- History of Ethiopia
Ethiopiais the oldest independent country in Africa, with one of the longest recorded histories in the world.
Ethiopia has seen human habitation for longer than almost anywhere else in the world, possibly being the location where "
Homo sapiens" evolved.
There is some confusion over the usage of the word Ethiopia in ancient times and the modern country. The ancient Greeks used the word (Αιθιοπία) to refer to the peoples living immediately to the south of
ancient Egypt, specifically the area now known as Nubia; modern usage has transferred this name further south to the land and peoples known in the late 19th and early 20th century as Abyssinia Fact|date=November 2007. As a result, the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannicastates the connection between Egyptand Ethiopia is at least as early as the Twenty-second dynasty of Egyptwas very intimate, and beginning with Piye, a ruler of the Twenty-fifth dynasty, occasionally the two countries were under the same ruler. However, the capital of these two dynasties was in the north of modern Sudan, at Napata. It is now known that in ancient times the name Ethiopia was used to refer to the nation based in the upper Nile valley south of Egypt, also called Cush, which in the 4th century CE was invaded by the Axum from the highlands close to the Red sea. Reference to the Kingdom of Aksumdesignated as Ethiopia dates as far back as the first half of 4th century since inscription of Ezana "Habashat" (the source for "Abyssinia") in Ge'ez, South Arabianalphabet, is translated in Greek as "Aethiopia". The first records of Ethiopia proper come from Egyptian traders from about 3000 BC, who refer to lands south of Nubia or Cush as Punt and Yam. The Ancient Egyptians were in possession of myrrh (found in Punt) as early as the First or Second Dynasties BC), which Richard Pankhurst interprets to indicate trade between the two countries extant from the beginning of Ancient Egypt's beginnings. J.H. Breasted posits that this early trade relationship would have been realized through overland trade down the Nileand its tributaries (i.e. the Blue Nileand Atbara) rather than by sea. The first known voyage to Punt occurred in the 25th century BC under the reign of Pharaoh SahureBC). The most famous expedition to Punt, however, comes during the reign of Queen Hatshepsutprobably around 1495 BC, as the expedition was recorded in detailed reliefs on the temple of Deir el-Bahriat Thebes. The inscriptions depict a trading group bringing back myrrhtrees, sacks of myrrh, elephant tusks, incense, gold, various fragmented wood, and exotic animals. Detailed information about these two nations is sparse, and there are many theories concerning their locations and the ethnic relationship of their peoples. The Egyptians sometimes called Punt land Ta-Netjeru, meaning "Land of the Gods," and considered it their place of origin. [Richard Pankhurst, "The Ethiopian Borderlands: Essays in Regional History from Ancient Times to The End of the 18th century" (Asmara: Red Sea Press, Inc., 1997), pp.5, 7, 9.]
Around 800 BC the kingdom of
Dʿmtarose in Ethiopia, centering around Yeha(thought to be its capital) in northern Ethiopia. The kingdom seems to have had very close relations with the Yemenite Sabaeankingdom. The only known inscriptions of Dʿmt kings include reference to the contemporaneous ruling king of the Sabaean kingdom at the time. The Dʿmt kingdom developed irrigation schemes, used plows, grew millet, and even made iron tools and weapons. Remains of a large stone temple dating to about 500 BC still survive at Yeha, near Axum. The transition from Dʿmt to the Kingdom of Aksum remains unclear. [Stuart Munro-Hay, "Aksum: An African Civilization of Late Antiquity" (Edinburgh: University Press, 1991), pp. 63ff.] Reference to Ethiopians in Ancient Greecehowever is obviously either to Africans in generalFact|date=November 2007, or the Cushites of Northern Sudan in particular. It is interesting to note that Greek historians viewed Ethiopia as a sacred people that was mostly loved by the Gods. Memnon was regarded as one of the noblest heroes that participated in the Trojan warand as the handsomest man of his time, bested in battle only by Achilles. According to a version of the myth, the Gods admired him so much that after his death from the sword of Achilles they decided to grant him immortality. According to Greek MythologyEthiopians acquired their dark colour when the sun came once very close to their country. Herodotusrecorded that a contingent of Ethiopian warriors who wore leopard skin and claws and painted their bodies red and white were among Xerxes' army that invaded Greece in the 5th century B.C. It remains to be seen as to how the history, migration and human settlement of the vast land between ancient Egypt and modern Ethiopia helps us understand the history of the region and the pre-Christian-pre-Islam human organization of those days. The nearby Nubian civilization was crushed by the Axumite king in fourth century.
Traditions in the early churches of Ethiopia indicates that much of the country once embraced Jewish beliefs and culture as part of its religious system. It is possible that Judaism may have entered (modern-day) Ethiopia as early as the 8th century BCE either through Egypt (southward across Nubia) or because of trade links along the
Red Seacoast. Although the speculations for widespread acceptance of Jewish belief is based on just few somewhat controversial material pieces, there has not been any good counter-explanation which for some have become a reason to believe the Jewish Pre-settlement Theory.
What is called the Jewish Pre-settlement Theory essentially states that starting around the 8th century BCE until about the 5th century BCE, there was an influx of Jewish settlers both from Egypt & Sudan in the north, and southern Arabia in the east. Whether these settlers arrived in great numbers is yet a matter of debate. Note that this period matches the destruction of
Jerusalemby the Babyloniansand Jewish dispersion. What is certain, however, if proved, is that these settlers have preceded the arrival of Christianity at least 800-1000 years. On the other hand, arguing for the possibility some people present material artifacts quite depicting ancient Jewish ceremony. For instance the Temple at Yeha (in Tigrayprovince), which is said to have been erected in the 6th century BCE, is believed to an architectural copy of other Jewish temples found in Israel and Egypt during the pre-Babylonian era (before 606 BCE). Another example is found on the monastery islands of Lake Tana(northern Gojjam), where several archaic stone altars, fashioned in the manner of Jewish sacrificial alters of pre-8th century BCE Israel, have been found not only preserved in good condition but also containing blood residue. The manner of the blood placed on the stone altars was found to be typical to a culture that strongly adhered to Mosaic Law.
Sometime in the early medieval era, the
Ethiopian Orthodox ChurchTowahido has produced some details to the Biblical record of visit to the King of Israel by the Queen of Sheba. The Ethiopian version of the story details an affair between King Solomonof Israel and Makeda supposedly the name of the Queen of Saba, or Queen of Sheba. The Ethiopian version of the story also adds the coming of the Ark of the Covenant to Ethiopia and establishes Ethiopia as a new covenant nation. Admittedly, this subject is highly controversial. For the devotee, at least, Makeda—who supposedly ruled over a very small area in modern-day southern Eritrea—made a long pilgrimage to Jerusalem to visit a king famed for wisdom. During her stay, however, King Solomon was so much ensnared by her beauty and her fidelity that he felt he had to have her around for some time more. So one evening, he ordered his royal cooks to increase the amount of pepper (salt?) in the meal which would be served for dinner. However, he also ordered the water bearers not to give anyone any water unless specifically authorized by him and to also place a jug of water in his bedchamber. Queen Makeda, realizing his trickery, played along with him thinking that she could easily go without water for the evening. Her self-confidence unfortunately proved to be quite too high when she, unable to cope with her dehydration, finally gave in to his desire and slept with him for a drink of water. This affair was (claims the Ethiopian Orthodox Church) what led to the birth of King Menelik I. The legend further says that at age twenty-five, Menelik returned to Jerusalem and covertly stole the Ark of the Covenant, making Ethiopia the custodian of the lost Ark to this day. According to the Ethiopian Orthodox devotee, the Ark of the Covenant is still in Axum St. Mary Church sealed and secured from outside influence.
