Yosef Lishansky ( _he. יוסף לישנסקי; 1890–16 December 1917) was the founder of the Magen organization and a senior
Lishansky was born near
Kievin the Russian Empirein 1890, to Eidel and Ya'akov Toviah.cite web|url=http://www.izkor.gov.il/izkor86.asp?t=506011|title=Lishansky, Yosef|work=Izkor|publicher= Israeli Ministry of Defense|accessdate=2008-10-09 he icon] After most of his family was killed in a fire, he made Aliyahwith his father (the year of Aliyah varies between 1891 and 1896). They settled with Yosef's brother, Israel, who was living in Metula. His father soon disappeared during a trip to Jerusalem, and Lishansky was left to life in is brother's home. After excelling in his studies, he was sent to a seminarin Jerusalem, not completing his studies due to the family's financial difficulties. Instead, Yosef travelled to Egypt, where he managed an agricultural farm for two years and returned to the Land of Israel. In 1910, he married Rivka Broshkovsky, and they had a girl, Ivriya, and a boy, Toviah.
Jewish defense organizations
In 1912, Lishansky attempted to join the
HaShomerorganization. HaShomer required a trial period for all recruits,cite book|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=IyoYJquK-lsC&pg=PA58&dq=lishansky&ei=miHuSNeTCpTEzASd5YyVCA&sig=ACfU3U2ZuGGYPHbxwvR6XjZ9Nvq6PGWUng#PPA59,M1|author=Goldstein, Jacob|title=From Fighters to Soldiers|year=1998|publisher=Sussex Academic Press|isbn=1902210018|pages=p. 248|accessdate=2008-10-09] and Lishansky was sent to guard in Poria, Rishon LeZion, Ben Shemenand finally Menahemia. In February 1915, Lishansky's force killed the leader of an Arab gang that attacked the village. Because of HaShomer's policy of avoiding blood feuds with the Arabs, Lishansky was declined entry to the organization. This was later preceived simply as an excuse not to accept Lishansky, who was proficient in the use of weapons, horseriding and the Arabic language. Israel Shochat, a leader of HaShomer, later wrote that Lishansky often demonstrated weakness, adventurism and boastfulness.
Lishansky then decided to form a rival organization, named HaMagen ("The Shield"),Goldstein, Jacob (1998), pp. 58-59] which included rejected HaShomer members. The group did not wish to directly compete with HaShomer, so they selected the southern Jewish villages, which were guarded by Arabs. Lishansky was chosen as the leader of the organization, and travelled to the south to negotiate with the villages. HaMagen finally replaced the Arab guards in
Ruhama, Be'er Tuviaand Mazkeret Batya, and later Gedera. Despite a clause in HaMagen's charter preventing it from guarding villages formerly or presently guarded by HaShomer, the latter attempted and failed to disband HaMagen.
In January 1917, Lishansky left to Egypt to focus on his activities in
Nili, which was not known by the Magen members, and caused ill will towards him, and the decline of HaMagen. Despite this, some HaMagen members joined Lishansky in Nili.
Nili activities and death
Lishansky joined the Nili in December 1915, when
Avshalom Feinbergwas arrested for espionage and held in Beersheba. Because he was active in the south, he was recruited by Feinberg to pass information to and from Sarah Aaronsohn, who was operating from Atlit. He did this by hiding notes in the loaves of bread passed to the prisoners.cite book|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=rP5I0tspVnEC&pg=PA192&dq=lishansky&ei=miHuSNeTCpTEzASd5YyVCA&sig=ACfU3U0q9o6It2rEs9pkjIENWxc7ItUElQ#PPA63,M1|title=The Nili Spies|author=Engle, Anita|coauthors=Calvocoressi, Peter|year=1997|publisher=Routledge|pages=pp. 63-64|isbn=0714648035|accessdate=2008-10-09] In January 1917, after Feinberg was released and sought to secretly travel to Egypt to meet with the British, he was accompanied by Lishansky, who had intimate knowledge of the area. On January 20, they were attacked by two Ottoman soldiers and a gang of Bedouinnear Rafah, which left Feinberg dead and Lishansky wounded. Lishansky was left to die but managed to reach a British patrol that took him to a hospital in Port Said,Engle, Anita (1997), p. 87] where he met Aaron Aaronsohnon January 25, 1917, and told him about Feinberg's death.cite book|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=OUPSrjZfcm8C&pg=PA140&dq=lishansky&ei=miHuSNeTCpTEzASd5YyVCA&sig=ACfU3U0E90Tk5gqqjegjbMAu2pZlmUuLPw|title=The Hope Fulfilled: The Rise of Modern Israel|author=Stein, Leslie|pages=pp. 140-141|isbn=0275971414|publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group|year=2003|accessdate=2008-10-09] Because Lishansky was the only witness to the killing, rumors started circulating that he was the one who killed Feinberg for personal reasons, or because of a romance with Sarah Aaronsohn.cite book|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=oINK8WcuRaoC&pg=PA201&dq=lishansky&ei=miHuSNeTCpTEzASd5YyVCA&sig=ACfU3U15xJggK7DVSU07X8SUgWZ_Ruh7oA#PPA159,M1|title=Aaron's Maps|author=Goldstone, Patricia|year=2007|publisher=Harcourt Trade|isbn=0151011699|page=p. 201|accessdate=2008-10-09] Goldstone, Patricia (2007), p. 85] They were disproved only after the Six-Day War, when Feinberg's remains were found and the Bedouin in the region interrogated.
