A CATEGORICAL PROPOSITION is what gives a direct assertion of agreement or disagreement between the subject term and predicate term. It is a proposition that affirms or denies a predicate of a subject.
:Midshipman Davis serves on H.M.S. Invincible. ("subject:" Midshipman Davis; "predicate:" serves on H.M.S. Invincible):Some politicians are corrupt. ("subject:" politicians; "predicate:" corruptness):Nobody ever got fired for buying
IBM. ("subject:" people; "predicate:" getting fired for buying IBM)
The subject and predicate are called the "terms" of the proposition. The subject is what the proposition is about. The predicate is what the proposition affirms or denies about the subject. A categorical proposition thus claims something about things or ways of being: it affirms or denies something about something else.
Categorical propositions are distinguished from
hypothetical propositions (if-then statements that connect propositions rather than terms) and disjunctive propositions (either-or statements, claiming exclusivity between propositions).
Quality, quantity and distribution
Categorical propositions can be categorized on the basis of their quality, quantity, and distribution qualities. Quality refers to whether the proposition affirms or denies the inclusion of a subject to the class of the predicate. The two qualities are affirmative and negative. On the other hand, quantity refers to the amount of subjects in one class which are included in the other class. The first quantifier is the universal, "all". This means that every subject of one class has membership in the predicated class. The other quantifier is called a particular. It is an indefinite number, which could mean five, twenty or, perhaps, all, but always at least one. From quality and quantity are four types of categorical propositions designated alphabetically:
*"A proposition" is a universal affirmative: All S is P
*"E proposition" is a universal negative: No S is P
*"I proposition" is a particular affirmative: Some S is P
*"O proposition" is a particular negative: Some S is not P
All four types have different distribution properties. Distribution refers to what can be inferred from the proposition. An A proposition distributes the subject to the predicate, but not the reverse. Consider the following categorical proposition: all dogs are mammals. All dogs are indeed mammals but it would be false to say all mammals are dogs. E propositions do distribute bidirectionally between the subject and predicate. From the categorical proposition, no beetles are mammals, we can infer that no mammals are beetles. Both terms in an I proposition are undistributed. For example, some Americans are conservatives. Neither term in the proposition can be entirely distributed to the other term. From this proposition it is not possible to say that all Americans are conservatives or that all conservatives are Americans. In an O proposition only the predicate term is distributed. Consider the following: some hardware are not nails. Knowing that screws are considered hardware, it can be stated that there exist some members outside the class of nails that are members of the class of hardware. However, it can not be inferred that all hardware are nails. Thus, only the predicate term is distributed in an O proposition.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
categorical proposition — In syllogistic, a proposition in which the predicate is affirmed or denied of all or part of the subject. Thus, categorical propositions are of four basic forms: Every S is P, No S is P, Some S is P, and Some S is not P. These are designated by… … Universalium
categorical proposition — Traditionally a proposition that is not a conditional . As with the affirmative and negative, modern opinion is wary of the distinction, since what appears categorical may vary with the choice of a primitive vocabulary and notation. Apparently… … Philosophy dictionary
categorical proposition — noun : a proposition having the verbal form of direct assertion or denial … Useful english dictionary
Categorical — Cat e*gor ic*al, a. 1. Of or pertaining to a category. [1913 Webster] 2. Not hypothetical or relative; admitting no conditions or exceptions; declarative; absolute; positive; express; as, a categorical proposition, or answer. [1913 Webster] The… … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
Categorical — See:* Categorical imperative * Morley s categoricity theorem * Categorical data analysis * Categorical distribution * Categorical logic * Categorical syllogism * Categorical proposition * Categorization * Categorical perception * Category theory… … Wikipedia
proposition — Synonyms and related words: a priori principle, a priori truth, accost, advance, affair, affirmance, affirmation, allegation, announcement, annunciation, approach, apriorism, assertion, asseveration, assumed position, assumption, attempt,… … Moby Thesaurus
Categorical imperative — Part of a series on Immanue … Wikipedia
categorical — categorically, adv. categoricalness, n. /kat i gawr i keuhl, gor /, adj. 1. without exceptions or conditions; absolute; unqualified and unconditional: a categorical denial. 2. Logic. a. (of a proposition) analyzable into a subject and an… … Universalium
categorical — cat•e•gor•i•cal [[t]ˌkæt ɪˈgɔr ɪ kəl, ˈgɒr [/t]] also cat e•gor′ic adj. 1) without exceptions or conditions; absolute: a categorical denial[/ex] 2) pho logic a) (of a proposition) analyzable into a subject and an attribute related by a copula, as … From formal English to slang
categorical — /kætəˈgɒrɪkəl / (say katuh gorikuhl) adjective 1. not involving a condition, qualification, etc.; explicit; direct: a categorical answer. 2. Logic (of a proposition) unconditional, straightforwardly true or false. 3. of, relating to, or in a… … Australian English dictionary