The first reference to Ethiopia in the Bible appears in the early chapters of
Genesis. Significant to note that what is known to be the Old Testament to the Christians constitute the Hebrew Scriptures written in the languages of the Hebrew (Jews) - Aramaic and Hebrew. Therefore, the reference to Ethiopia appears as Cush and not Ethiopia as in the Greek manuscripts later translated these texts. No thoroughgoing study is yet published on reference to Cush in the Hebrew Scriptures. Moreover, various commentaries and Biblical dictionaries suggest inconsistent interpretations. By and large, most Bible students/scholars assume today's Ethiopia to be fitting for the Biblical Cush; hence, even the King James Version of the Bible, following the designation of major modern Bible translations, removed Cush and replaced it with Ethiopia. It is now common practice to refer to Cush as modern Ethiopia. Note Syene (Eze_29:10) southward - Egyptian Kôs, Babylonian Kûšu, Assyrian Kûsu. In the Bible, the name sometimes denotes the land (Isa_11:11; Isa_18:1; Zep_3:10; Eze_29:10; Job_28:19; Est_1:1; Est_8:9) and at other times sometimes the people (Isa_20:4; Jer_46:9; Eze_38:5); but many passages remain uncertain. Modern Ethiopians preferred to consider themselves as Semiticlanguage speakers and traced their history more often from their Sabean connection minimizing the name Cush to subordination and hiding the history of the original Cushites as later migrants into the Horn.
The state of
Shebamentioned in the Old Testamentis sometimes believed to have been in Ethiopia, but more often is placed in Yemen. However, it is possible that it could have encompassed both due to their nearness, and close ties in linguistics and culture. According to the Ethiopian legend, best represented in the " Kebra Negest", the Queen of Sheba was tricked by King Solomon into sleeping with him, resulting in a child, named Ebn Melek (later Emperor Menelik I). When he was of age, Menelik returned to Israelto see his father, who sent with him the son of Zadok to accompany him with a replica of the Ark of the Covenant (Ethiosemitic: " tabot"). On his return with some of the Israelite priests, however, he found that Zadok's son had stolen the real Ark of the Covenant. Some believe the Ark is still being preserved today at the Church of Our Lady Mary of Zionin Axum, Ethiopia. The tradition that the biblical Queen of Sheba was a ruler of Ethiopia who visited King Solomon in Jerusalem in ancient Israel is supported by the 1st century AD Jewish historian Flavius Josephus, who identified Solomon’s visitor as a queen of Egypt and Ethiopia.
Ethiopia has often been mentioned in the Bible. A great example of this is the story of the Ethiopian Eunuch as written in Acts, Chapter 8, verse 27: "Then the angel of the Lord said to Philip, Start out and go south to the road that leads down from Jerusalem to Gaza. So he set out and was on his way when he caught sight of an Ethiopian. This man was a eunuch, a high official of the Kandake (Candace) Queen of Ethiopia in charge of all her treasure." The passage continues by describing how Philip helped the Ethiopian understand one passage of Isaiah that the Ethiopian was reading. After the Ethiopian received an explanation of the passage and came to believe in Jesus as the "Son of God", he requested that Philip baptize him, which Philip obliged. Queen Gersamot Hendeke VII (very similar to Kandake) was the Queen of Ethiopia from the year 42 to 52. The Ethiopian Orthodox Church was founded in the fourth century by Syrian monks.
Kingdom of Axum
The first verifiable kingdom of great power to rise in Ethiopia was that of Axum in the first century AD. It was one of many successor kingdoms to Dʿmt and was able to unite the northern Ethiopian plateau beginning around the first century BC. They established bases on the northern highlands of the Ethiopian Plateau and from there expanded southward. The Persian religious figure Mani listed Axum with Rome, Persia, and
Chinaas one of the four great powers of his time. The origins of the Axumite Kingdom are unclear, although experts have offered their speculations about it. Even whom should be considered the earliest known king is contested: although C. Conti Rossini proposed that Zoskalesof Axum, mentioned in the " Periplus of the Erythraean Sea", should be identified with one Za Haqle mentioned in the Ethiopian King Lists (a view embraced by later historians of Ethiopia such as Yuri M. Kobishchanov [Yuri M. Kobishchanov, "Axum", Joseph W. Michels, editor; Lorraine T. Kapitanoff, translator, (University Park, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania, 1979), pp.54-59.] and Sergew Hable Sellasie), G.W.B. Huntingford argued that Zoskales was only a sub-king whose authority was limited to Adulis, and that Conti Rossini's identification can not be substantiated. [Expressed, for example, in his "The Historical Geography of Ethiopia" (London: the British Academy, 1989), p.39.]
Inscriptions have been found in southern
Arabiacelebrating victories over one GDRT, described as "nagashi" of Habashat [i.e. Abyssinia] and of Axum." Other dated inscriptions are used to determine a "floruit" for GDRT (interpreted as representing a Ge'ez name such as Gadarat, Gedur, Gadurat or Gedara) around the beginning of the 3rd century. A bronze scepter or wand has been discovered at Atsbi Derawith in inscription mentioning "GDR of Axum". Coins showing the royal portrait began to be minted under King Endubistoward the end of the Third Century.
Christianity was introduced into the country by
Frumentius, who was consecrated first bishop of Ethiopia by Saint Athanasius of Alexandria about 330. Frumentius converted Ezana, who has left several inscriptions detailing his reign both before and after his conversion. One inscription found at Axum, states that he conquered the nation of the Bogos, and returned thanks to his father, the god Mars, for his victory. Later inscriptions show Ezana's growing attachment to Christianity, and Ezana's coins bear this out, shifting from a design with disc and crescent to a design with a cross. Expeditions by Ezana into the Kingdom of Kushat Meroein Sudan may have brought about its demise, though there is evidence that the kingdom was experiencing a period of decline beforehand. As a result of Ezana's expansions, Aksum bordered the Roman province of Egypt. The degree of Ezana's control over Yemen is uncertain. Though there is little evidence supporting Aksumite control of the region at that time, his title, which includes "king of Saba and Salhen, Himyar and Dhu-Raydan" (all in modern-day Yemen), along with gold Aksumite coins with the inscriptions, "king of the "Habshat" or "Habashite," indicate that Aksum might have retained some legal or actual footing in the area. [Stuart Munro-Hay, "Aksum", p. 81.]
