Chinese Army in India
X Force was the name given to the portion of the National Revolutionary Army Chinese Expeditionary Force that retreated from Burma into India in 1942. Chiang Kai-shek sent troops into Burma from Yunnan in 1942 to assist the British in holding back the Japanese. These Chinese forces became broken up, and in the retreat out of Burma part of these forces entered India. These were cantoned at Ramgarh Cantonment in Bihar (now in Jharkhand State), brought up to three-Division strength (Chinese 30th, 22nd and 38th Divisions), and re-equipped and re-trained by American instructors at British expense. They were named X Force and used by General Joseph Stilwell as the spearhead of his drive to open a land route to China (the Ledo Road). The outstanding Chinese commander in X Force was General Sun Li-Jen, who led the Chinese 38th Division and was praised by the British Fourteenth Army Commander General (later Field Marshal) William Slim in his book Defeat into Victory. The Chinese forces which re-entered Burma from Yunnan were correspondingly known as Y Force.
China Defensive 1942-1945
China Defensive 1942-1945 was an essay prepared for the United States Army Center of Military History by Mark D. Sherry.The U.S. Army's main role in China was to keep China in the war through the provision of advice and materiel assistance. As long as China stayed in the war, hundreds of thousands of Imperial Japanese Army soldiers could be tied down on the Asian mainland instead of being used to fight on other fronts. Success was thus measured differently than in most theaters. How well both General Stilwell and General Wedemeyer persuaded the theater commander-in-chief, Generalissimo Chiang, to support U.S. strategic goals, and how effectively U.S. training and materiel support could build selected Chinese Army divisions into modern tactical units, capable of standing up to Japanese adversaries, were secondary objectives. What mattered most was simply keeping China in the war against Japan. The major U.S. failure in China was logistical: America was not able to meet its lend-lease commitments. The closing of the Burma Road in 1942 made it impossible to deliver sufficient equipment, weapons, and munitions to build the dream of a well-equipped and trained thirty-division Chinese force.
Japanese conquest of Burma
- ^ "China Defensive 1942-1945". CMH Online. http://www.history.army.mil/brochures/72-38/72-38.htm. Retrieved 2009-10-02.
Bilin River – Sittang Bridge – Pegu – Taukkyan – Yunnan-Burma Road – Toungoo – Shwedaung – Prome – Yenangyaung
Burma Campaign 1942–1943
First Arakan – The Hump – Chindits
Burma Campaign 1944
U Go – Ngakyedauk – Chindits (II) – Sangshak – Imphal – Kohima
Burma Campaign 1944–1945
North Burma & Yunnan
Meiktila & Mandalay – Pakokku – Hill 170 –Ramree Island – Dracula – Elephant Point
- The Burma Road by Donovan Webster
- Defeat into Victory by F.M. William Slim
- Stilwell and the American Experience in China by Barbara W. Tuchman
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Army of India — This article deals with the Army of India before Independence in 1947. For the modern day army, please see Indian Army. Army of India consisted of both the Indian Army and the British Army in India between 1903 and 1947. Lord Kitchener was… … Wikipedia
Chinese Expeditionary Force (Burma) — The reunion of The Chinese Expeditionary Force and the Chinese Army in India (X Force and Y Force) … Wikipedia
India — /in dee euh/, n. 1. Hindi, Bharat. a republic in S Asia: a union comprising 25 states and 7 union territories; formerly a British colony; gained independence Aug. 15, 1947; became a republic within the Commonwealth of Nations Jan. 26, 1950.… … Universalium
Chinese intelligence activity abroad — Chinese intelligence is believed to be highly active outside of the People s Republic of China. China is the largest intelligence collector in the Netherlands, as well as in several other EU countries, and one of the top five intelligence… … Wikipedia
Chinese People's Liberation Army Forces Hong Kong Building — 中國人民解放軍駐香港部隊大廈 General information Type Military Location … Wikipedia
Chinese art — Chinese jade ornament with dragon and phoenix design, late Spring and Autumn Period (722 BC 482 BC) … Wikipedia
Chinese Filipino — Chinese Filipino … Wikipedia
Chinese exploration — includes exploratory Chinese travels abroad, on land and by sea, from the 2nd century BC until the 15th century. Contents 1 Land exploration 1.1 Pamir Mountains and beyond 2 Maritime exploration … Wikipedia
Chinese philosophy — Traditional Chinese 中國哲學 Simplified Chinese 中国哲学 Transc … Wikipedia
Chinese people in Papua New Guinea — 巴布亞新幾內亞華人 巴布亚新几内亚华人 Total population 5,000–20,000 Languages Tok Pisin and English; Cantonese (among older people); … Wikipedia