Chilblains


Chilblains
Chilblain
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 T69.1
ICD-9 991.5
DiseasesDB 31219
eMedicine derm/322

Chilblains (play /ˈɪlblnz/; also known as pernio and perniosis)[1] are a medical condition that is often confused with frostbite and trench foot. Chilblains are acral ulcers (that is, ulcers affecting the extremities) that occur when a predisposed individual is exposed to cold and humidity. The cold exposure damages capillary beds in the skin, which in turn can cause redness, itching, blisters, and inflammation.[2] Chilblains are often idiopathic in origin but can be manifestations of serious medical conditions that need to be investigated. Chilblains can be prevented by keeping the feet and hands warm in cold weather. A history of chilblains is suggestive of a connective tissue disease.

Contents

Symptoms

The areas most affected are the ears, earlobes, nose, and extremities; feet & toes, hands & fingers.

[3] [4] [5]

Duration

With treatment, chilblains usually heal within 7–14 days.

Treatments

Prevention

Exposure

  • Avoid rapid changes in temperature.
  • Wear gloves and socks.
  • Use warm footwear.
  • Keep hands and feet warm.
  • Avoid tight fitting socks/shoes
  • Place cotton wool between the toes to improve circulation

Dietary

  • Healthy diet
  • Exercise to improve circulation
  • Avoid alcohol before going out in snow

History

The medieval Bald's Leechbook recommended that chilblains be treated with a mix of eggs, wine, and fennel root.[9] An old Irish remedy was to place the affected digits in a bowl of water in which potatoes had been boiled.

See also

  • Erythrocyanosis crurum
  • Equestrian perniosis
  • Trench foot
  • Frostbite

References

  1. ^ James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology. Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0. [page needed]
  2. ^ Cold Stress: Chilblains. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Retrieved January 6, 2009.
  3. ^ Chilblains symptoms
  4. ^ Signs & Symptoms
  5. ^ Mayo Clinic: Chilblains
  6. ^ Rustin, M.H.A.; Newton, Julia A.; Smith, N.P.; Dowd, Pauline M. (2006). "The treatment of chilblains with nifedipine: the results of a pilot study, a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized study and a long-term open trial". British Journal of Dermatology 120 (2): 267–75. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2133.1989.tb07792.x. PMID 2647123. 
  7. ^ Simon, T. D.; Soep, JB; Hollister, JR (2005). "Pernio in Pediatrics". Pediatrics 116 (3): e472–5. doi:10.1542/peds.2004-2681. PMID 16140694. 
  8. ^ Patra, AK; Das, AL; Ramadasan, P (5/1/2003). "Diltiazem vs. nifedipine in chilblains: A clinical trial". Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology, and Leprology 69 (3): 209. PMID 17642888. http://www.ijdvl.com/text.asp?2003/69/3/209/999. 
  9. ^ Robert Lacey and Danny Danziger August:The Year 1000: What Life Was Like at the Turn of the First Millennium Little, Brown, 2000 ISBN 0316511579[page needed]

External links


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • chilblains — Chilblain Chil blain , chilblains chil blains, n. [Chill + Blain.] A blain, sore, or inflammatory swelling of the feet or hands, produced by exposure to cold, and attended by itching, pain, and sometimes ulceration. Syn: pernio. [1913 Webster +… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • chilblains — noun inflammation of limb extremities caused by exposure to cold and wet conditions Though I had desired so much to see London, when I arrived in it I was unfortunately unable to gratify my curiosity; for I had at this time the chilblains to such …   Wiktionary

  • chilblains — (perniosis) pl. n. dusky red itchy swellings that develop on the extremities in cold weather. They usually settle in two weeks but treatment with nifedipine is helpful in severe cases. There may be a genetic predisposition to chilblains …   Medical dictionary

  • chilblains — perniosis; pl. n. dusky red itchy swellings that develop on the extremities in cold weather. They usually settle in two weeks but treatment with nifedipine is helpful in severe cases. There may be a genetic predisposition to chilblains …   The new mediacal dictionary

  • chilblains — chil|blains [ˈtʃılbleınz] n [plural ] painful red areas on your fingers or toes that are caused by cold weather …   Dictionary of contemporary English

  • chilblains — chil·blain || tʃɪlbleɪn n. sore caused by cold …   English contemporary dictionary

  • chilblains — noun inflammation of the hands and feet caused by exposure to cold and moisture • Syn: ↑chilblain, ↑pernio • Hypernyms: ↑blain • Hyponyms: ↑kibe …   Useful english dictionary

  • Отморожение (Chilblains), Переохлаждение (Pemiosis) — темно красные зудящие припухлости, которые появляются при переохлаждении конечностей в холодную погоду. Обычно они проходят самостоятельно в течение двух недель; при сильном отморожении состояние больного может быть облегчено с помощью нифедипина …   Медицинские термины

  • Chilblain — Infobox Disease Name = PAGENAME Caption = DiseasesDB = 31219 ICD10 = ICD10|T|69|1|t|66 ICD9 = ICD9|991.5 ICDO = OMIM = MedlinePlus = eMedicineSubj = derm eMedicineTopic = 322 MeshID = Chilblains, also called perniosis or blain, when occurring on… …   Wikipedia

  • chilblain — chilblained, adj. /chil blayn/, n. Usually, chilblains. Pathol. an inflammation of the hands and feet caused by exposure to cold and moisture. Also called pernio. [1540 50; CHILL + BLAIN] * * * ▪ pathology also called  pernio, or erythema pernio …   Universalium


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