From the scanty evidence available it would appear that the new religion at first made little progress. Towards the close of the 5th century a great company of monks known as the
Nine Saintsare believed to have established themselves in the country. Since that time monasticismhas been a power among the people and not without its influence on the course of events.
The Axumite Kingdom is recorded once again as controlling part – if not all – of Yemen in the 6th century. Around 523, the
Jewish king Dhu Nuwascame to power in Yemen and, announcing that he would kill all the Christians, attacked an Aksumite garrison at Zafar, burning the city's churches. He then attacked the Christian stronghold of Najran, slaughtering the Christians who would not convert. Emperor Justin Iof the Eastern Roman empire requested that his fellow Christian, Kaleb, help fight the Yemenite king, and around 525, Kaleb invaded and defeated Dhu Nuwas, appointing his Christian follower Sumuafa' Ashawa'as his viceroy. This dating is tentative, however, as the basis of the year 525 for the invasion is based on the death of the ruler of Yemen at the time, who very well could have been Kaleb's viceroy. Procopiusrecords that after about five years, Abrahadeposed the viceroy and made himself king ("Histories" 1.20). Despite several attempted invasions across the Red Sea, Kaleb was unable to dislodge Abreha, and acquiesced to the change; this was the last time Ethiopian armies left Africa until the 20th century when several units participated in the Korean War. Eventually Kaleb abdicated in favor of his son Wa'zeb and retired to a monastery where he ended his days. Abraha later made peace with Kaleb's successor and recognized his superiority. Despite this reverse, under Ezana and Kaleb the kingdom was at its height, benefitting from a large trade, which extended as far as Indiaand Ceylon, and were in constant communication with the Byzantine Empire.
Details of the Axumite Kingdom, never abundant, become even more scarce after this point. The last king known to mint coins is
Armah, whose coinage refers to the Persian conquest of Jerusalem in 614. An early Muslimtradition is that the negus Ashama ibn Abjaroffered asylum to a group of Muslims fleeing persecution during Muhammad's life (615), but Stuart Munro-Hay believes that Axum had been abandoned as the capital by then [Stuart Munro-Hay, "Aksum", p.56.] – although Kobishchanov states that Ethiopian raiders plagued the Red Sea, preying on Arabian ports at least as late as 702. [Kobishchanov, "Axum", p.116.]
The end of the Axumite Kingdom is as much of a mystery as its beginning. Lacking a detailed history, the kingdom's fall has been attributed to a persistent drought, overgrazing, deforestation, plague, a shift in trade routes that reduced the importance of the Red Sea -- or a combination of these factors. Munro-Hay cites the Muslim historian
Abu Ja'far al-Khwarazmi/Kharazmi(who wrote before 833) as stating that the capital of "the kingdom of Habash" was Jarma. Unless Jarma is a nickname for Axum (hypothetically from Ge'ez "girma", "remarkable, revered"), the capital had moved from Axum to a new site, yet undiscovered. [Stuart Munro-Hay, "Aksum", pp.95-98.]
The Ethiopian Dark Ages
About 1000 (presumably c 960), a non-
Christianprincess, Yodit ("Gudit", a play on Yodit meaning evil), conspired to murder all the members of the royal family and establish herself as monarch. According to legends, during the execution of the royals, an infant heir of the Axumite monarch was carted off by some faithful adherents, and conveyed to Shewa, where his authority was acknowledged, while Yodit reigned for forty years over the rest of the kingdom, and transmitted the crown to her descendants. At one point during the next century, the last of Yodit's successors were overthrown by an Agawlord named Mara Takla Haymanot, who founded the Zagwe dynastyand married a female descendant of the Axumite monarchs ("son-in-law") or previous ruler. One of the highlights of this dynasty was the reign of Gebre Mesqel Lalibela, in whose reign the stone churches of Lalibelawere carved.
Around 1270, a new dynasty was established in the Abyssinian highlands under
Yekuno Amlakwho deposed the last of the Zagwe kings and married one of their daughters. According to legends, the new dynasty were male-line descendants of Axumite monarchs, now recognized as the continuing Solomonic dynasty(the kingdom being thus restored to the biblical royal house).
Under the Solomonic dynasty, the chief provinces became Tigray (northern),
Amhara(central) and Shewa (southern). The seat of government, or rather of overlordship, had usually been in Amhara or Shewa, the ruler of which, calling himself IPA| [nəgusä nägäst] (king of kings, or Emperor of Ethiopia), exacted tribute, when he could, from the other provinces. The title of IPA| [nəgusä nägäst] was to a considerable extent based on their direct descent from Solomon and the queen of Sheba; but it is needless to say that in many, if not in most, cases their success was due more to the force of their arms than to the purity of their lineage.
Towards the close of the 15th century the Portuguese missions into Ethiopia began. A belief had long prevailed in Europe of the existence of a Christian kingdom in the far east, whose monarch was known as
Prester John, and various expeditions had been sent in quest of it. Among others engaged in this search was Pêro da Covilhã, who arrived in Ethiopia in 1490, and, believing that he had at length reached the far-famed kingdom, presented to the IPA| [nəgusä nägäst] of the country, a letter from his master the king of Portugal, addressed to Prester John.
Pêro da Covilhã remained in the country, but in 1507 an Armenian named Matthew was sent by the Emperor to the king of
Portugalto request his aid against the Muslims. In 1520 a Portuguese fleet, with Matthew on board, entered the Red Sea in compliance with this request, and an embassy from the fleet visited the Emperor, Lebna Dengel, and remained in Ethiopia for about six years. One of this embassy was Father Francisco Álvares, who wrote one of the earliest and not the least interesting account of the country.
The Abyssinian-Adal War
Between 1528 and 1540 armies of Muslims, under the
Imam Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi, entered Ethiopia from the low country to the south-east, and overran the kingdom, obliging the emperor to take refuge in the mountain fastnesses. In this extremity recourse was again had to the Portuguese. John Bermudez, a subordinate member of the mission of 1520, who had remained in the country after the departure of the embassy, was, according to his own statement (which is untrustworthy), ordained successor to the " Abuna" (archbishop), and sent to Lisbon. Bermudez certainly came to Europe, but with what credentials is not known.
In response to Bermudez's message, a Portuguese fleet under the command of Estêvão da Gama, was sent from India and arrived at
Massawain February 1541. Here he received an ambassador from the Emperor beseeching him to send help against the Muslims, and in the July following a force of 400 musketeers, under the command of Cristóvão da Gama, younger brother of the admiral, marched into the interior, and being joined by native troops were at first successful against the enemy; but they were subsequently defeated at the Battle of Wofla( 28 August 1542), and their commander captured and executed. On February 21, 1543, however, Ahmad was shot and killed in the Battle of Wayna Dagaand his forces totally routed. After this, quarrels arose between the Emperor and Bermudez, who had returned to Ethiopia with Gama and now urged the emperor to publicly profess his obedience to Rome. This the Emperor refused to do, and at length Bermudez was obliged to make his way out of the country.
