Immunosuppression involves an act that reduces the activation or
efficacyof the immune system. Some portions of the immune system itself have immuno-suppressive effects on other parts of the immune system, and immunosuppression may occur as an adverse reaction to treatment of other conditions. Deliberately induced immunosuppression is generally done to prevent the body from rejecting an organ transplant, treating graft-versus-host diseaseafter a bone marrow transplant, or for the treatment of auto-immune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritisor Crohn's disease. This is typically done using drugs, but may involve surgery (splenectomy), plasmapharesis, or radiation.
A person who is undergoing immunosuppression, or whose immune system is weak for other reasons (for example,
chemotherapyand HIVpatients) is said to be "immunocompromised". When an organ is transplanted, the immune system of the recipient will most likely recognize it as foreign tissue and attack it. The destruction of the organ will, if untreated, end in the death of the recipient.
In the past,
radiation therapywas used to decrease the strength of the immune system, but now immunosuppressant drugs are used to inhibit the reaction of the immune system. The downside is that with such a deactivated immune system, the body is very vulnerable to opportunistic infections, even those usually considered harmless. Also, prolonged use of immunosuppressants increases the risk of cancer. Cortisonewas the first immunosuppressant identified, but its wide range of side effects limited its use. The more specific azathioprinewas identified in 1959, but it was the discovery of cyclosporine in 1970 that allowed for significant expansion of kidney transplantationto less well-matched donor-recipient pairs as well as broad application of liver transplantation, lung transplantation, pancreas transplantation, and heart transplantation.
Joseph Murrayof Harvard Medical Schooland chief plastic surgeon at Children's Hospital Bostonfrom 1972-1985 was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicinein 1990 for his work on immunosuppression. Dr. Murray and his team are credited with first successful human kidney transplant at Peter Bent Brigham Hospital, Boston on 23 December 1954.
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Immunosuppression — vgl. Immunsuppression … Das Wörterbuch medizinischer Fachausdrücke
immunosuppression — [im΄yə nōsə presh′ən, ī myo͞o′nōsə presh′ən] n. the inactivation of a specific antibody by various agents, thus permitting the acceptance of a foreign substance, as a transplant, by an organism immunosuppressant adj. immunosuppressive … English World dictionary
immunosuppression — ● immunodépression ou immunosuppression nom féminin Diminution, voire suppression, des réactions immunitaires. immunosuppression [i(m)mynosypʀesjɔ̃] n. f. ÉTYM. Mil. XXe (1965 en angl.); de immuno , et suppression. ❖ ♦ Biol., méd. Processus par… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Immunosuppression — L immunosuppression ou immuno inhibition est la suppression médicale du système immunitaire. Elle est généralement réalisée pour empêcher le corps de rejeter une greffe d organe. Quand un organe est greffé, le système immunitaire du receveur va… … Wikipédia en Français
immunosuppression — immunosuppressed, adj. /im yeuh noh seuh presh euhn, i myooh /, n. Pathol. the inhibition of the normal immune response because of disease, the administration of drugs, or surgery. [1960 65; IMMUNO + SUPPRESSION] * * * Suppression of immunity… … Universalium
immunosuppression — Suppression of the body s immune system and its ability to fight infections or disease. Immunosuppression may be deliberately induced with drugs, as in preparation for bone marrow or other organ transplantation to prevent rejection of the donor… … English dictionary of cancer terms
immunosuppression — noun Date: 1963 suppression (as by drugs) of natural immune responses • immunosuppress transitive verb • immunosuppressant noun or adjective • immunosuppressive adjective … New Collegiate Dictionary
immunosuppression — This occurs when T and/or B clones of lymphocytes are depleted in size or suppressed in their reactivity, expansion or differentiation. It may arise from activation of specific or nonspecific T suppressor lymphocytes of either T or B clones, or… … Dictionary of molecular biology
immunosuppression — noun The active medical suppression of the immune response. See Also: immunosuppressant, immunosuppressive, immunosuppressor … Wiktionary
immunosuppression — Prevention or interference with the development of immunologic response; may reflect natural immunologic unresponsiveness (tolerance), may be artificially induced by chemical, biological, or physical agents, or may be caused by disease. * * *… … Medical dictionary