumberland was partially reconciled with the Hohenzollern dynasty in 1913, when his surviving son, Prince Ernst August, married the only daughter of German Emperor Wilhelm II, the grandson of the Prussian king who had deposed his father. He renounced his succession rights to the Brunswick duchy (which had belonged to the Guelph dynasty since 1235) on 24 October 1913. In exchange, the younger Ernst August became the reigning Duke of Brunswick on 1 November. William II created the elder Ernst August a Knight of the Order of the Black Eagle. In 1918 the younger Duke Ernst August abdicated his throne along with the other German princes when all the German dynasties were disestablished by the successor German provisional Government which was established when the Emperor himself abdicated and fled Germany in exile to the Netherlands.

War

The outbreak of World War I created a breach between the British Royal Family and its Hanoverian cousins. On 13 May 1915, King George V of Great Britain ordered the removal of the Duke of Cumberland from the Roll of the Order of the Garter. Under the terms of the Titles Deprivation Act 1917, on 28 March 1919 his name was removed from the roll of Peers of Great Britain and of Ireland by Order of the King in Council for "bearing arms against Great Britain."

Later life

Prince Ernst August, the former Crown Prince of Hanover and former Duke of Cumberland, died of a stroke on his estate at Gmunden in November 1923.

Titles, styles, honours and arms

British coat of arms of Prince Ernest Augustus, 3rd Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale

Titles and styles

  • 21 September 1845–18 November 1851: His Royal Highness Prince Ernest Augustus of Hanover and Cumberland
  • 18 November 1851–12 June 1878: His Royal Highness The Crown Prince of Hanover
  • 12 June 1878–28 March 1919: His Royal Highness The Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale

Arms

Until his father's death in 1878, Ernest Augustus' arms in right of the United Kingdom were those of his father (being the arms of the United Kingdom, differenced by a label argent of three points, the centre point charged with a fleur-de-lys azure, and each of the other points charged with a cross gules; the whole further differenced by a label gules bearing a horse courant argent), the whole a third time differenced by a label gules bearing a horse courant argent. Upon his father's death, he inherited his arms.[1]

Issue

Ernest Augustus with family, photographed by Karl Jagerspacher, 1887

The Duke and Duchess of Cumberland had six children.

Name Birth Death Notes
Princess Marie Louise of Hanover and Cumberland 11 October 1879 31 January 1948 married Prince Maximilian of Baden (10 July 1867 – 6 November 1929); had issue
Prince George William of Hanover and Cumberland 28 October 1880 20 May 1912
Princess Alexandra of Hanover and Cumberland 29 September 1882 30 August 1963 married Friedrich Franz IV, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (9 April 1882 – 17 November 1945)
Princess Olga of Hanover and Cumberland 11 July 1884 21 September 1958
Prince Christian of Hanover and Cumberland 4 July 1885 3 September 1901
Prince Ernst August (III) of Hanover and Cumberland 17 November 1887 30 January 1953 married Princess Viktoria Luise of Prussia (13 September 1892 – 11 December 1980)

Ancestry

Notes

External links

Prince Ernest Augustus, 3rd Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale
Cadet branch of the House of Welf
Born: 21 September 1845 Died: 14 November 1923
Peerage of Great Britain
Preceded by
George V
Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale
12 June 1878 – 28 March 1919
Suspended
Peerage of Ireland
Preceded by
George V
Earl of Armagh
12 June 1878 – 28 March 1919
Suspended
Titles in pretence
Loss of title
— TITULAR —
Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale
28 March 1919 – 14 November 1923
Succeeded by
Ernest Augustus III
Preceded by
George V
— TITULAR —
King of Hanover
12 June 1878 – 14 November 1923
Reason for succession failure:
Hanover annexed by Prussia in 1866



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