Ethiopia had several Muslim States:
Ifatof the Walashma dynasty. Adal Sultanate
The Jesuits who had accompanied or followed the Gama expedition into Ethiopia, and fixed their headquarters at
Fremona(near Adwa), were oppressed and neglected, but not actually expelled. In the beginning of the 17th century Father Pedro Páezarrived at Fremona, a man of great tact and judgment, who soon rose into high favour at court, and gained over the emperor to his faith. He directed the erection of churches, palaces and bridges in different parts of the country, and carried out many useful works. His successor Alfonso Mendezwas less tactful, and excited the feelings of the people against him and his fellow Europeans, until upon the death of Emperor Susenyos and the accession of his son Fasilides in 1633, the Jesuits were expelled.
The Period of the Princes
This era was, on one hand, a religious conflict between settling Muslims and traditional Christians, between nationalities they represented, and on the other hand between feudal lords on power over the central government.
Some historians date the murder of Iyasu I, and the resultant decline in the prestige of the dynasty, as the beginning of the Ethiopian
Zemene Mesafint("Era of the Princes",) a time of disorder when the power of the monarchy was eclipsed by the power of local warlords.
Nobles came to abuse their positions by making emperors, and encroached upon the succession of the dynasty, by candidates among the nobility itself: e.g. on the death of Emperor Tewoflos, the chief nobles of Ethiopia feared that the cycle of vengeance that had characterized the reigns of Tewoflos and Tekle Haymanot I would continue if a member of the Solomonic dynasty were picked for the throne, so they selected one of their own, Yostos to be "negusa nagast" (king of kings) - however his tenure was brief.
Iyasu II ascended the throne as a child. His mother, Empress Mentewab played a major role in Iyasu's reign, as well as in that of her grandson Iyoas too. Mentewab had herself crowned as co-ruler, becoming the first woman to be crowned in this manner in Ethiopian history.
Empress Mentewab was crowned co-ruler upon the succession of her son (a first for a woman in Ethiopia) in 1730, and held unprecedented power over government during his reign. Her attempt to continue in this role following the death of her son 1755 led her into conflict with Wubit (Welete Bersabe), his widow, who believed that it was her turn to preside at the court of her own son Iyoas. The conflict between these two queens led to Mentewab summoning her Kwaran relatives and their forces to Gondar to support her. Wubit responded by summoning her own
Oromorelatives and their considerable forces from Yejju.
The treasure of the Empire being allegedly penniless on the death of Iyasu, it suffered further from ethnic conflict between nationalities that been part of the Empire for hundreds of years -- the Agaw, Amharans, Showans, and Tigreans -- and the Oromo newcomers. Mentewab's attempt to strengthen ties between the monarchy and the Oromo by arranging the marriage of her son to the daughter of an Oromo chieftain backfired in the long run. Iyasu II gave precedence to his mother and allowed her every prerogative as a crowned co-ruler, while his wife Wubit suffered in obscurity. Wubit waited for the accession of her own son to make a bid for the power wielded for so long by Mentewab and her relatives from Qwara. When Iyoas assumed the throne upon his father's sudden death, the aristocrats of
Gondarwere stunned to find that he more readily spoke in the Oromo language rather than in Amharic, and tended to favor his mother's Yejju relatives over the Qwarans of his grandmothers family. Iyoas further increased the favor given to the Oromo when adult. On the death of the Ras of Amhara, he attempted to promote his uncle Lubo governor of that province, but the outcry led his advisor Walda Nulto convince him to change his mind.
It is believed that the power struggle between the Qwarans led by the Empress Mentewab, and the Yejju Oromos led by the Emperor's mother Wubit was about to erupt into an armed conflict. Ras
Mikael Sehulwas summoned to mediate between the two camps. He arrived and shrewdly maneuvered to sideline the two queens and their supporters making a bid for power for himself. Mikael settled soon as the leader of Amharic-Tigrean (Christian) camp of the struggle.
The reign of Iyaos' reign becomes a narrative of the struggle between the powerful Ras Mikael Sehul and the Oromo relatives of Iyoas. As Iyoas increasingly favored Oromo leaders like Fasil, his relations with Mikael Sehul deteriorated. Eventually Mikael Sehul deposed the Emperor Iyoas (
7 May, 1769). One week later, Mikael Sehul had him killed; although the details of his death are contradictory, the result was clear: for the first time an Emperor had lost his throne in a means other than his own natural death, death in battle, or voluntary abdication.
Mikael Sehul had compromised the power of the Emperor, and from this point forward it lay ever more openly in the hands of the great nobles and military commanders. This point of time has been regarded as one start of the Era of the Princes.
This bitter religious conflict contributed to hostility toward foreign Christians and Europeans, which persisted into the 20th century and was a factor in Ethiopia's isolation until the mid-19th century, when the first British mission, sent in 1805 to conclude an alliance with Ethiopia and obtain a port on the Red Sea in case
Franceconquered Egypt. The success of this mission opened Ethiopia to many more travellers, missionaries and merchants of all countries, and the stream of Europeans continued until well into Tewodros's reign.
This isolation was pierced by very few European travellers. One was the French physician C.J. Poncet, who went there in 1698, via Sennar and the Blue Nile. After him
James Bruceentered the country in 1769, with the object of discovering the sources of the Nile, which he was convinced lay in Ethiopia. Accordingly, leaving Massawa in September 1769, he travelled via Axum to Gondar, where he was well received by Emperor Tekle Haymanot II. He accompanied the king on a warlike expedition round Lake Tana, moving South round the eastern shore, crossing the Blue Nile (Abay) close to its point of issue from the lake and returning via the western shore. Bruce subsequently returned to Egypt at the end of 1772 by way of the upper Atbara, through the kingdom of Sennar, the Nile, and the Korosko desert. During the 18th century the most prominent rulers were the emperor Dawit III of Gondar (died May 18 1721), Amha Iyasusof Shewa), who consolidated his kingdom and founded Ankober, and Tekle Giyorgis of Amhara) - the last-mentioned is famous of having been elevated to the throne altogether six times and also deposed six times. The first years of the 19th century were disturbed by fierce campaigns between Ras Gugsa of Begemder, and Ras Wolde Selassieof Tigray, who fought over control of the figurehead Emperor Egwale Seyon. Wolde Selassie was eventually the victor, and practically ruled the whole country till his death in 1816 at the age of eighty. Dejazmach Sabagadisof Agamesucceeded Wolde Selassie in 1817, through force of arms, to become warlord of Tigre.