Lishansky subsequently returned to Atlit, Nili's central base of operations, and shifted his entire focus on the organization. He was responsible for collecting espionage reports from Nili agents in the vicinity, and managing the finances funnelled from Egypt. In April 1917, Lishansky again travelled to Egypt, against the will of his superior, Aaron Aaronsohn. He returned in June and continued his activity in Nili.
In October 1917, while Lishansky was in
Zikhron Ya'akov, the Ottoman authorities received information about Nili's activities by accidentally catching a homing pigeon with a message from Sarah Aaronsohn, and after capturing the Nili operative Na'aman Belkind, found out about a cell in Zikhron. They encircled the village, capturing Sarah Aaronsohn, but Lishansky managed to escape, and became a fugitive with a price on his head. He met with HaShomer members carrying gold and accompanied them to Tel Adas. The organization, which was opposed to Lishansky, nevetheless decided to hide him, although as pressure from the Turks increased, they held another meeting, this time deciding to execute and hand him over to the authorities. He was led to a place near Metula on October 9, shot twice, and left for dead. However, he did not die and by the time the Turkish soldiers reached the area, he escaped.cite book|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=19ZMulluIgkC&pg=PA129&dq=lishansky&ei=miHuSNeTCpTEzASd5YyVCA&sig=ACfU3U33zeAr6XNRbM_pHF2uq54PEkDgEA#PPA130,M1|title=Political Assassinations by Jews|author=Ben-Yehuda, Nachman|year=1993|publisher=Suny Press|pages=pp. 129-131|isbn=0791411656|accessdate=2008-10-09]
On October 17, Lishansky found refuge in
Petah Tikvawith friends of Aaron Aaronsohn's, but they were reluctant to hide him and after a two days sent him on his way. He travelled south in hopes of crossing the border in the Sinai Peninsulaand reaching British lines. On the night between October 19 and 20, Lishansky attempted to steal a camel from Bedouins in the Shephelahregion. He was caught and turned over to the Ottoman authorities. The Ottomans held and interrogated him in Ramlaand Jerusalem, and after ten days in Jerusalem he was moved to Damascus.
During his time in prison, Lishansky contacted the
Yishuvand asked for funds to bribe his way out of incarceration. Meir Dizengoff, one of the leaders of Tel Aviv, denied funding, despite receiving money from Nili earlier. He disclosed members of HaShomer to the turks, and by some accounts members of Nili as well. Lishansky was sentenced to death by hanging, along with the fellow Nili member Na'aman Belkind. They were hanged in a public square in Damascus on December 16, 1917. On October 24, 1919, Lishansky and Belkind's bodies were trasferred to a cemetery in Rishon LeZion, although less than 20 people attended the funeral as part of the anti-Nili sentiment in the Yishuv at the time. In August 1979, Lishansky's body was moved again in a state ceremony to Mount Herzl, near the grave of Avshalom Feinberg.
Lishansky was generally seen in a negative light in the
Yishuv, partly due to Nili's overall problematic image. Other factors included rumors about backstabbing Avshalom Feinberg, and unfavorable personality traits. His grave in Rishon LeZionwas vandalized several times over the years, and in 1937, Habima Theatreran a play displaying him in a negative light.
Lishansky's image underwent a slow transformation to the image of a national hero, along with the transformation of Nili's image in general. After Feinberg's burial site was found near
Rafahafter the Six-Day Warand Lishansky's name was cleared, more Israelis began to view him positively, and a request was sent to Prime Minister Levi Eshkolto move Lishansky's grave to Mount Herzl. The request was denied, although the struggle to improve his image resumed and gained strength after "The Revolution", when a right-wing party, Likud, was elected to form a government for the first time. A movement called "The Public Committee for the Rehabilitation of Yosef Lishansky" was founded, including notable figures like Uri Zvi Greenbergand Rehavam Ze'evi. The movement succeeded in gaining recognition for Lishansky's activities in World War I and the trasfer of his grave in a state ceremony to Mount Herzl on August 8, 1979.
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