Chilblain Classification and external resources ICD-10 T69.1 ICD-9 991.5 DiseasesDB 31219 eMedicine derm/322
Chilblains ( //; also known as pernio and perniosis) are a medical condition that is often confused with frostbite and trench foot. Chilblains are acral ulcers (that is, ulcers affecting the extremities) that occur when a predisposed individual is exposed to cold and humidity. The cold exposure damages capillary beds in the skin, which in turn can cause redness, itching, blisters, and inflammation. Chilblains are often idiopathic in origin but can be manifestations of serious medical conditions that need to be investigated. Chilblains can be prevented by keeping the feet and hands warm in cold weather. A history of chilblains is suggestive of a connective tissue disease.
- Blistering of affected area
- Burning and itching sensation in extremities
- Dermatitis in extremities
- Digital ulceration
- Erythema (blanchable redness of the skin)
- Pain in affected area
- Skin discoloration, red to dark blue
- Symptoms worsen when exposed to warmth
With treatment, chilblains usually heal within 7–14 days.
- Keep area warm
- Nifedipine may be used in more severe or recurrent cases. Its vasodilation helps reduce pain, facilitate healing and prevent recurrences.
- Diltiazem may also be used.
- Avoid rapid changes in temperature.
- Wear gloves and socks.
- Use warm footwear.
- Keep hands and feet warm.
- Avoid tight fitting socks/shoes
- Place cotton wool between the toes to improve circulation
- Healthy diet
- Exercise to improve circulation
- Avoid alcohol before going out in snow
The medieval Bald's Leechbook recommended that chilblains be treated with a mix of eggs, wine, and fennel root. An old Irish remedy was to place the affected digits in a bowl of water in which potatoes had been boiled.
- Erythrocyanosis crurum
- Equestrian perniosis
- Trench foot
- ^ James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology. Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0. [page needed]
- ^ Cold Stress: Chilblains. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. Retrieved January 6, 2009.
- ^ Chilblains symptoms
- ^ Signs & Symptoms
- ^ Mayo Clinic: Chilblains
- ^ Rustin, M.H.A.; Newton, Julia A.; Smith, N.P.; Dowd, Pauline M. (2006). "The treatment of chilblains with nifedipine: the results of a pilot study, a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized study and a long-term open trial". British Journal of Dermatology 120 (2): 267–75. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2133.1989.tb07792.x. PMID 2647123.
- ^ Simon, T. D.; Soep, JB; Hollister, JR (2005). "Pernio in Pediatrics". Pediatrics 116 (3): e472–5. doi:10.1542/peds.2004-2681. PMID 16140694.
- ^ Patra, AK; Das, AL; Ramadasan, P (5/1/2003). "Diltiazem vs. nifedipine in chilblains: A clinical trial". Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology, and Leprology 69 (3): 209. PMID 17642888. http://www.ijdvl.com/text.asp?2003/69/3/209/999.
- ^ Robert Lacey and Danny Danziger August:The Year 1000: What Life Was Like at the Turn of the First Millennium Little, Brown, 2000 ISBN 0316511579[page needed]
Consequences of external causes (T66–T78, 990–995) Temperature/radiationreduced temperature: Hypothermia · Immersion foot syndromes (Trench foot • Tropical immersion foot • Warm water immersion foot) · Chilblains · Frostbite · Cold intolerance • Acrocyanosis • Erythrocyanosis crurumradiation: Radiation poisoning · Radiation burn · Chronic radiation keratosis • Eosinophilic, polymorphic, and pruritic eruption associated with radiotherapy • Radiation acne • Radiation cancer • Radiation recall reaction • Radiation-induced erythema multiforme • Radiation-induced hypertrophic scar • Radiation-induced keloid • Radiation-induced morphea Air Food Maltreatment Emesis Adverse effect Other Ungrouped
physical factorsDermatosis neglecta • Pinch mark • Pseudoverrucous papules and nodules • Sclerosing lymphangiitis • Tropical anhidrotic asthenia • UV-sensitive syndrome
environmental skin conditions: Electrical burn • frictional/traumatic/sports (Black heel and palm • Equestrian perniosis • Jogger's nipple • Pulling boat hands • Runner's rump • Surfer's knots • Tennis toe • Vibration white finger • Weathering nodule of ear • Wrestler's ear • Coral cut • Painful fat herniation ) • Uranium dermatosisiv use (Skin pop scar • Skin track • Slap mark • Pseudoacanthosis nigricans • Narcotic dermopathy)
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chilblains — Chilblain Chil blain , chilblains chil blains, n. [Chill + Blain.] A blain, sore, or inflammatory swelling of the feet or hands, produced by exposure to cold, and attended by itching, pain, and sometimes ulceration. Syn: pernio. [1913 Webster +… … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
chilblains — noun inflammation of limb extremities caused by exposure to cold and wet conditions Though I had desired so much to see London, when I arrived in it I was unfortunately unable to gratify my curiosity; for I had at this time the chilblains to such … Wiktionary
chilblains — (perniosis) pl. n. dusky red itchy swellings that develop on the extremities in cold weather. They usually settle in two weeks but treatment with nifedipine is helpful in severe cases. There may be a genetic predisposition to chilblains … Medical dictionary
chilblains — perniosis; pl. n. dusky red itchy swellings that develop on the extremities in cold weather. They usually settle in two weeks but treatment with nifedipine is helpful in severe cases. There may be a genetic predisposition to chilblains … The new mediacal dictionary
chilblains — chil|blains [ˈtʃılbleınz] n [plural ] painful red areas on your fingers or toes that are caused by cold weather … Dictionary of contemporary English
chilblains — chilÂ·blain || tÊƒÉªlbleÉªn n. sore caused by cold … English contemporary dictionary
chilblains — noun inflammation of the hands and feet caused by exposure to cold and moisture • Syn: ↑chilblain, ↑pernio • Hypernyms: ↑blain • Hyponyms: ↑kibe … Useful english dictionary
Отморожение (Chilblains), Переохлаждение (Pemiosis) — темно красные зудящие припухлости, которые появляются при переохлаждении конечностей в холодную погоду. Обычно они проходят самостоятельно в течение двух недель; при сильном отморожении состояние больного может быть облегчено с помощью нифедипина … Медицинские термины
Chilblain — Infobox Disease Name = PAGENAME Caption = DiseasesDB = 31219 ICD10 = ICD10|T|69|1|t|66 ICD9 = ICD9|991.5 ICDO = OMIM = MedlinePlus = eMedicineSubj = derm eMedicineTopic = 322 MeshID = Chilblains, also called perniosis or blain, when occurring on… … Wikipedia
chilblain — chilblained, adj. /chil blayn/, n. Usually, chilblains. Pathol. an inflammation of the hands and feet caused by exposure to cold and moisture. Also called pernio. [1540 50; CHILL + BLAIN] * * * ▪ pathology also called pernio, or erythema pernio … Universalium