Leaving the Medieval World
Emperor Tewodros (or Theodore) II was born "Lij" Kassa in Qwara, in 1818. His father was a small local chief, and his relative (possible uncle) "Dejazmach"
Kinfuwas governor of the provinces of Dembiya, Qwara and Chelgabetween Lake Tana and the northwestern frontier. Kassa lost his inheritance upon the death of Kinfu while he was still a young boy. After receiving a traditional education in a local monastery, he went off to lead a band of bandits that roved the country in a Robin Hood-like existence. His exploits became widely known, and his band of followers grew steadily until he led a formidable army. He came to the notice of the ruling Regent, Ras Ali, and his mother Empress Menen Liben Amede(wife of the puppet Emperor Yohannes III). In order to bind him to them, Ras Ali and the Empress arranged for Kassa to marry Ali's daughter, and upon the death of his uncle Kinfu, he was made chief of Kwara and all Dembea with the title of Dejazmatch. He turned his attention to conquering the remaining chief divisions of the country, Gojjam, Tigray and Shewa, which still remained unsubdued. His relations with his father-in-law and grandmother-in-law deteriorated however, and he soon took up arms against them and their vassals, and was successful.
February 11, 1855, Kassa deposed the last of the Gondarine puppet Emperors, and was crowned "negusa nagast" of Ethiopia under the name of Tewodros II. He soon after advanced against Shewa with a large army. Chief of the notables opposing him was its king Haile Melekot, a descendant of Meridazmach Asfa Wossen. Dissensions broke out among the Shewans, and after a desperate and futile attack on Tewodros at Dabra Berhan, Haile Melekot died of illness, nominating with his last breath his eleven-year-old son as successor (November 1855) under the name Negus Sahle Maryam (the future emperor Menelek II). Darge, Haile Melekot's brother, and Ato Bezabih, a Shewan noble, took charge of the young prince, but after a hard fight with Angeda, the Shewans were obliged to capitulate. Sahle Maryam was handed over to the Emperor, taken to Gondar, and there trained in Tewodros’s service, and then placed in comfortable detention at the fortress of Magdala. Tewodoros afterwards devoted himself to modernizing and centralizing the legal and administrative structure of his kingdom, against the resistance of his governors. Sahle Maryam of Shewa was married to Tewodros II’s daughter Alitash.
In 1865, Sahle Maryam escaped from
Maqdala, abandoning his wife, and arrived in Shewa, and was there acclaimed as Negus. Tewodros forged an alliance between Britain and Ethiopia, but as explained in the next section, he committed suicide after a military defeat by the British. On the death of Tewodros, many Shewans, including Ras Darge, were released, and the young Negus of Shewa began to feel himself strong enough, after a few preliminary minor campaigns, to undertake offensive operations against the northern princes. But these projects were of little avail, for Ras Kassai of Tigray, had by this time (1872) risen to supreme power in the north. Proclaiming himself "negusa nagast" under the name of Yohannes (or John) IV, he forced Sahle Maryam to acknowledge his overlordship.
Interactions with European Colonial Powers
Ethiopia was never colonized by a European power.
Several colonial powers had interests and designs on Ethiopia in the context of the “
Scramble for Africa.”
When Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom, in 1867 failed to answer a letter Tewodros II of Ethiopia had sent her, he took it as an insult and imprisoned several British residents, including the consul. An army of 12,000 was sent from Bombay to Ethiopia to rescue the captured nationals, under the command of Sir Robert Napier. The Ethiopians were defeated, and the British stormed the fortress of Magdala (now known as
Amba Mariam) on April 13, 1868. When the Emperor heard that the gate had fallen, he fired a pistol into his mouth and killed himself. Sir Robert Napier was raised to the peerage, and given the title of Lord Napier of Magdala.
The Italians now came on the scene.
Asseb, a port near the southern entrance of the Red Sea, had been bought from the local sultan in March 1870 by an Italian company, which, after acquiring more land in 1879 and 1880, was bought out by the Italian government in 1882. In this year Count Pietro Antonelliwas dispatched to Shewa in order to improve the prospects of the colony by treaties with Sahle Maryam of Shewa and the sultan of Aussa.
In April 1888 the Italian forces, numbering over 20,000 men, came contact with the Ethiopian army, but negotiations took the place of fighting, with the result that both forces retired, the Italians only leaving some 5000 troops in
Eritrea, later to become an Italian colony.
Meanwhile the Emperor Yohannes IV had been engaged with the
dervishes, who had in the meantime become masters of the Egyptian Sudan, and in 1887 a great battle ensued at Gallabat, in which the dervishes, under Zeki Tumal, were beaten. But a stray bullet struck the king, and the Ethiopians decided to retire. The king died during the night, and his body fell into the hands of the enemy ( March 9, 1889). When the news of Yohannes’s death reached Sahle Maryam of Shewa, he proclaimed himself emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia, and received the submission of Begemder, Gojjam, the Yejju Oromo, and Tigray.
May 2of that same year, Emperor Menelik signed the Treaty of Wuchalewith the Italians, granting them a portion of Northern Ethiopia, the area that would later be Eritrea and part of the province of Tigray in return for the promise of 30,000 rifles, ammunition, and cannons. [Pakenham, "The Scramble for Africa", pp. 472-3] The Italians notified the European powers that this treaty gave them a protectorate over all of Ethiopia. Menelik protested, showing that the Amharic version of the treaty said no such thing, but his protests were ignored.
Ethiopia’s conflict with the Italians was resolved by the Italians’ defeat at the
Battle of Adowaon March 1, 1896. A provisional treaty of peace was concluded at Addis Ababaon October 26, 1896, which acknowledged the independence of Ethiopia.
Regarding the question of railways, the first concession for a railway from the coast at
Djibouti(French Somaliland) to the interior was granted by Menelik, to a French company in 1894. The railway was completed to Dire Dawa, convert|28|mi|km from Harrar, by the last day of 1902.
When Menelik II died, his grandson,
Lij Iyassu, succeeded to the throne but soon lost support because of his Muslim ties. He was deposed in 1916 by the Christian nobility, and Menelik's daughter, Zauditu, was made empress. Her cousin, Ras Tafari Makonnen, was made regent and successor to the throne.
Upon the death of Empress Zauditu in 1930, Ras Tafari Makonnen, adopting the throne name
Haile Selassie, was crowned Emperor Haile Selassie I of Ethiopia. His full title was “His Imperial Majesty Haile Selassie I, Conquering Lion of the Tribe of Judah, King of Kings of Ethiopia and Elect of God.”
Following the death of Abba Jifar II of Jimma, Emperor Selassie seized the opportunity to annex Jimma. In 1932, the
Kingdom of Jimmawas formally absorbed into Ethiopia. During the reorganization of the provinces in 1942, Jimma vanished into Kaffa Province.
The Italian period and World War II
Emperor Haile Selassie's reign was interrupted in 1935 when Italian forces invaded and occupied Ethiopia.
Fascist Italy of
Mussoliniinvaded Ethiopian territory on October 2, 1935, with the approval from the Vatican. It occupied the capital city, Addis Ababa on May 5and "formally" annexed Ethiopia on May 9, 1936. Italy had sought for the League of Nations to recognize the annexation of Ethiopia, and Italy's colonial claim of the land and the people. All member nations (including Britain), with the exception of United States and Russia, acknowledged that with votes. U.S. and Russia however, refused to recognize Fascist Italy's claim. It should also be noted that Italy was in violation of the League's bylaws, especially since Ethiopia was also a member of the organization. Emperor Selassie was forced into exile in England despite his plea to the League of Nationsfor intervention against the Italians. Mussolini boasted that with his conquest of Ethiopia, "finally Adua was avenged". Many Ethiopians were slaughtered in the invasion. More then 275,000 Ethiopian fighters were killed compared to only 1,537 Italians. Also during the occupation thousands of Ethiopians were tortured, raped and killed. The Emperor, as the head of state, informed member countries of the league, the atrocities that were taking place in Ethiopia and asked the international community to denounce Italy's crimes and help stop its advances. Not only his request was ignored, member countries put weapons sanctions against Ethiopia so it could not make necessary purchase to defend itself.
The King of Italy (
Victor Emmanuel III) was crowned Emperor of Ethiopia and the Italians created an Italian empire in Africa (Italian East Africa) with Ethiopia, Eritrea and Italian Somalia, that was destroyed during WWII. Although the crowning of this king and the claim of Italian empire was a view held by supporters of Mousolini, Ethiopia still recognized Emperor Haile Silassie as its king and did not acknowledge the 'merge' of its borders with neighboring countries (Italian East Africa).
The Italians in 1935-1940 created many infrastructures and roads in Ethiopia, like the "imperial road" between Addis Abeba and
Mogadishu, and planned to bring half a million Italians to colonize and develop the Ethiopian plateaus.
In spring 1941 the Italians were defeated by Ethiopian army made up of civilians and emperial soldiers of the country, somewhat aided by the British and Allied forces at the latter stages of the war on
May 5, 1941, Emperor Selassie re-enterred Addis Ababa and returned to his throne. The Italians, after their final stand at Gondar in November 1941, conducted a guerrilla war in Ethiopia, that lasted until summer 1943. With the defeat of Italy, Ethiopia annexed the former Italian colony of Eritrea, obtaining the secular Ethiopian aspiration to have a seashore. The war crimes of Italy, which included biological and chemical warfare (which laid the preconditions to the following famine era in one of the states that was attacked), as well as concentration camp on one of the island on the Red Sea is well documented by researchers and reported to international tribunals. In addition, the genocide of the educated (in which Italy rounded up and killed approximately 20+K) educated Ethiopians, as well as the "Massacre of Jan Meda" which took place during a mandatory meeting of Addis Abeba residents initiated by Italians and about 30K people were gunned down, as well as houses surrounding the massive field of Jan Meda were raided and residents shot to death. There are also eye witness accounts of beggars who sat near a coptic church that were rounded up and (set on fire alive out of Italian fear that they are diseased and could be contagious). In addition, there were 'prophesies' from many monasteries whose spiritual leaders predicted that Italy will be defeated yet again (WWII being the second war these two nations had engaged in). These monasteries were raided and unarmed priests, monks, nuns as well as worshippers which included vulnerable populations such as elderly, women and children were slaughtered. There are more accounts of genocide and other atrocities against humanity Italy committed in Ethiopia. These events are well documented by historians and academics. Italy had stolen an obelisk, a 3000 year old monument hewn from a solid rock, by cutting it into three pieces. Italy refused to return the obelisk, which stood in Rome (ironically, in the city of the Vatican), until a lightening strike fractured its top. The falling of giant pieces of rock on the street below along with the coincidence of the lightening hitting the obelisk, convinced superstitious Romans that it was "a sign from God" that it should be returned to its home. This was in 2005, and several decades had elapsed before this epiphany. Italy returned the damaged obelisk, without the acknowledgment of wrongdoing or an offer of apology for its war crimes or theft. It continues to deny that it has committed any crimes other than conducting 'an invasion just like any other'. Ethiopia, thus, continues to maintain the records of war crimes and continues to plead with the international committee to receive justice that it has been denied since WWII.
After WWII, Emperor Selassie exerted numerous efforts to promote the modernization of his nation. The country's first important school of higher education, University College of Addis Ababa, was founded in 1950. The Constitution of 1931 was replaced with a new one in 1955. The new constitution expanded the powers of the Parliament. While improving diplomatic ties with the
United States, Emperor Selassie also sought to improve the nation's relationship with other African nations. To do this, in 1963, he helped to found the Organisation of African Unity.
By the early 1970s, despite his best efforts, Emperor Selassie's advanced age was becoming a major problem for the future of his nation. As Paul B. Henze explains: "Most Ethiopians thought in terms of personalities, not ideology, and out of long habit still looked to Haile Selassie as the initiator of change, the source of status and privilege, and the arbiter of demands for resources and attention among competing groups." [Paul B. Henze, "Layers of Time: A History of Ethiopia" (New York: Palgrave, 2000), p. 282.] Ethiopians worried for their future following his impending death. They worried too whether Emperor Selassie's successors would continue his campaigns for modernization and economic development. However, Henze's perspective can be disputed since the Emperor was not the only source of change, and many times, his views were challenged either by his council or regional leaders. People still protested his 'flight' from Ethiopia during WWII invasion, which was necessary for him to leave the country to round up allies rather than remain in the country and fight a seemingly impossible war. Many perceived that as fleeing, probably because the western media broadcasted his absence from the country as such. In addition, there were propagandas that Italians had used—divide and conquer—projecting falsified information to create division among Ethiopia's diverse population, and convincing Eritrean citizens that Ethiopia had "sold" them in exchange for its freedom using the Treaty of Wichale (which actually does not mention or involve Eritrea in any way) but led to the Battle of Adwa because Italy tried to cheat Ethiopia of its sovereignty using the Wichale 'trade' agreement. The 'trade' agreement and the ensuing war had been viewed by western historians as a "misunderstanding" in behalf of Ethiopia's leaders. But indeed, the treaty details trade agreement of Ethiopia (not Eritrea) in Amharic, and the forfeit of Ethiopia's sovereignty to Italy in Italian. This deliberate discrepancy led to the Battle of Adwa, for which Mousolini tried to "avenge" the disgraced honor of his nation for losing the war. By creating a sense of feeling betrayed in Eritrea, and convincing the diverse populations in Ethiopia, as well as surrounding nations such as Sudan and Somalia that the Ethiopian state is an enemy that should be destructed, Italians created internal conflict that neither the Emperor, its council and various methods to restore unity, could successfully address. It led to the "rise of the masses", various ethnicities rising against the throne which Italy had deemed an Amhara supremacy and they believed, leading to the rise of communism (which had ties to the communist party of Italy, ironically), and the Red Terror (which claimed approx. 2mil lives, one of the most devastated states being the amhara region of Gondar). Once again, when this history of attack on the throne and amharas is referred, scholarly sources point out that during the Battle of Adwa in 1896, Italy launched a destructive campaign (which continued all the way to WWII), targeting the Amharas and Orthodox Church (which it misidentified as an amhara-only religious institution and assumed it was the reason this ancient form of Christianity rejected submission to the Vatican). Both were perceived as sources of threat after 1896.
The Derg period
After a period of civil unrest which began in February 1974, the aging Emperor Haile Selassie I was deposed. On
September 12, 1974, a provisional administrative council of soldiers, known as the Derg("committee") seized power from the emperor and installed a government which was socialist in name and military in style. The Derg summarily executed 59 members of the former government, including two former Prime Ministers and Crown Councilors, Court officials, ministers, and generals. Emperor Selassie died on August 22, 1975. He was allegedly strangled in the basement of his palace.
Mengistu Haile Mariamassumed power as head of state and Derg chairman, after having his two predecessors killed, as well as tens of thousands of other suspected opponents. The new Marxist government undertook socialist reforms, including nationalisation of landlords' and church's property. Before the coup, Ethiopian peasants' way of life was thoroughly influenced by the church teachings; 280 days a year are religious feasts or days of rest. Mengistu's years in office were marked by a totalitarian-style government and the country's massive militarization, financed by the Soviet Unionand the Eastern Bloc, and assisted by Cuba. In December 1976, an Ethiopian delegation in Moscowsigned a military assistance agreement with the Soviet Union. The following April, Ethiopia abrogated its military assistance agreement with the United States and expelled the American military missions.
In July 1977, sensing the disarray in Ethiopia,
Somaliaattacked across the Ogadenin pursuit of its irredentist claims to the ethnic Somali areas of Ethiopia ("see" Ogaden War). They were assisted in this invasion by the armed Western Somali Liberation Front. Ethiopian forces were driven back far inside their own frontiers but, with the assistance of a massive Soviet airlift of arms and Cuban combat forces, they stemmed the attack. The last major Somali regular units left the Ogaden March 15, 1978. Twenty years later, the Somali region of Ethiopia remains under-developed and insecure.
From 1977 through early 1978, thousands of suspected enemies of the Derg were tortured and/or killed in a purge called the "red terror." Communism was officially adopted during the late 1970s and early 1980s; in 1984, the
Workers' Party of Ethiopia(WPE) was established, and on February 1, 1987, a new Soviet-style civilian constitution was submitted to a popular referendum. It was officially endorsed by 81% of voters, and in accordance with this new constitution, the country was renamed the People's Democratic Republic of Ethiopiaon September 10, 1987, and Mengistu became president.The regime's collapse was hastened by droughts and famine, which affected around 8 million people, leaving 1 million dead, as well as by insurrections, particularly in the northern regions of Tigray and Eritrea. In 1989, the Tigrayan Peoples' Liberation Front(TPLF) merged with other ethnically-based opposition movements to form the Ethiopian Peoples' Revolutionary Democratic Front(EPRDF). In May 1991, EPRDF forces advanced on Addis Ababa. Mengistu fled the country to asylum in Zimbabwe, where he still resides.
Hundreds of thousands were killed due to the red terror, forced deportations, or from using hunger as a weapons. [
Black Book of Communismp. 687-695] In 2006, after a long trial, Mengistu was found guilty of genocide. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/6171429.stm Mengistu found guilty of genocide] ]
In July 1991, the EPRDF, the
Oromo Liberation Front(OLF), and others established the Transitional Government of Ethiopia (TGE) which was composed of an 87-member Council of Representatives and guided by a national charter that functioned as a transitional constitution. In June 1992, the OLF withdrew from the government; in March 1993, members of the Southern Ethiopia Peoples' Democratic Coalitionalso left the government.
Eritrea separated from Ethiopia following the fall of the Derg in 1991, after a long independentist war.
In 1994, a new constitution was written that formed a bicameral legislature and a judicial system. The first free and democratic election took place in May 1995 in which
Meles Zenawiwas elected the Prime Minister and Negasso Gidadawas elected President. Also at this time, the members of the Parliament were elected. Ethiopia's second multiparty election was held in May 2000. Prime Minister Meles was one again elected as Prime Minister in October 2000. In October 2001, Lieutenant Girma Wolde-Giorgiswas elected president.
In 1998, a border dispute with Ethiopia led to the
Eritrean-Ethiopian War, which killed thousands of soldiers from both countries. While the war hurt the nation's economy, it also strengthened the ruling coalition. The border war ended in 2000 with a negotiated agreement known as the Algiers Agreement. One of the terms of the agreement was the establishment of a UN peacekeeping operation, known as the United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea(UNMEE). Another term of the Algiers agreement was the final demarcation of the disputed border area between Eritrea and Ethiopia. After extensive study, an independent, UN-associated Eritrean-Ethiopian Boundary Commission (EEBC) issued a final border ruling in 2003, but its decision was rejected by Ethiopia. As of 2007, the border question remains in dispute, while a tentative peace remains in place.
In 2005, during the general elections in Ethiopia, allegations of irregularities that brought victory to the
Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Frontresulted in widespread protests in which the government is accused of massacring civilians (see Ethiopian police massacres).
With the collapse of the Soviet Union, and with the rise of radical
Islamism, Ethiopia again turned to the Western powers for alliance and assistance. After the terrorist attacks of 9/11, the Ethiopian army began to train with US forces based out of the Combined Joint Task Force - Horn of Africa(CJTF-HOA) established in Djibouti, in counterterrorismand counterinsurgency. Ethiopia allowed the US to station military advisors at Camp Hurso.cite news
title=U.S. trainers prepare Ethiopians to fight
publisher=Stars and Stripes
In 2006, an Islamic organisation seen by many as having ties with al-Qaeda, the
Islamic Courts Union, spread rapidly in Somalia. Ethiopia sent logistical support to the Transitional Federal Governmentopposing the Islamists. Finally, on December 20, 2006, active fighting broke out between the ICU and Ethiopian Army. As the Islamist forces were of no match against the Ethiopian regular army, they decided to retreat and merge among the civilians, and most of the ICU-held Somalia was quickly taken. Ethiopian troops continued to occupy Somalia in 2007 as a growing resistance begun to build up. Human Rights Watchaccused Ethiopia of various abuses including indiscriminate killing of civilians during the 2007 battle in Mogadishu.
Notes and references
* cite book| author=Paul B. Henze| title=A History of Ethiopia. Layers of Time|publisher=C. Hurst & Co. Publishers|year=2000| isbn=1850653933 [http://books.google.fr/books?id=gzwoedwOkQMC&printsec=frontcover] ;
* cite book| author=Richard Pankhurst| title=The Ethiopians: A History (Peoples of Africa)|publisher=Wiley-Blackwell; New Ed edition| year=2001| isbn=0631224939;
* cite book| author=Richard Pankhurst| title=Historic images of Ethiopia|publisher=Shama books| location=Addis Abeba| year=2005| isbn=9-9944-0015-0;
* cite book| author=Étienne Bernand, Abraham Johannes Drewes, Roger Schneider, Francis Anfray| title=Recueil des inscriptions de l'Ethiopie des périodes pré-axoumite et axoumite|publisher=Académie des inscriptions et belles-lettres, De Boccard| year= 1991 | asin=B0000EAFWP ; [http://www.aibl.fr/fr/public/catalogue/ethopie.html]
* cite book| author=David W. Philipson| title=Aksum: an archaelogical introduction and guide|publisher=The British Institute in Eastern Africa| location=Nairobi| year= 2003 | isbn=1-872566-197;
* cite book| author=Stuart Munro-Hay| title=Aksum: An African Civilisation of Late Antiquity|publisher=Edinburgh University Press| year=1992 | isbn=0748602097 [http://www.dskmariam.org/artsandlitreature/litreature/index.asp]
* cite book| author=John Markasis et Nega Ayele| title=Class and Revolution in Ethiopia| location=Addis Abeba|publisher=Shama Books| year= 1978 | isbn=99944-0-008-8;
* cite book| author=John Young| title=Peasant Revolution in Ethiopia: The Tigray People's Liberation Front, 1975-1991| publisher=Cambridge University Press| year= 1993 | isbn=0521591988; [http://books.google.fr/books?id=5JmuUH1lHsIC&printsec=frontcover&dq=ethiopian+revolution+tigray&sig=WWOExtvoHLhlWkWcL9YgbP5Y2aM]
* Sergew Hable Sellassie. "Ancient and Medieval Ethiopian History to 1270" Addis Ababa: United Printers, 1972.
* "African Zion, the Sacred Art of Ethiopia". New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993.
* "Adwa: an African victory", Haïlé Gerima, US, 1999, Mypheduh Films, 97 min [http://sankofastore.com/catalog/product_info.php?products_id=31]
* "Fascist Legacy", Ken Kirby, Royaume-Uni, 1989, documentary 2x50min [http://www.derechos.org/nizkor/impu/itaimp1.html] Youtube|QBZT-9f-bIk|Fascist Legacy|it
* "The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea" Travel and Trade in the Indian Ocean by a Merchant of the First Century [http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/periplus.html]
* Francisco Alvares, Giovanni Battista Ramusio "Historiale description de l'Ethiopie, contenant vraye relation des terres, & pais du grand Roy & Empereur Prete-Ian, l'assiette de ses royaumes & provinces, leurs coutumes, loix & religion, avec les pourtraits de leur temples & autres singularitez, cy devant non cogneues", Anvers, Omnisys, 1558, [http://gallica2.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k54543m.modeAffichageimage.langEN.f1.pagination] , BNF
* Jean de Giffre de Rechac, "Les estranges evenemens du voyage de Son Altesse, le serenissime prince Zaga-Christ d'Ethiopie", Hachette, Paris, 1635, [http://gallica2.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/bpt6k84378b.modeAffichageimage.langFR.f1.pagination] , BNF
* James Bruce, Jean-Henri Castéra, Charles-Joseph Panckoucke, Pierre Plassan, "Voyage en Nubie et en Abyssinie entrepris pour découvrir les sources du Nil", Paris, 1791 [http://books.google.fr/books?id=j-ALAAAAYAAJ&printsec=titlepage]
* Arnauld Michel d'Abaddie (1815-1894?), "Douze ans de séjour dans la Haute-Éthiopie", Tome Ier, Paris, 1868, [http://fr.wikisource.org/wiki/Douze_ans_de_s%C3%A9jour_dans_la_Haute-%C3%89thiopie, [http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/18812]
* Dr. Henri Blanc (1831-1911), "Ma captivité en Abyssinie sous l'empereur Théodoros - avec des détails sur l'Empereur Theodros, sa vie, ses mœurs, son peuple, son pays", traduit de l'anglais par Madame Arbousse-Bastide [http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/8876]
* Louis Reybaud, "Voyage dans l’Abyssinie méridionale", Revue des Deux Mondes, tome 27, Paris, 1841, [http://books.google.fr/books?id=YWwtAAAAMAAJ&pg=RA1-PA258&lpg=RA1-PA258&dq=%22Voyage+dans+l%E2%80%99Abyssinie+m%C3%A9ridionale%22&source=web&ots=RXWzEQGYlZ&sig=NwUAjwM41cME6nyq9hRsHIWrTC8&hl=fr#PRA1-PA258,M1] , [http://fr.wikisource.org/wiki/Voyage_dans_l'Abyssinie_m%C3%A9ridionale]
* Pierre Victor Ad. Ferret, Joseph Germain Galinier "Voyage en Abyssinie dans les provinces du Tigré, du Samen et de l'Amhara", Paris, 1847 [http://books.google.fr/books?id=0FYUAAAAYAAJ&printsec=titlepage]
* (Amharic) Original letters from Ethiopian emperors, website of the national archives of Addis Abeba [http://www.nale.gov.et/national_archive.html]
* [http://www.civicwebs.com/cwvlib/africa/ethiopia/pankhurst/trade_in_Ethiopia_in_ancient_times.htm A Brief History of Trade and Business in Ethiopia from Ancient to Modern Times] , Dr. Richard Pankhurst, 1999: set of 2 articles published in the Addis Tribune summarizing a speech by Dr. Pankhurst at the 74’th District Conference and Assembly of Rotary International, in Addis Ababa 7-9 May 1999
* [http://www.civicwebs.com/cwvlib/africa/ethiopia/pankhurst/ethiopia_across_red_sea_&_indian_ocean.htm Ethiopia Across the Red Sea and Indian Ocean] , Dr. Richard Pankhurst, 1999: set of 3 articles published in the Addis Tribune newspaper in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, on the relations between Ethiopia and countries on the Indian Ocean in ancient and early medieval times
* [http://www.civicwebs.com/cwvlib/africa/ethiopia/pankhurst/early_20th_cent_ethiopia_1.htm A History of Early Twentieth Century Ethiopia] , Dr. Richard Pankhurst, 1997: set of 20 articles published in the Addis Tribune summarizing the history of Ethiopia from the beginning of the 20’th Century until the 1960’s
* [http://www.civicwebs.com/cwvlib/africa/ethiopia/pankhurst/history_of_northern_ethiopia.htm History of Northern Ethiopia – and the Establishment of the Italian Colony or Eritrea] , Dr. Richard Pankhurst, 1999: article published in the Addis Tribune showing how Eritrea has historically been a part of Ethiopia
* cite web
last = Pankhurst
first = Dr. Richard
title = History of Northern Ethiopia - and the Establishment of the Italian Colony or Eritrea
work = Civic Webs Virtual Library
url = http://www.civicwebs.com/cwvlib/africa/ethiopia/pankhurst/history_of_northern_ethiopia.htm
accessdate = March 25
accessyear = 2005
* [http://tezeta.org/14/prince-alamayou-of-ethiopia Prince Alamayou of Ethiopia, by Lord Amulree]
* [http://www.reliefweb.int/library/documents/2005/wb-eth-28feb.pdf Fighting Hunger and poverty in Ethiopia] (
* [http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/33/index-d.html "The history of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia"] (Hartford Web Publishing website)
Subdivisions of Ethiopia
People of Ethiopia
Kingdom of Jimma
Political history of Eastern Africa
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